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part being larger than the opening in the vessel, the flow will | This is fixed to a pole, and held in some part of the stream for slightly exceed the calculated amount. These differences are a given time; tho velocity at this point is thus noted, and in a partly accounted for by currents which are formed in the water, similar way it may be found at other points and a mean taken. and which by collision with the issuing stream destroy a portion A simpler way, however, is to observe the velocity at the surof its velocity.

face. A substance of nearly the same specific gravity as the When liquids have to be conveyed in pipes care should be water is thrown in, and the time occupied in passing between taken to make the bends even and gradual, and in this way to two points noted; from this we easily find its speed per second.

prevent the formation of eddies and currents. Now the mean velocity is found to vary from about i to Z of
It should also be remembered that there is a that at the surface, and tables have been constructed showing
considerable amount of friction between the the mean velocity corresponding to each surface velocity. If
liquid and the sides of the pipe, so that the por. we multiply this mean velocity by the area, we ascertain the
tion in the centre of the pipe flows more rapidly amount of water passing per second.
than that against the sides. In the same way Having thus seen the power there is in a stream, we must
the velocity of a canal or river is greater in the notice the different machines employed to utilise it.
centre than at the sides. This friction in- The simplest and most common of these is the water-wheel.
creases with the velocity at which the liquid This consists essentially of a wheel turning on an horizontal
moves, and also with the area of the surfaces axis, and carrying on its circumference a number of floats or

in contact. From all these causes the flow of boards. The water strikes against these, and thus causes the Fig. 23. liquids through pipes is much less than theo. wheel to turn with considerable force, and the motion is by

retically it should be, and hence in laying down means of cog-wheels transmitted from it to the machinery pipes considerable allowance has to be made for this loss. which has to be driven.

In former times the flow of water was used as a means of Water-wheels are divided into three classes, according to the measuring time, the apparatus constructed for this purpose way in which the water acts on them, or rather the point of being called a clepsydra, or water-clock. The water is allowed their circumference at which it is applied. to flow from a jet into a reservoir below, in which is a float rising Sometimes the wheel is placed so that its lower floats just dip with the water and carrying at the top a pointer. The roser. into the stream, and it is then called an undershot wheel (Fig. 24). voir is made of the same size throughout, so that the addition When the water is confined by an embankment, and allowed to of equal quantities of water causes equal rises in its surface. flow against the wheel a little below its middle, it is called a breast The water is allowed to flow in for a given time--say, half an wheel; and when the water is received on the upper part, it is hour--and the rise noted; marks are then made at this distance an overshot wheel. The first of these three is the simplest in apart, and by these the time may be told. As, however, the construction, no embankment or artificial channel for the water rate of flow depends upon the pressure, it is necessary in such being absolutely necessary, though a much greater power is an apparatus to maintain the same head of water in the upper gained when the wheel is made to fit into a properly shaped cistern, and this may be accomplished in the way mentioned watercourse, so that no water can pass without turning

it. Less above, by letting the water constantly overflow the vessel. power is, however, derived from this than from the other kind

There are, however, better ways of accomplishing this, which of wheel, as the water strikes violently against the floats, and are frequently used. In the boiler of a steam-engine, and other thus expends much of its force uselessly machines, it is frequently very important thus to maintain a in straining the wheel. It is always constant level, and this is attained by means of a ball-cock or found that there is the greatest advan. float. A block of wood, or hollow ball of metal, floats on the tage gained when the water strikes the liquid; this block is either fixed on to a lever or fastened to a wheel with as little velocity as possible, cord, so that when the level of the water becomes lower, and the but®acts merely by its weight and presfloat descends, it opens a valve or turns a tap, and allows the sure. water to enter till the lovel is restored.

At first the floats were arranged to We will now look at the most common hydraulic machines, stand out perpendicularly from the and examine their construction, and the principles on which they wheel, but experience shows that it is act. The simplest division is into three classes, the first em- better to let them have an inclination bracing those whose object is to employ the force of falling towards the stream of twenty or thirty

Fig. 24. water as a prime mover; the second, those which are intended degrees, as thus they break the violence to raise water to any required elevation; while the third con of the current, and allow it to act more advantageously. tains those which are used to propel vessels through the water, Another matter to be considered is the proportion which should and other machines not included in the previous classes. exist between the speed of the wheel and that of the strean. It

In many districts, especially mountainous ones, there exist is evident that there are two extreme cases which may occur. If many waterfalls and rapid streams. In these there is a large the circumference of the wheel move at exactly the same velocity amount of motive power, which is frequently utilised in giving as the stream, no power can be derived from its motion ; and if motion to the machinery employed in mining and other opera- the motion be reduced to a minimum, nearly all the power would tions. This power would be much more employed than it is, be lost. The greatest amount of work is accomplished when the were it not that sometimes, from long-continued droughts, motion is about midway between these two extremes, that is, the body of water is much diminished. If we take any two when the wheel moves at about half the rate of the stream. points in a stream, we shall find that the one higher up the stream has a greater elevation than the other, and the power

ANSWERS TO EXAMPLES IN LESSON IV. capable of being exerted by the stream between these points is

1. The specific gravity of the silver is 10-359. equal to the power of the body of water there is in the stream falling vertically through this distance. If the stream discharge 3. The elm weighs 69.896 oz.; the limestone 276042; and the lead 1,000 gallons per minute, and the difference in height between 1182-292. the two points be four feet, the power stored up in the water is 4. The specific gravity of the oil is 0.916. 1,000 x 10 x 4, or 40,000 foot pounds per minute, but even

3. The stone weighs in air 26 grains, and it loses 10. grains in in the best machines a large portion of this is lost.

water. Its specific gravity is there or 2: 476. When we want to ascertain the force of a stream, we have first to find the sectional area.

6. The two together displace 6.84 oz. of water ; of this 1.92 oz. is This may be done by taking due to the metal; the wood therefore displaces 4.92 02., and its weight the depth at intervals of five or six feet from bank to bank, the is 3-3. Its specific gravity is therefore 0-670. average of these being the mean depth ; multiply this by the 7. The volume of any body is represented by its weight divided by breadth, and we shall have the area. We must then proceed to


while that find the average relocity, but as the stream flows more rapidly its specific gravity. Hence the volume of the copper is in the middle than at the side, it is rather difficult to ascertain of the zinc is The volume of the compound is therefore

7.191 this accurately. An instrument, consisting of several fans, which are turned by the water, and register, by means of clock

and this gives the specific gravity of the 89

7.191 work, the number of revolutions they make, is sometimes used. I compound as nearly 8-2.

2. 1.694.

26 10'5'

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of tz in the word switzer, or dz in the word adze. According to

modern orthography, the x is generally doubled between two II.-PRONUNCIATION OF VOWELS AND CONSONANTS

single vowels in the middle of a word, but not after a consonant (continued).

and not before diphthongs the first vowel of which is i; as, for For further practice in the pronunciation of words in which examples, ia, ie, io, where it must remain single, and has the vowels and mute consonants are combined, the reader's attention hard sound. is directed to the following table as a continuation of the one

Pezzo pô-tzo

Piece. given in the previous lesson.


It will be well, before commencing this exercise, to refer to


A well. the explanatory notes therein contained. I would especially Puzzo póo-tzo

A bad smell. desire my pupil readers to repeat aloud every word successively, Pagato pah-gáh-to

Paid. until they have made themselves quite familiar with their various Ithaca ée-tah-kah

Ithaca in Greece. and distinct sounds.

Agape áh-gah-pai

Agape, or Christian love-feast.
Ricamo ree-káh-mo

Vegeto vê-jai-to

Stout, robust.
Veggo vey-go
I see.


When the gg's are followed by a, 0, or u, they are pronounced Gaeta gah-ui-tah

Town in Naples. in each syllable like the English g in get.

Cedoto tchai-dai-tai

Yield !
Cadico káh-dee-tchai

Oggi öd-jee

Egida ai-jée-dah

Fuggi food-jee

Tacito táh-tchee-to


Vagito vah-jóe-to

An infant's cry.



Epocha e-po-ka


Pagode páh-go-dai

It has a bad smell.

Jacopo jáh-ko-po

Riparo ree-páh-ro
I repair.

Aguto ah-géo-to

Império im-pé-rée-o

Acuto ah-kbo-to

Acute, ingenious.
Tapino tah-pée-110

Cicuta tchee-kóo-tah Water hemlock.
Sapone sah-pó-nai

Ceauto tchai-doo-to

Impune im-póo-nai

Apogeo ah-po-jó-o

Pappa páhp-pah
Pap for children.

Capacitato kah-pah-tchee-táh-to Capacitated.
Poppe pêr-pai
Joseph, Joe.

Educato ai-doo-káh-to

Philip, Phil.

Vocativo vo-kah-tée-vo

Coppa kóp-pah
The occiput, goblet.

Zobedeo tzai-bai-de-o

Zuppa tzoop-pah

Tucidide too-tchée-dee-dai Thucydides.

Abituato ah-bee-too-áh-to Habituated.
With thee.

Zodiaco dzo-dée-ah-ko

Tipo tée-po
Type (a model)..

Agarico ah-gáh-ree-ko Fungus growing on larches.
Topo tô-po

Idiota ee-dee-o-tah

An idiot,

Abigeato ah-bee-jai-áh-to Stealing of cattle.

Vegetativo vai-jai-tah-tée.vo Growing,

Docapitato dai-kah-pee-táh-to Decapitated.
To mount,

Decaduto dai-kah-dóo-to Decayed.

Agitato ah-jee-táh-to

Altura ahl-tóo-rah

Epicuro ai-pee-kóo-ro

Act, action.

Pedagogia pai-dah-go-jée-ah Education and government of
Cast, throw,




All, quite.

There are six semi-vowels in the Italian language, so called

because in their utterance a vowel must be placed before the Vino vée-no Wine.

consonant. They are not pronounced in one syllable only, as Voto vó-to Vow.

in the case of the mutes, but require the utterance of two syl. Avuto ah-vóo-to Had.

lables, which syllables are substantially the same, though in an Bavaro báh-vah-ro Bavarian.

inverse order. The semi-vowels are Severo sai-ve-ro Severe.

1. Ff, named in the alphabet efc (pronounced in the follow. Divino dee-Vée-no


ing manner-éf-fai). Lavoro lah-vó-ro

Labour. Dovuto

2. L l, named in the alphabet elle (pronounced el-lai). It do-yo-to

Debt, duty.
Ho gives you.

has two sounds—one like the English consonant l; the second Ervi év-vee Is there.

is a peculiar sound, of which I shall have occasion to speak in Udivri 00-dív-vee He heard you.

the pronouncing tables. Dovvi döy-vee I give you.

3. M m, named in the alphabet emme (pronounced ém-mai). Fuovi fóov-vee Was there.

To ensure perfect accuracy in the pronunciation, I may remark Zara tzah-rah Zara, a town.

that when m is preceded by a vowel with which it forms one Zoro dzê-ro Cipher.

syllable, and a consonant being the next, it must be very Zitella tzée-tel-lah Girl.

softly sounded, and the voice must glide quickly to the next Zona dzó-nah

Zone, girdle.

consonant, almost as if it formed part of the same syllable : Mazara mah-tzáh-rah Mazzara in Sicily.

for examplo, ambizione, ahm-bee-tzee-ó-nai, ambition; empio, In this and a few other cases, I am compelled for the sake of ém-peeo, impious; ombra, om-brah, a shadow. completeness of system, to make a slight departure from strict 4. N n, named in the alphabet enne (pronounced en-nai). orthography. This word being properly written Mazzara, with Generally speaking, this letter is pronounced just as in English; two z's, as well as the following words-gazzera, azzimo, bazzotto, but the observation made on the m is equally applicable to n. azzuffa.

In similar circumstances, the voice must glide quickly from the Gazera gall-dzai-rah

A jay.

n to the succeeding consonant: for example, andare, ahn-dih. Azimo âh-dzee-mo


rai, to go; entrare, en-tráh-rai, to enter; onda, ón-dah, & ware. Azufa ah-tzú-fah He comes to blows.

After g, n has a peculiar sound, which I shall have occasion to Pazzo páh-tzo


explain in the pronouncing tables. Often n is pronounced like There is very little difference between the pronunciation of

m before words commencing with the consonants b, m, and P; the single - and .. The zz, as well as %, may have the sound as, gran bestia, pronounced grahm bê-steeah, a boorish, insolent


fellow, great blockhead, etc.; scolpire in marmo, pronounced In the greatest part of compound words, where s begins the skol-pée-rai im mahrr-mo, to chisel in marble ; con poca fatica, syllable, it has the sharp, hissing sound; as, for example, pro

seguire, pro-sai-gwée-rai, continue; risolvere, ree-sol-vai-rai, to prononnoed kom pô-kah fah-tée-kah, with little fatigue. This is dissolve; presumere, prái-sóo-mai-rai, to presume; risorgere, certainly the finest pronunciation, because it is the genius of ree-sórr-jai-rai, to rise again; trasustanciato, trah-soo-stahnthe Italian language, as in the classical tongues, particularly tseeá-to, transubstantiated. Greek, to soften the transition, or passing over, from one word There are other exceptions which I shall take occasion to to another, and often from one syllable to the other, by changes point out as examples occur. of consonants.

Further, s has the mild sound when it immediately precedes 5. R r, named in the alphabet erre (pronounced ér-ra). R, the consonants b, d, 9, l, m, n, 1, v; as, for example, sbarra, when it is followed by a consonant, must be vibrated with a pronounced zbáhrr-rah, bar, barrier; disdire, dis-dee-rai, to stronger emphasis than in English; and it is on the other hand | retract; sguardo, zgwáhrr-do, look; slontanare, zlon-tah-náh-rai, very soft before a vowel; as, carta, pronounced kahrr-ta, paper, to remove; smania, zmáh-neeah, madness; snervare, znerr-váhand soft in cara, pronounced káh-rah, dear.

rai, to unnerve; sradicare, zrah-dee-káh-rai, to eradicate ; svolto, 6. S s, named in the alphabet esse (pronounced ês-sai). This zvél-to, lively, clover, nimble, easy. I have stated that the consonant has considerable variations, and is one of the most particles dis and mis before consonants have the sharp, hissing difficult to pronounce throughout correctly, for even in Italy sound. There is no deviation from this rule, and these particles there are variations.

retain the sharp, hissing sound even before the last-mentioned A strictly correct and irreproachable pronunciation of this consonants: for example, disbandire, pronounced dis-bahnconsonant can only be acquired by closely marking its utterance dée-rai, to banish; disdire, dis-dec-rai, to retract; disgombrare, in all its shades by Italians who speak purely. Speaking dis-gom-bráh-rai

, to empty; disleale, dis-laiáh-lai, disloyal ; generally, there are two leading sounds. One is a sharp, hissing dismettere, dis-mét-tai-rai, to dislocato an arm, to dismiss (an sound, as in the English words sing, sieve; the other is a much affair); disnervare, dis-nerr-váh-rai, to unnerve; disradicare, nilder sound, as in the English words cheese, ease, please, etc. dis-rah-dee-káh-rai, to eradicate; disvenire, dis-vai-née-rai, to The following general rules will be sufficient for the guidance swoon; misgradito, mis-grah-dée-to, disagreeablo; misleale, misof the learner at present: the different exceptions to them will laiáh-lai, disloyal; misvenire, mis-vai-née-rai, to swoon. be stated more fully hereafter :-

When ss is between two vowels, it does not follow the rule First, the sharp sound of this consonant may be said to be of the single s, but must be sounded with a sharp, hissing the ruling sound, because it is heard in the greater number of sound; as, for example, fosso, pronounced fôs-so, a ditch, a syllables and words. I shall invariably mark it by the single canal; rosso, rós-so, red : posso, pós-so, I can. letter s; and wherever this is used, the reader will remember that it represents the sharp, hissing sound of the letter, thus avoiding multiplicity of signs, which would be caused by using ss. It has always the sharp, hissing sound in the beginning of

LESSONS IN MUSIC.-XVI. a word before a vowel; as, for example, sale, pronounced sáh- PROCESS TO BE ADOPTED IN STUDYING THE EXERCISES lai, salt; sole, só-lai, the sun ; sempre, sêm-prai, always; subito, sóo-bee-to, suddenly. It has also the sharp, hissing sound | WHILE our pupils are continuing the study of Fah and Lag in before the consonants c, s, p, q, and t; as, for example, in connection with the following exercises, we shall touch on a saltro, skáhl-tro, shrewd; sforzo, sfôr-tzo, compulsion; crespo, few incidental topics of information that our pupils should krái-spo, crisp ; pasqua, páh-skwah, Easter; pasto, páh-sto, a carefully note for their guidance in studying and practising our meal. It has also the sharp and hissing sound after the con- exercises. sonants l, n, and r, and I may say a pre-eminently hard and 1. It will contribute to the confidence of our pupils, and to hissing sound in this case ; as, for example, falso, fáhl-so, their hopes of some day singing at sight, to remember that false ; corso, kórr-so, course; arso, áhrr-so, burnt; forse, fórr. every tune, with the exception of " minor” tunes to be mensai, perhaps; pianse, peeahn'-sai, he wept; vinse, vín-sai, ho tioned hereafter, and some few others, begins on DOH, ME, or Vanquished. In Rome, the sharpness of the s after l, n, and r

soh; so that having taken the key-note from your tuningis generally so very audible, that it almost amounts to the fork, and struck the chord, you are sure to be in possession of utterance of a ts, as if the examples just given were written the right note to begin with. You will also find that the accom. with the hard > pronounced with the English sound in the panying “parts” of a tune (adapted to lower voices) commence word Switzer; which, however, with all respect for the Eternal always on some note of this “common chord.” City and the " bocca Romana," I must pronounce to be a pro- 2. For the sake of the thorough workers, those who are so vincialism.

diligently following the course in which we are guiding them, it Secondly, the milder sonnd of the s occurs generally when will be well to remind our pupils of the process through which it is placed between two vowels. As the nearest possible ap- they must pass in connection with each exercise, and of the proach to it, I shall follow the practice of Mr. Walker in his reasons for each step of that process. Every exercise should English pronouncing dictionary, and mark it with a %: for first beerample, arriso, ahv-véo-zo, opinion; guisa, gwée-za, guise, a. LEARNT BY PATTERN from the MODULATOR. This will manner; tesoro, tai-zô-ro, treasure; usura, 00-zó-rah, usury; cultivate the ear and voice generally. It will teach the par880, spô-za, bride; accusa, ahk-kóo-zah, accusation; miseria, ticular tune along with a pictorial representation of its intervals, mee-ze-reeah, misery ; misura, mee-zóo-rah, measure; and many and will accustom the mind more and more to that beautiful other words, which might be cited as examples.

language of interval, which, by giving a distinct and uniform This rule is subject to several exceptions, the most important syllabic name to each interval of the scale, enables us, by the of which I must state here.

ever renewed association of the syllable with the sound, to sing Many Italian adjectives end in oso and osa, and whenever with increasing ease and confidence.

The "

second part' before these terminations there is a vowel, the terminational s should be learnt in the same manner-as though it were a has the sharp, hissin sound; as, for example, glorioso, pro separate exercise-before it is sung with the “air.” The exerninced glo-reeó-so, glorious; virtuoso, virr-tooó-so, virtuous ; | cise should next be-tortuoso,, tortuous.

6. SOL-FAED from the book. This will giro scope for a more There are many compound words in Italian having the par accurate observance of measuro, as indicated by the accent ticles dis and mis, and before consonants the final s of these marks, and allow the “parts” of a tune to be sung together, particles must have the sharp, hissing sound; as, for example, It also strengtheng the association between the syllables and disposizione, pronounced dis.po.zee-tseeó-nai, disposition; dis- their proper intervals. But lest the syllables of a tune should 1.sura, dis-meo-zoo-rah, excess (the reader will note in the

come to be sung by mero “ rote”--the pupil having no mental two foregoing words, that the s of the particle dis has the picture of their relative position on the modulator—it will be his sing sound, while the next s, placed between two vowels, found advisable to require each exerciso to beOllows the general rule, and has the mild sound); dispiacenza, c. POINTED on the MODULATOR from memory. This will dis-preah-tchên-taah, displeasure; discreditare, dis-krai-dee- complete the knowledge of the tune, and greatly increase its tib-rai, to discredit.

beaching power. Every pupil should do this in his privato practice, and should be ready to do it at the teacher's call, stood, enjoyed, and loved ; and then it should be performed before the class. But the sol-fa syllables, though invaluable with careful regard to EXPRESSION. Thus the pupil is introas the mnemonics and interpreters of interval, and likely duced to a new study, most elevating and ennobling to the to be always useful in learning new tunes, and in studying mind, which he will pursue in sympathetic converse with his the difficulties or beauties of particular passages, are only teacher. instruments for accomplishing the higher purposes of music. It is not necessary that the pupil should thus make the The learner must acquire the power of perceiving the musical fullest use of one exercise before he passes to the next. It "property” of a note, and of producing it, in connection would be better that, at every season of practice, each of the with any syllable. With this view, the pupil should not above employments should have place—some new exercise being shrink from the mental effort of pointing each exercise. This taught by pattern, a previous one sol-faed from books and pointed will make the perception of the characters and intervals of on the modulator, and an earlier one still “numbered” and sung notes more perfectly mental, and independent of syllabic asso- to words. The pupil should keep a record of progress, both on ciations. It will also introduce the use of slurs--each utter. the book and separately, showing to what extent each exercise ance corresponding with a syllable of the verse, and not, as has been used. On the book each exercise would be marked before, with every note of the music. But the highest attain with the letters above used in connection with each employment ment is reached when, the tune itself being perfectly mastered, -a indicating that the exercise had only been learnt by pattern it is

-a, b, that it had also been sol-faed from the book, etc. A d. SUNG TO SUITABLE WORDS. This exercise should not separate entry might be made in this wise : “May 6, Ex. 20, 2; commence until the words themselves are thoroughly under. I 19, b, c; 18, d; 13, 14, 15, d.

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2. Old England's heart with beating nerves,

It rallies for the throne ;.
And yet, like Luther, well preserves

Old England's heart is sound enough,

Unshaken and serene;
"Tis like her oak-trees, true and tough,


3. Our England's heart! Ay, God be praised,

That thus, in patriot pride,
AN ENGLISH CHEER can yet be raised

Above the stormy tide.



When you come to sing this tune to words, be careful to soul into the sentiment of the words of the song, forgetting observe the LOUD and soft phrases, as indicated by the capi- yourself and your hearers in the thoughts and feelings you utter, tals and italics. But a better way still is to throw your own l and sing accordingly.

The Words from "Ballads for the Times," by Martin Farquhar Tupper. Tune, OLD ENGLISH.

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These two songs will show LAH and Fan in new posi- | The "time" in this tune will be rather difficult, but must be kept tions, and with new rhythmical arrangements. The pupil will perfectly. Remember

that, with proper care and self-discipline pay special attention to these two notes wherever he finds them. I at first, it is easier to be perfect than imperfect.

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