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LESSONS IN ENGLISH.-XXX.

Latin Words. Meanings. Stems.

English Words. LATIN STEMS (continued).

Dico

I
say
dict

dictate, predict, diction.
Dies
a day

di WORDS are undergoing constant change of signification. The

dial, diary, meridian. Medius middle medi

mediate, mediocrity. changes are in general so slow as scarcely to be noticeable, Dignus worthy digni

dignity, dignity. except at considerable intervals. There is a certain elasticity Diurnus daily

diurn, journ diurnal, journal. of mind which contracts and expands, and expands and con- Doceo

I teach doc, doct

docile, doctor, doctrine. tracts. Corresponding with these internal movements is a Doleo I grieve dol

dole, dolorous, condole. contraction and expansion of the import of words. The term Dominus a master domin

domineer, dominion.

a house dom “import” furnishes an illustration. The import of a word is, Domus

domestic, domicile. Donum a gift

don according to the etymology of the term, that which the word

donation, donor.
Duco
I lead

duc, duct carries in itself. That something, that load or freight, is a

duct, induce, educate. Duo two du

dual, duel, variable quantity; it varies in quality as well as in quantity. Durus

hard
dur

durable, durance. The vase swells with its contents, and so its capacity is aug. Ebrius drunken ebri

ebriety, inebriate. mented.

Edo
I eat
ed

edible. Among the changes which words undergo, two of great im. Ego

I
ego

egotist, egotism. portance may be specified: one is a change from good to bad, Emo

I buy (e)em, empt red(e)em, exemption.

Flecto the other is a change from bad to good. On the former I add a

I bend
flect

reflect, inflect. few things here; the latter must stand over for a little space.

Flexus
bent
flex

flexible, flexile. Words which originally had a good meaning may degenerate

Flictus (fligo) dashed flict

conflict, afflict. Flos (floris)

a flover flor so as to have a bad meaning. Conventicle is a harmless word,

floral, florist. Fluctus

fluctu fluctuate. signifying only a small place of meeting. Our political and

Fluo
I flow
flui

fluent, influence. religious strifes, however, have thrown around it a feeling of Fluxus a floring flux

reflux, efflux. contempt, and in this feeling it is sometimes applied to the Fædus

a treaty feder chapels of the Nonconformists.

(fæděris)

federal, confederate. “It behoveth that the place where God shall be served by the whole

Foro
I bore, pierce for

perforate. church be a publick place, for the avoiding of privy conventicles, which, Fors (fortis) chance

fortuitous, fortunate, covered with pretence of religion, may serve unto dangerous practices."

Fortis strong forti

fortify, fortitude. -Hooker.

Fossa
a ditch foss

fosse.
Fossus dug

foss

fossil. The word cunning derivatively denotes knowledge, and the

Frango I break frag, fring skill that ensues from knowledge. In this sense it was current Fractus

fragment, infringe.

broken fract fracture, fraction. at the time when our present version of the Scriptures was Frater

a brother frater, fratri fraternal, fratricide. made ; for example

Frigeo I am cold frig

frigid, refrigeration. “If I forget thee, O Jerusalem,

Fructus fruit

fructi fructify. Let my right hand forget her cunning.”—Ps. cxxxvii. 5. Fruor I enjoy

fru

fruition. Cunning is of the same origin as king, and both denote mental

Fugio

fug

refuge, subterfuge. Fugitum

fugit superiority. But, as is exemplified in the slang phrase, “

fugitive, a

Fulmen knowing one,” knowledge ill-directed may issue in craftiness.

fulmin fulminate. The word craft, from which the latter is derived, was originally, Fundo

fund

refund. too, very innocent. Its inoffensiveness is preserved in the term Fusus poured

fusible, infuse, refuse, craft as applied to a trade :

Gelu
frost

gel, geal, gelat congeal, congelation, gelat. "A poem is the work of the poet ; poesy is his skill or craft of Gens (gentis) a nation gent

gentile, genteel. (inous making."--Ben Jonson.

Genu
a knee
genu

genuflexion.
Gero

I carry Our craft is the Saxon kræft, or the German kraft, which denotes

ger, gest belligerent, gesture, digestion, Exter outward exter

external, exterior. internal strength, such as comes from essential virtues or from Faber

a workman fabr

fabric, fabricate. knowledge and skill.

Facilis

| facil, facul, facilitate, faculty. The students of these lessons should always bear in mind

eney
ficul

difficult. how necessary it is for them to acquire facility in composition.

Facio I make

S fact, fect, fit factor, perfect, benefit, They cannot adopt a better plan than that which I have fre

I ho, fy soporifio, purify. quently pointed out, namely, to read a passage from some good Sopor(sopõris) heaviness, sleep sopor soporiferous. English author, and then endeavour to reproduce it in writing.

Fallo
I deceive fall

fallacious, infallible.

Fanum One of the most elegant writers in our language, Mrs. Bar

a temple fan

profane, profanation. Fari to speak

fa bauld, who in her husband's school superintended the lessons in

fable, ineffable.
Fatus
spoken fat

fate, fatal. English composition, was accustomed to pursue a plan which to Felix (felicis). happy felic

felicity. some extent is similar to what I recommend, and which for many Femina

semin feminine, ef fominacy. years I followed in my own school. Lucy Aikin, her biographer, Fero I bear

fer

ferry, inser, circumference. tells us : "On Wednesdays and Saturdays the boys were called in Ferveo I boil

ferv

fervid, effervescence. separate classes to her apartment; she read a fable, a short Fidelis faithful

fidel

fidelity, infidel. story, or a moral essay to them aloud, and then sent them

Fido
I trust
fid

confide, diffidence. back into the school-room to write it out on their slates in

Filia
a daughter

filial, affiliate

Filius their own words. Each exercise was separately looked over by Filum

a thread fil

filament. her; the faults of grammar were obliterated, the vulgarisms Fingo I feign

fig

figmont. were chastised, the idle epithets were cancelled, and a distinct Fictus feigned fict

fiction, fictitious. reason was always assigned for every correction; so that the Finis an end fin

final, finite, definite, defni. arts of editing and of criticising were in some degree learnt Fiscus the treasury

fisc

fiscal, confiscate. together. Many a lad from the great schools, who excels in Fissus cleft

fiss

fissure. Latin and Greek, cannot write properly a vernacular (from the Flatus a puff of wind flat

flatulent, inflate. Latin vernaculus, native) letter, for want of some such discipline."

"Modern languages have only one variation, and so the Latin; bir LATIN STEMS.

the Greek and Hebrew have one to signify two, and another to signif Latin Fords.

more than two; under one variation (the former) the noun is said ! Meanings, Stems.

English Words.

be of the dual number, and under the other of the plural."-Clarža Curo I run

cur, curT incur, curricle, current, *Latin Grammar." Cuis a ruining curs, cour excursion, snecour.

* Adnel, milled by tha

machis (single-fight), and by the Datus given dit, dat additiou, date, dalam, data. Latins drielltea, recet

a from the persons engagé De'r decor

τα (deciris)

deonous, decoration.

e properly grice

i smo persons."-South.

rove the unlawfulness, De ; luntis, a tooth dent dentiat, Indentat

a their lives for a crown Dens (lei) a god

dai
delty,

:sbouring not to get thei Dexter right-handad dexter

fus

troman

}

fili

a son

[tive * There is one kind of egotist which is very common in the world. I But tho glow of morning beamed into the little chamber where their bein those empty, conceited fellows, who repeat as sayings of their soven ahildren lay in their beds asleep. Oma, of some of their particular friends, several jests which were made Then tboy gased at the children one by one, and the mother said, before they were born, and which every one who has oonversed in the “Thoy are novon in number; alas ! it will be hard for us to find them world has beard a hundred times over."-Spectator.

food.” Thus sighed the mother, for there was a famine in the land. "If a pawnbroker receives plate or jewels as a pledge or security for Bat the father smiled, and said, "See, do they not lie there, all the the repayment of money lent thereon, on a day certain, he has thom dovon ? And they have all red cheeks, and the beams of the morning upon an espress contract or condition to restore them, if the pledger stream over them, so that they appear lovelier than ever, like seven patorms his part by rodeoming them in due time."--Blackstone.

blooming roves. Mother, that shows us that He who creates the * A just, though terrible, judgment of God upon these play-bunters morning and sends us sleep, is true and unchangeable." pd prophaners of his holy day."-Prynns.

As they stopped from the chamber, they saw at the door fourteen "Somewhat allied to this (blasphemy), though in an inferior degree, shoes in a row, growing smaller and snsaller, two by two, a pair for is the offence of profane and common swearing."-Blackstone.

each child. The mother gazed at them, and when she saw that they * When one tossed his weaver's beam, and the other carried the woro so many, she wept. rates of Gaza, they performed their prodigious feats by tender filamento, Bat the father said, “Mother, why dost thou weep? Have not all Erhter than a cobweb, undiscernible with a microscope." --Soarch, the seven received sound and active feet? Why, then, should we be “ Lights of Nature."

anxions about that which covers them? If the children hare conDefinite and definitive are synonymous, that is, words which Aidence in ne, should we not have confidence in Him who can do more come near in meaning to each other; I say near in meaning, for than we can comprehend ? toere are few pairs of words that have exactly the same force. work with a cheerful countenance."

“See, his sun rises ! Come, then, like it let us begin our day's Definite and definitive, as coming from finis, an end, agree in

Thus they spoke and toiled at their labours, and God blessed the täat they both put an end to a matter : a definite answer pats work of their hands, and they had enough and to spare, they and their an end to your question by speaking so clearly, and so exactly, soven children ; for faith gives strength and courage, and love elevates 24 to leave no room for its repetition; but a definitive answer the soul, pats an end to the matter in issue as well as to the question. By a definite answer I leave you in no doubt as to my meaning ;

LESSONS IN BOTANY.-XXIX. and by a definitive answer I put a negative on your proposal. Honest men, and clear-minded men give definite answers; men

SECTION LXVI.-HAMAMELIDACEÆ, OR WITCH-HAZELS. FBO have come to a final conclusion pronounce a definitive Characteristics : Calyx tubular, adherent to the ovary; limb judgment.

four to five partite; petals absent or inserted upon the calyx, "They never have suffered, and never will suffer, the fixed estate of and alternating with its divisions ; stamens indefinite in the the church to be converted into a pension, to depend on the treasury, apetalous genera, in the petaliferous genera double the number cd to be delayed, withheld, or perhaps to be extinguished, by fiscal of the potals, some sterile, and opposite to the petals, others calties." —Burke, “French Revolution."

fertile and alternate; anthers square or semi-circular; ovary “And all their landes, goodes, and possessions were confiscate and half inferior, two-celled, úni- or multi-ovulate; ovules pendent, med to ye kynge's vse (use).”-Hall, "Richard III."There are other subterraneous juts and channels

, fissures and reflexed; two styles, two stigmata, both distinct ; capsule waanges through which many times the waters make their way."

septicidal, having one-seeded cells. herham, “ Physico-Theology."

The members of this natural ordor are trees or shrubs, ordi. To refuse comes immediately from the French refuser. Bat Darily covered with hair arranged in the form of stars. Leaves 32 the French ? From refutare, says Richardson; and disposed in panicles, capitula, or spikes.

alternate, petiolate, simple, bi-stipulate. Flowers almost sessile, tertainly refutare, both in good and in middle-aged Latin,

The few species composing this natural order are dispersed primarily signifies to put down, put back, refuse, and only deri

over North America, Japan, China, India, Madagascar, and the rarely to prove logically wrong. But this view makes to refuse

Cape. The Virginian hamamelis (Hamamelis Virginica) is a sed to refute the same in origin. Besides, the t and s are not shrub having yellow fasciculated flowers, the ovary of which does erebangeable. It seems less incorrect to derive refuse from re not ripen until the second year. It is cultivated in gardens for ad fando (fusus, fusion), which thus means a pouring or handing the sake of its oily farinaceous seeds; the decoction of its bark Ezek Refuse, the noun, signifying rubbish, comes from the same and leaves is charged with tannic bitter principles and a peculiar Protest only it takes its special import from a custom which pre- volatile oil. The alder-leaved fothergillia (Fothergillia alnifolia) Fied in some cathedral and collegiate churches, according to is a shrub, a native of Carolina, but cultivated in Europe. Its Taich those who held the benefices were required to put together inflorescence is a spike composed of white and odoriferous every year into a common treasury, for the common use, some flowers. Its fruits discharge their seeds with a considerable potice of their income. That portion was seldom the best, and noise. The Rhodoleia Championi (Fig. 218) is a small tree dis. teise the refusio, as the Latin name for the common contri- covered in China by Captain Champion, in the forests which beton was, refuse in English, came to have a bad character, surround Canton. It is cultivated with facility in the open air sad to be nearly equivalent to our rubbish. Rubbish, or in an of Earopean countries. The leaves of this tree are persistent, djer form of the word, rubbage, is that which was rubbed off its flowers grouped in five, surrounded with roseate bracts, which Latin , detritus), as refuse is that which is poured or thrown might be almost taken for a petaloid foral envelope. EXERCISES IN COMPOSITION.

SECTION LXVII.-PHILADELPHACEÆ, OR SYRINGAS. Historical Theme : The Mission of Moses Pharaoh." Characteristics : Calyx adherent to the ovary, valvate in æsti. WORDS WITH THEIR PROPER PREPOSITIONS.

vation; petals in number equal to the divisions of the calyx, Foreign Representatives.

with contorted æstivation; stamens, a multiple number of that Compelled to, pello, I dride.

of the petals; ovary, three or many celled; placenta central, Cornpliance with, plica, a fold.

multi-ovulate; ovules ascendant or pendent, imbricate, reflexed; Composed of, compono, I place together.

capsule many-seeded ; seeds enveloped in a loose testa ; embryo cedo, I yield.

dicotyledonous, straight, in the axis of a fleshy albumen, the concipio, I take together.

length of which it equals. The members of this natural order Coneerzed at, lor, concerner, to regard.

aro eroot troos, having simple opposite leaves without stipules. curro, I run.

Their flowers are complete, regular, white, odoriferous, disposed damnum, injury.

either in oyme or panicle. descendo, I go down

The Philadelphus coronarius, or garland syringa (Fig. 220), is duco, I lead. fero, I bear.

indigenous to Central Europe, and a frequent garden ornament.

Its flowers are very odorous, and were formerly held in esteem as & Sady and endeavour to reproduce the following gem from medicine. They contain a volatile oil sometimes employed as an the German of Krummacher :

agent for the adulteration of oil of jasmine. The Deutzia scabra, THE SEVEN CHILDREN.

or rough-leaved deutzia, is a native of Japan, now cultivated in "A Torniog, as the day began to dawn, the devout father botanio gardens. The Japanese employ the inner bark of this

anth his wife from the couch, and thanked God for tree as a plaster; its leaves are employed to impart a polish to - rifreshing slumber.

wood.

back.

Worde.

Concede to,
Conceive of,

Coacur with, in, Condemn to, Condescend to, Calaca to,

Coder 01,

I say

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to fly

(fulminis

) } lightning

LESSONS IN ENGLISH.-XXX.

Latin Words. Meanings. Stems.

English Words.
LATIN STEMS (continued).

Dico

dict

dictate, predict, diction, Dies a day

di WORDS are undergoing constant change of signification. The

dial, diary, meridian. Medius middle medi

mediate, mediocrity. changes are in general so slow as scarcely to be noticeable, Dignus worthy digni

dignity, dignify. except at considerable intervals. There is a certain elasticity Diurnus daily

diurn, journ diurnal, journal. of mind which contracts and expands, and expands and con. Doceo I teach doc, doct docile, doctor, doctrine. tracts. Corresponding with these internal movements is a Doleo

I grieve dol

dole, dolorous, condole. contraction and expansion of the import of words. The term Dominus a master domin

domineer, dominion. “import” furnishes an illustration. The import of a word is,

Domus
a house
dom

domest domicile.
Donum

don according to the etymology of the term, that which the word

a gift

donation, donor.

Duco carries in itself. That something, that load or freight, is a

I lead duc, duct duct, induce, educate, Duo

two variable quantity; it varies in quality as well as in quantity. Durus

du

dual, duel.
hard
dur

durable, durance. The vase swells with its contents, and so its capacity is aug. Ebrius

drunken ebri

ebriety, inebriate. mented.

Edo
I eat
ed

edible. Among the changes which words undergo, two of great im. Ego I

ego

egotist, egotism. portance may be specified: one is a change from good to bad, Emo I buy (e)em, empt red(e)em, exemption. the other is a change from bad to good. On the former I add a Flecto I bend

flect

reflect, inflect. few things here; the latter must stand over for a little space.

Flexus bent

flex

lexible, flexile. Words which originally had a good meaning may degenerate

Flictus (fligo) dashed

flict

conflict, afflict. Flos (floris) a flower

flor so as to have a bad meaning. Conventicle is a harmless word,

floral, florist. Fluctus

fluctu fluctuate, signifying only a small place of meeting. Our political and Fluo

I flow fire

fluent, influence. religious strifes, however, have thrown around it a feeling of Fluxus

a flowing flux

reflux, efflux. contempt, and in this feeling it is sometimes applied to the Fædus

a treaty chapels of the Nonconformists.

(fæděris)

feder federal, confederate. “It behoveth that the place where God shall be served by the whole

Foro
I bore, pierce for

perforate. church be a publick place, for the avoiding of privy convonticles, which, Fors (fortis) chance fort

fortuitous, fortunate. covered with pretence of religion, may serve unto dangerous practices." Fortis

strong forti

fortify, fortitude. -Hooker.

Fossa
a ditch
foss

fosse.

Fossus
The word cunning derivatively denotes knowledge, and the

dug
foss

fossil.

Frango I break skill that ensues from knowledge. In this sense it was current Fractus

frag, fring fragment, infringe. broken fract

fracture, fraction. at the time when our present version of the Scriptures was Frater a brother frater, fratri fraternal, fratricide. made; for example

Frigeo
I am cold
frig

frigid, refrigeration. “If I forget thee, O Jerusalem,

Fructus fruit

fructi fructify. Let my right hand forget her cunning."-Ps. cxxxvii. 5.

Fruor I enjoy fru

fruition. Cunning is of the same origin as king, and both denote mental

Fugio I fly

fug

refuge, subterfuge. superiority. But, as is exemplified in the slang phrase, “a Fulmen

Fugitum

fugit

fugitive. knowing one," knowledge ill-directed may issue in craftiness.

fulmin fulminate. The word craft, from which the latter is derived, was originally, Fundo

I pour
fund

refund. too, very innocent. Its inoffensiveness is preserved in the term Fusus poured fus

fusible, infuse, refuse. wroft as applied to a trade :

Gelu
frost

gel, geal, gelat congeal, congelation, gelat"A poom is the work of the poet ; poesy is his skill or craft of Gens (gentis) a nation

gont

gentile, genteel. [inons. making."--Ben Jonson.

Genu
a knee
gonu

genuflexion.

Gero Our craft is the Saxon kræft, or the German kraft, which denotes

I carry

ger, gest belligerent, gesture, digestion. Exter outward exter

external, exterior. internal strength, such as comes from essential virtues or from Faber a workman fabr

fabric, fabricate. knowledge and skill.

Ş facil, facul, facilitate, faculty.

Facilis
The students of these lessons should always bear in mind

e 294
ficul

difficult. how necessary it is for them to acquire facility in composition.

Facio

I make

Ş fact, fect, fit factor, perfect, benefit, They cannot adopt a better plan than that which I have fre

fic, fy soporific, purify. quently pointed out, namely, to read a passage from some good Sopor(sopõris) heaviness, sleep sopor soporiferous. English author, and then endeavour to reproduce it in writing.

Fallo I deceive fall

fallacious, infalible. Fanum a temple fan

profane, profanation. One of the most elegant writers in our language, Mrs. Bar

Fari

to speak fa bauld, who in her husband's school superintended the lessons in Fatus

fable, ineffable. spoken fat

fate, fatal. English composition, was accustomed to pursue a plan which to Felix (felicis). happy felic

felicity. some extent is similar to what I recommend, and which for many Femina

femin feminine, ef feminacy. years I followed in my own school. Lucy Aikin, her biographer, Fero I bear

ferry, infer, circumference. tells us: “On Wednesdays and Saturdays the boys were called in Ferveo I boil ferv

fervid, effervescence. separate classes to her apartment; she read a fable, a short

Fidelis faithful fidel

fidelity, infidel. Fido

I trust story, or a moral essay to them aloud, and then sent them

confide, diffidence. back into the school-room to write it out on their slates in

Filia
a daughter

filial, affiliate. their own words. Each exercise was separately looked over by Filum

Filius
a thread fil

filament. her; the faults of grammar were obliterated, the vulgarisms Fingo I feign

fig

figment. were chastised, the idle epithets were cancelled, and a distinct Fictus feigned fict

fiction, fictitious. reason was always assigned for every correction; so that the Finis

an end
fin

final, finite, definite, definiarts of editing and of criticising were in some degree learnt Fiscus the treasury fisc

fiscal, confiscate. together. Many a lad from the great schools, who excels in Fissus cleft

fiss

fissure. Latin and Greek, cannot write properly a vernacular (from the Flatus a puff of wind flat

flatulent, inflate. Latin vernaculus, native) letter, for want of some such dis

“Modern languages have only one variation, and so the Latin ; but : cipline." LATIN STEMS.

the Greek and Hebrew have one to signify two, and another to signify

more than two; under one variation (the former) the noun is said to Latin Words. Meanings. Stems.

English Words.

be of the dual number, and under the other of the plural.”—Clarke, Curro I rum

cur, cury incur, curricle, current. Latin Grammar." Curens a ritning cre, cu excursion, succour.

"A duel, called by the Greeks monomachia (singlo-fight), and by the Dattes

piron dit, dat addition, date, datum, data. Latins duellum, receiving its denomination from the persons engaged Decor (decoris) graca

iu it, is properly a fight or combat between two persons."-South. decor decorous, decoration.

“I suppose I need not take any pains to prove the unlawfulness, nas Desa entis) a tooth dont

dentist, indentation.

the sottishness of such duellings, when men sold their lives for a crown Done (lei) ៨ ០០៧ deity, deily.

or an angel; and by a preposterous way of labouring not to get their Dexter Tights

dexterity,

living, but to procure their death,"-South.

a roman

fer

fid

} } fili

a son

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* There is one kind of egotist which is very common in the world. I Bat the glow of morning beamed into the little chamber where their Bean those empty, conceited fellows, who repeat as sayings of their soven children lay in their beds asleep. Own, or some of their particular friends, several jests which were made Then they gased at the children one by one, and the mother said, belore they were born, and which every one who has conversed in tho “They are soven in number; alas ! it will be hard for us to find them world has beard a hundred times over."-Spectator.

food." Thus sighed the mother, for there was a famine in the land. * If a pawnbroker receives plate or jewels as a pledge or security for But the father smiled, and said, "See, do they not lie there, all the the repayment of money lent thereon, on a day certain, he has them boven ? And they have all red cheeks, and the beams of the morning open an express contract or condition to restore them, if the pledger stream over thom, so that they appear lovelier than ever, like seven performs his part by rodeoming them in due time."-Blackstone.

blooming roves. Mother, that shows us that He who creates the " A just, though terrible, judgment of God upon these play-hunters morning and sends as sleep, is true and unchangeable.” i prophaners of his holy day."-Prynno.

As they stopped from the chamber, they saw at the door fourteen "Somewhat allied to this (blasphemy), though in an inferior degree, shoos in a row, growing smaller and snsaller, two by two, a pair for is the offence of profane and common swearing."Blackstone.

each child. The mother gazed at them, and when she saw that they "When one tossed his weaver's beam, and the other carried the woro so many, she wopt. rates of Gaza, they performed their prodigious feats by tender filaments, Bat the father said, “Mother, why dost thou weep? Have not all ghter than a cobweb, undiscernible with a microscope.”- Search, the seven received sound and active feet ? Why, then, should we be " Lusht of Natiere."

ansions about that which covers them? If the children have conDefinite and definitive are synonymous, that is, words which idence in ne, should we not have confidence in Him who can do more come dear in meaning to each other; I say near in meaning, for than we can comprehend ? tigere are few pairs of words that have exactly the same force. work with a cheerful countenance.”

“Soe, his sun rises ! Come, then, like it let us begin our day's Definite and definitive, as coming from finis, an end, agree in

Thus they spoke and toiled at their labours, and God blessed the that they both put an end to a matter : a definite answer puts work of their hands, and they had enough and to spare, they and their an end to your question by speaking so clearly, and so exactly, seven children ; for faith gives strength and courage, and love elevates 23 to leave no room for its repetition; but a definitive answer the soul pate an end to the matter in issue as well as to the question. By a definite answer I leave you in no doubt as to my meaning ;

LESSONS IN BOTANY.-XXIX. od by a definitive answer I put a negative on your proposal. Honest men, and clear-minded men give definito answers; men

SECTION LXVI.-HAMAMELIDACEÆ, OR WITCH-HAZELS. Fibo bato come to a final conclusion pronounce a definitive Characteristics : Calyx tubular, adherent to the ovary; limb judgment.

four to five partite; petals absent or inserted upon the calyx, "They never have suffered, and never will suffer, the fixed estate of and alternating with its divisions ; stamens indefinite in the the church to be converted into a pension, to depend on the treasury, apotalous genera, in the petaliferous genera double the number ed to be delayed, withheld, or perhaps to be extinguished, by fiscal of the potals, some sterile, and opposite to the petals, others Realties."-Burke, French Revolution."

fertile and alternate; anthers square or semi-circular; ovary * And all their landes, goodes, and possessions were confiscato and half inferior, two-celled, uni. or multi-ovulate; ovules pendent, wad to ye kynge's vse (use)."-Hall, "Richard III."

“There are other subterraneous juts and channels, fissures and reflexed; two styles, two stigmata, both distinct ; capsule postiges through which many times the waters make their way."

septicidal, having one-seeded cells. Dertan, " Physico-Theology."

The members of this natural order are trees or shrubs, ordi. Fience the French ? From refutare, says Richardson; and disposed in panicles, capitula, or spikes. To refuse comes immediately from the French refuser. Bat narily covered with hair arranged in the form of stars. Leaves

alternate, petiolate, simple, bi-stipulate. Flowers almost sessile, tertainly refatare, both in good and in middle-aged Latin,

The few species composing this natural order are dispersed simarily signifies to put down, put back, refuse, and only deriratively to prove logically wrong. But this view makes to refuse over North America, Japan, China, India, Madagascar, and the

The Virginian hamamelis (Hamamelis Virginica) is a and to refute the same in origin. Besides, the t and 8 are not shrub having yellow fasciculated flowers, the ovary of which does exetangeable. It seems less incorrect to derive refuse from re

not ripen until the second year. It is cultivated in gardens for sod fando (fusus, fusion), which thus means a pouring or handing the sake of its oily farinaceous seeds; the decoction of its bark tash Refuse, the noon, signifying rubbish, comes from the same

and leaves is charged with tannic bitter principles and a peculiar Miot, only it takes its special import from a custom which pre- volatile oil. The alder-leaved fothergillia (Fothergillia alnifolia) Failed in some cathedral and collegiate churches, according to is a shrub, a native of Carolina, but cultivated in Europe. Its Trich those who held the benefices were required to put together inflorescence is a spike composed of white and odoriferous every year into a common treasury, for the common use, some flowers. Its fruits discharge their seeds with a considerable portion of their income. That portion was seldom the best, and noise. The Rhodoleia Championi (Fig. 218) is a small tree disbence the refusio, as the Latin name for the common contri covered in China by Captain Champion, in the forests which banan mas, refuse in English, came to have a bad character, sarroand Canton. It is cultivated with facility in the open air and to be nearly equivalent to our rubbish. Rubbish, or in an of Earopean countries. The leaves of this tree are persistent, sider form of the word, rubbage, is that which was rubbed off its flowers grouped in five, surrounded with roseate bracts, which (Latin , detritus), as refuse is that which is poured or thrown might be almost taken for a petaloid floral envelope. EXERCISES IN COMPOSITION.

SECTION LXVII.-PHILADELPHACEÆ, OR SYRINGAS. Historical Theme: The Mission of Moses to Pharaoh." Characteristics : Calyx adherent to the ovary, valvate in æsti.

vation; petals in number equal to the divisions of the calyx, Words. Foreign Representatives,

with contorted æstivation; stamens, a multiple number of that Corspelled to, pello, I dride.

of the petals; ovary, three or many celled; placenta central, Compliance with, plica, a fold.

multi-ovalato; ovules ascendant or pendent, imbricate, reflexed; Composed of, compono, I place together,

capsule many-seeded ; seeds enveloped in a loose testa; embryo cedo, I yield.

dicotyledonous, straight, in the axis of a fleshy albumen, the concipio, I take together.

length of which it equals. The members of this natural order Concerned at, for, concerner, to regard.

are eroot trees, having simple opposite leaves without stipules. curro, I run.

Their flowers are complete, regular, white, odoriferous, disposed damnum, injury.

either in oyme or panicle. descendo, I go down

The Philadelphus coronorius, or garland syringa (Fig. 220), is duco, I lead. fero, I bear.

indigenous to Central Europe, and a frequent garden ornament.

Its flowers are very odorous, and were formerly held in esteem as a Stady and endeavont to reproduce the following gem from medicine. They contain a volatile oil sometimes employed as an 2 German of Krummacher :

agent for the adulteration of oil of jasmine. The Deutzia scabra, THE SEVEN CHILDREN.

or rongh-leaved deutzia, is a native of Japan, now cultivated in Bitly in the morning, as the day began to dawn, the devout father botanic gardens. The Japanese employ the inner bark of this alamily arose with his wife from the couch, and thanked God for tree as a plaster; its leaves are employed to impart a polish to Kty, and for their refreshing slumber.

wood.

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WORDS WITH THEIR PROPER PREPOSITIONS.

Concede to,
Conceive of,

Concur with, İs, Corodemn to, Condescend to, Coadace to,

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I say

I buy

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a ware

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2

I fly

(fulminis

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I pour

LESSONS IN ENGLISH.-XXX.

Latin Words. Meanings. Stems.

English Words.
LATIN STEMS (continued).

Dico

dict

dictate, predict, diction. Dies a day

di WORDS are undergoing constant change of signification. The

dial, diary, meridian. Medius middle

medi

mediate, mediocrity. changes are in general so slow as scarcely to be noticeable, Dignus

worthy digni

dignity, dignify. except at considerable intervals. There is a certain elasticity Diurnus daily

diurn, journ diurnal, journal. of inind which contracts and expands, and expands and con. Doceo

I teach
doc, doct

docile, doctor, doctrine. tracts. Corresponding with these internal movements is a Doleo

I griove
dol

dole, dolorous, condole. contraction and expansion of the import of words. The term

Dominus a master domin

domineer, dominion. “import" furnishes an illustration. The import of a word is,

Domus
a house
dom

domestic, domicile.
Donum

don according to the etymology of the term, that which the word

a gift

donation, donor. Dnco

I lead carries in itself. That something, that load or freight, is a

duc, duct duct, induce, educate.
Duo
tico
du

dual, duel. variable quantity; it varies in quality as well as in quantity. Durus

hard

dur The vase swells with its contents, and so its capacity is aug. Ebrius

durable, durance. drunken ebri

ebriety, inebriate. mented.

Edo
I eat
ed

edible. Among the changes which words undergo, two of great im. Ego

I
ego

egotist, egotism. portance may be specified: one is a change from good to bad, Emo

(e) em, empt red(e)em, exemption. the other is a change from bad to good. On the former I add a

Flecto
I bend
flect

reflect, inflect.

Flexus few things here; the latter must stand over for a little space.

bent
flex

dexible, flexile. Words which originally had a good meaning may degenerate

Flictus (fligo) dashed flict

conflict, afflict.

Flos (floris) so as to have a bad meaning. Conventicle is a harmless word,

flower flor

floral, florist.

Fluctus signifying only a small place of meeting. Our political and

fluctu

fluctuate.
Fluo
I floro
flu

Muent, influence. religious strifes, however, have thrown around it a feeling of Fluxus a flowing flux

reftur, efflur.
contempt, and in this feeling it is sometimes applied to the Fædus
chapels of the Nonconformists.

(fæděris)
} a treaty feder

federal, confederate. “ It behoveth that the place where God shall be served by the whole

Foro
I bore, pierce for

perforate, church be a publick place, for the avoiding of privy conventicles, which,

Fors (fortis) chance fort

fortuitous, fortunate.

Fortis covered with pretence of religion, may serve unto dangerous practices.”

strong
forti

fortify, fortitude. -Hooker.

Fossa
a ditch foss

fosse.

Fossus dug The word cunning derivatively denotes knowledge, and the

foss

fossil.

Frango I break frag, fring fragment, infringe. skill that ensues from knowledge. In this sense it was current

Fractus broken

fract

fracture, fraction. at the time when our present version of the Scriptures was Frater

a brother frater, fratri fraternal, fratricide. made; for example-

Frigeo
I am cold
frig

frigid, refrigeration.
“If I forget thee, O Jerusalem,

Fructus fruit

fructi fructify.
Let my right hand forget her cunning."--Ps. cxxxvii. 5.

Fruor
I enjoy fru

fruition.

Fugio Cunning is of the same origin as king, and both denote mental

fug

refuge, subterfuge. Fugitum to fly

fugit superiority. But, as is exemplified in the slang phrase, “a

fugitive.

Fulmen knowing one,” knowledge ill-directed may issue in craftiness.

fulmin fulminate. The word craft, from which the latter is derived, was originally, Fundo

fund

refund. too, very innocent. Its inoffensiveness is preserved in the term Fusus poured fus

fusible, infuse, refuse. craft as applied to a trade :

Gelu
frost

gel, geal, gelat congeal, congelation, gelat. A poem is the work of the poet; poesy is his skill or craft of

Gens (gentis) nation

gent

gentile, genteel. (inous. making."--Ben Jonson.

Genu

genu

genuflexion. Gero

I carry Our craft is the Saxon kroft, or the German kraft, which denotes

ger, gest belligerent, gesture, digestion. Exter outucard ecter

external, exterior. internal strength, such as comes from essential virtues or from Faber

a workman fabr

fabric, fabricate. knowledge and skill.

Facilis

facil, facul, facilitate, faculty.

0194 The students of these lessons should always bear in mind

ficul

difficult. how necessary it is for them to acquire facility in composition.

S fact, fect, fit factor, perfect, benefit, Facio

I make They cannot adopt a better plan than that which I have fre

& fic, fy soporific, purify. quently pointed out, namely, to read a passage from some good Sopor(sopõris) hcariness, sleep sopor soporiferous.

Fallo

I deceive English author, and then endeavour to reproduce it in writing.

fall

fallacious, infallible.

Fanum One of the most elegant writers in our language, Mrs. Bar.

a temple fan

profane, profanation. Fari to speak fa

fable, ineffable. bauld, who in her husband's school superintended the lessons in Fatus

spoken fat

fate, fatal. English composition, was accustomed to pursue a plan which to Felix (felicis). happy felic

felicity. some extent is similar to what I recommend, and which for many Femina

fomin feminine, ef feminacy. years I followed in my own school. Lucy Aikin, her biographer, Fero

I bear
fer

ferry, infer, circumference. tells us: “On Wednesdays and Saturdays the boys were called in Ferveo

I boil
fero

fervid, effervescence. separate classes to her apartment; she read a fable, a short

Fidelis
faithful fidel

fidelity, infidel.
Fido

I trust story, or a moral essay to them aloud, and then sent them

fid

confide, diffidence.

Filia back into the school-room to write it out on their slates in

a daughter

filial, affiliate Filius

a son their own words. Each exercise was separately looked over by Filum

a thread fil

filament. her; the faults of grammar were obliterated, the vulgarisms Fingo I feign fig

figment. were chastised, the idle epithets were cancelled, and a distinct Fictus feigned fict

fiction, fictitious. reason was always assigned for every correction; so that the Finis

fin

final, finite, definite, defiru-arts of editing and of criticising were in somo degree learnt Fiscůs the treasury

fisc

fiscal, confiscate. [tive together. Many a lad from the great schools, who excels in

Fissus cleft

fiss

fissure. Latin and Greek, cannot write properly a vernacular (from the Flatus a puff of wind fat

fatulent, inflate. Latin vernaculus, native) letter, for want of some such dis

"Modern languages have only one variation, and so the Latin ; bu cipline." LATIN STEMS.

the Greek and Hebrew have one to signify two, and another to signit

more than two; under one variation (the former) the noun is said t Latin Words. Meanings. Stems.

English Words.

be of the dual number, and under the other of the plural.”_ Clark Chro I ፡፡

cui, curr incur, curricle, current. Latin Grammar." Cuinis a runing curs, co

exer.ion, succour.

A duel, called by the Greeks monomachia (single-fight), and by ti D.lity giren dit, dat

addilion, date, datum, data. Latins duellum, receiving its denomination from the persons engage Depar

in it, is properly a fight or combat between tudo persons." decor

-South, (ileciris)

decvrous, decoration.

"I suppose I need not take any pains to prove the unlawfulness, Da luntis) a tooth dont

dentist, indentatiou,

the sottishness of such duellings, when men sold their lives for a prov Denne (lei) a god dei deity, deily.

or an angel; and by a preposterous way of labouring not to get the Dexter right-handed dexter dexterity, derterous.

living, but to procure their death,”-South.

a knee

a woman

}

fili

an end

graca

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