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RECREATIVE NATURAL HISTORY. tail tremulously vibrated. The creature thus floats as easily as if

it were a pieco of wood. The newts are then, generally, looking THE NEWT AND SALAMANDER.

out for a dinner. No sooner does some small animal come near MANY of our readers must have frequently seen the common newt, than it is seized with a ferocity which we should not have exa eft, so abundant in ditohes, pools, brooks, and moist places. pected to find in these timid reptiles. The tadpole of the frog Whether the animal may have been the great water-newt (Triton meets with no mercy, and indeed the large newt, when hungry, cristatus, or crested newt), measuring six inches in length, or the will swallow its relative, the small water-eft, without hesitation. small water-newt (Triton punstatus, or speckled newt), not more The teeth of these reptiles, though fine, are sharp and numerous, than half that size, the observer must have paused a moment looking like a saw of minute points. Some foreign species, to mark the motions of the creature. Both belong to the once closely allied to our newts, possess above three hundred of these dreaded salamander family; but no land salamander is found needle-like teeth. Few persons looking at a newt as it swims in Britain, their proper homes being in central and southern in a ditch would suppose that such an insignificant creature has Earope. The whole family is closely allied to the frogs and been the subject of study and experiments by some of the toads, and has, both in ancient and modern times, excited the greatest physiologists and anatomists. A deep mystery of life attention of naturalists. Our observations must be principally was the problem to be solved; and in spite of all the labours of on the British newts, which, the reader will remember, are often men like Spalanzani, Duméril, Bonnet, Von Siebald, and Owen, called salamanders.

the solution has not been No one can mistake the

made. The legs of newts large English water-newt

have been repeatedly am. for any other reptile. The

putated, and have grown Orange tint and black

again. The limb when spots on the under part

thus reproduced has been of the body; the sides

again cut off, and again speckled with white dots;

Las it been formed. In the overhanging upper

case the same leg lip; the body covered

was thus amputated and with little wart-like tu.

thus re-formed four times bercles; - all give the

in succession. The tail animal a peculiar appear

has shown again and again ance. The crest along

the same mysterious vital the back of the male is

energy, forming gradually seen in the spring only,

new bones, new nerves, when the animal assumes

and new muscles. These its brightest tints and

fresh limbs were not al. exhibits the greatest ac

ways reproduced exactly tivity. Some of the

in their original form and foreign newts are much

perfection. Sometimes a larger than our British

claw would be deficient, kinds. The species found

sometimes redundant. in the waters of the Al.

The eye was completely leghany and Ohio rivers

removed from a newt; in is two feet long, being

a year a perfectly-formed called in some parts the

new eye was reproduced. "fish salamander," in

No part of the complex others the “ground

organ of vision was wantpuppy," or young alli.

ing, no part distorted. gator.

The above experiments The newts are, in

show a singular power some respects, peculiarly

of reproducing destroyed formed. Though belong.

organs; the following ing to the great division

illustrates an extraordi. of vertebrated animals,

nary degree of vital they cannot be said to

energy. M. Duméril cut possess true ribs. An

off all that part of a inspection of a skeleton

newt's head which conwill show the rudiments

tains the eyes, nostrils, of these bones, looking

ears and tongue, and as if the ribs had begun THE TRITON CRISTATUS, OR LARGE WATER-NEWT.

then placed the creature to grow and were then

in water at the bottom suddenly checked in their

of a jar. Fresh water development. The vertebræ of the tail are very numerous, was supplied every day, and the animal's motions were carethirty-six having been counted in the tail of the small newt, and fully watched for about three months. The newt came to nearly the same number in that of the large water-eft. These the top of the water at first, as if to breathe ; its movements titumerous joints probably facilitate the rapid vibratory move- were slow, as if perplexed by its novel condition, but the creaments of the organ characteristic of this reptile, especially in ture continued to live, and retained all the vital energies unspring. The bones of the fore-leg havo a striking resemblance impaired. The wounded part healed, new flesh was formed, to a miniature human arm. The two bones--the radius, to and the hole made by the scissors in cutting off the head was which the hand is united, and the ulna, linked to the upper i completely closed within three months. How did the animal arm at the elbow joint-aro both visible in the newt. Thus breathe ? Probably through the skin, which thus discharged tho grand unity of structure, so remarkable in the vertebrated the office of a lung. How long the newt would have lived, and animals, is clearly to be traced through all the links which' whether any reproduction of the lost head might have ensued, connect the highest forms with the lowest. One plan is seen must be left doubtful. The reptile, having been left in charge imidst all the diversities. The legs of the newt, though of a fresh attendant, died from inattention, not being supplied small, are used in combination with the tail to support tho with fresh water. The above experiments should be made in animal in a remarkablo way on the surface of the water. the spring, when the newt's vital energies are most active and These reptiles may often be seen floating on the surface most able to recover from the shock which such mutilation must of a pool, with so little zuotion that they appear dead. The give, even to a reptile's system. legs are extended on the water, the feet spread out, and the A series of observations were carried on by the naturalist

C2

[graphic]

VOL. III.

Rusconi, in order to trace all the stops by which a water-newt sucked their milk, robbing them and the irritated farmer by one advances from the egg to its pörfect state. The egg was noted felonious act. The bite of the creature was deemed so deadly on the 23rd of April, when it was deposited by the parent on a that a proverb expressed the fears of men and the helplessness leaf, and the daily changes were watched under the microscope of the physician. “ If a salamander bites you, put on your until the 6th of May, when the young newt was hatched. The shroud,” was the doleful counsel given to the luckless wight water was kept all the time at a temperature of about 70° of who might have been scratched by the tiny teeth of this animal. Fahrenheit's thermometer. Want of spaco prevents us from Could no good, then, be obtained from the horrid creature describing all the steps in the development of the animal, but Yes; the heart, worn round the neck, would preserve the wearer many readers can conduct a similar series of observations for from perils by fire! The chemists of old times professed to be themselves. We will, however, note a few of the more im. able to turn the salamander to a wondrous use. The mode of portant stages in the advance. In five days the head, gills, fore- operation and the expected results may thus be stated :-Catch feet, and tail were first seen in the egg; in four days more the one of the reptiles, put it in a crucible on a fire, pour quicksilver beating of the heart was noticed; in another day the little crea- over the roasting animal; then, if all went well, the metal would ture moved in the ogg; and on the 5th of May the eyes were be turned into gold! But one caution was essential : the opeclearly seen. On the next day the struggles of tho imprisoned rator must be a man of pure mind and heart, or no treasure reptile broke its shell, and the newt was hatched. The would appear. The universal failure of the experiments speaks second set of observations now began, by woich the progress of little in favour of the moral condition of the old chemists. the animal was noted through all the tadpole stages to the fully- The reader will see, from the preceding remarks, how ignorance developed animal. The little fish-like reptilo secured itself by two has filled the minds of men with abject dread of nature. War hook-like appendages to a leaf, and then seemed to go to sleep against the animal kingdom was the result. It is not the least for a day or two. On the 18th of May, twelve days after the advantage of natural history that it has dispelled most of these hatching, the newt measured about half an inch long; the toes | delusions, while it discloses innumerable wonders of structure, of the fore-feet were formed, the gills appeared; the tadpole was and remarkable instances of animal ingenuity. able to swim actively, and even to catch aquatic insects. On the 28th of May it had grown to the length of an inch; the hindlegs appeared, and the toes of the fore-leg were nearly perfect.

LESSONS IN CHEMISTRY.--XX. On the 18th of June the tadpole reached its final stage, and then THE METAUS OF THE EARTH-GLASS, PORCELAIN-ZINC. began to change into the newt. The gills were gradually ob- In the third class of metals are those whose oxides have not literated, the lungs formed, the ear-holes closed, and on the 27th such marked basic properties as either of the preceding classos

, of July the reptile took the complete form of a water-newt. We must now pause to describe the ingenious method by alkaline earths. They are ten in number--aluminum, glucinam,

and they are therefore denominated metals of the earths, not which the eft* secures the safety of her eggs, and shows herself zirconium, thorinum, yttrium, erbium, terbium, cerium, lan. to be a clever mechanic. She selects a leaf of somo water plant, thanum, and didymium. None of the group present sufficient deposits a single erg upon the under-side of the leaf, then with interest to require our attention except her feet bends the leaf back, so that it forms a case or box for the egg. But the leaf, thus doubled back, would soon straighten

ALUMINUM or ALUMINIUM. again, and leave the egg unprotected. To prevent this, the SYMBOL, Al- COMBINING WEIGHT, 27'4 - SPECIFIC GRAVITT, 26. newt pours out a gummy finid from her body, and glues the bent

This metal may be obtained by decomposing its chloride by part of the lcaf to the other or lower portion. Thus a pro- the galvanic current; but, as in the case of magnesium, an tecting receptaclo is formed for the egg, where it is hatched in easier method is found to be by the agency of sodium. The security. The mode in which this leaf-nest is formed, and the chloride, melted into vapour, is caused to pass over melted exact order in w'zich all the stages of the work proceed, may sodium; this latter metal appropriates the chlorine of the salt

, almost lead some to suspect that the newt “must be able and the aluminum is deposited. It is a bluish-white metal, to reason.” These bent and doubled leaves may often be seen remarkable for its lightness. It does not readily oxidise when in places where efts abound, and by breaking three or four off | exposed to air. These properties have recommended it for the and putting them into a jar, with water not lower in tempera: making of ornamental trinkets. It is capable of being drawn ture than 65° Fahrenheit, the reader may watch all the stages of out into wire and rolled into plates. When struck it gives a a newt's life.

clear musical note. It is but little affected by nitric, but disWe must now make a few remarks on the eft's relative, the solves with rapidity in hydrochloric acid, giving off hydroger, once dreaded salamander. Never was an animal so hated with and forming the chloride; thusso little reason. The salamander proper (Salamandra maculosa) resembles the newts in form, but it dwells on the land, loving

2Al + 6HCl = A1,ci, + 6H. cool holes under old walls, and the roots of trees. One quality Hence the metal is Triatomic. It promises to become of some universally ascribed to this reptile was its power of living in the value in making alloys. Ten of aluminum and ninety of copper fire. It was one of “the best proved facts” in natural history produce an alloy of great strength and elasticity—the “ Aluthat the salamander was the “lord of fire.” Francis I. of minum bronze." Its appearance is very like gold. France showed his belief in the marvellous tale by adopting for Alunina (A),03) is the only oxide. It appears almost pure, his device a salamander in the flames, thereby hinting to his foes and in a crystalline state, in the precious stones-corundum, that he, like that fearful reptile, was indestructible. The wild ruby, sapphire. Emery is another form of this substance. It belief in some countries was that if a fire should ever be allowed is also present in considerable quantities in clay, being originally to continue burning for seven years, a salamander would be pro- derived from the decomposition of felspar. For commercial duced from such fames. This superstition, however, was not purposes it is got by treating a solution of soda-alum with the cause of the intense hate borne towards the salamander, but hydrochloric acid, which is evaporated to dryness and heated; it invested the animal with a dread mysteriousness. How could the mass is then washed with water, and alumina remains. Its such a notion continue through so many ages, when the matter chief use is in dyeing; it possesses the property of combining might have been easily tested by throwing a salamander on the with certain organic colouring matters, and forning insoluble fire ? People aro not willing to put their superstitions to the pigments termed lakes. Most colouring matters will Doom test, and there was one slight foundation of fact on which the main in the fibre of the material ; when this is the case, the whole monstrous pile of error was raised. The salamander can cloth, etc., is soaked in a preparation of alumina, and then pour out a little watery fluid from its skin when excited, and on dipped into a bath of the dye.

By this means an insoluble some occasions this fluid may have damped for a moment the compound is formed in the fibre of the material, and the snbflame of some fire, on which the animal may have been cast. stance is dyed “fast.” The sesquioxides of iron and chromium, The poor salamander was also believed to have the deadly power and the oxide of tin, are mordants as well as alumina. of poisoning, not only the whole fruit of a trce on which it might Aluminum Chloride (A1,C1.). --The process which would at creep, but the vegetation of a large district. Even innocent cows once suggest itself for obtaining this salt-namely, of acting were not safe from the malicious reptile, which sometimes on alumira with hydrochloric acid does not admit of being

practised, for on evaporating and heating the acid is drivin off

. Readers will remember that the animal is called both eft and newt. The method devised by Oersted is therefore used. Alumina

is mixed with powdered charcoal, and made into a paste with 300 parts of white sand (silica), 100 of carbonate of soda, oil or starch; the mass is subdivided into pellets; these are placed 43 of slaked lime, and 300 of cullet, or broken glass, of the in a tube of porcelain, which is heated in a charcoal furnace, same kind. These ingredients are placed in a conical crucible and a current of chlorine is passed through it. The aluminum and melted. The crucible is allowed to stand some time in chloride condenses in a cool receiver. The chemical action is a high temperature, in order that any impurities may settle tbus expressed

to the botton. The fused glass is then poured out on a table A1,0, + 3C + 6C1 = Al,CI, + 3C0.

of cast iron, and the thickness is regulated by ledges of the

same metal. The liquid glass is inade to cover this tablo Aluminum Sulphate (A1,350,) is made for the use of the rapidiy by a heavy roller passing over it. dyer in large quantities in the north of England. Clay, which As is the case with all glass, the plate is next annealed, has been roasted, is acted upon by half its weight of sulphuric that is, it is allowed to cool very slowly in an oven whose acid. At Whitby, however, this addition of acid is unnecessary. temperature is gradually diminished during a fortnight. If The alnm schist contains iron pyrites and in the slow roasting glass be cooled at all suddenly, it becomes so brittle as to be some of the sulphur of this compound becomes sulphuric acid. useless. The grinding and polishing of the plate is effected by Water is added, and the clear liquid is drawn off; the iron it causing one plate to move upon the surface of another by contains is precipitated as Prussian blue by sodium ferro- machinery, the grinding materials being fine sand and water. cyanide. On evaporation, thin flexible scales of the salt are When a smooth surface is thus obtained, the plate is polished, obtained.

first by fine emery and then by paroxide of iron. Aliems are double salts formed by aluminum sulphate and an Bohemian glass is a silicate of potash and lime, and on account alkaline sulphate; thus common alum is Al,K,450, + 24H,O, of its infusibility is used in the laboratory. that is, it is a compound of Al,350, and K,So, (potassium sul- Bottle glass, the colour of which is inmaterial, is composed of phate) with twenty-four molecules of water of crystallisation. / 100 parts of sand, 80 of soaper's waste, 80 of gas lime, 5 of It is found native in volcanic neighbourhoods, where the sul. clay, and 3 of rock salt. phuric acid from the volcano has combined with the potash and Flint glass has these ingredients :-Pure sand, 100; red lead, alumina in lava to produce it. At the Whitby Alum Works 20; pearl-ash, 10; nitre, 2; and cullet, 100. the iron is not precipitated as Prussian blue. In the roasting it The lead gives great lustre to the glass, by increasing its becomes green vitriol (sulphate of iron). To the clear liquid, refractive power; hence this glass is used for optical parposes. which contains aluminum sulphate and iron sulphate, a solution In its manufacture the crucibles are closed, lest the air should of potassium chloride is added. The iron sulphate now becomes “reduce” the lead. It will be frequently observed that this iron chloride, and the potassium sulphate with the aluminum takes place in a piece of tubing, if held in the blow-pipe sulphate form alum. This is separated by crystallisation, and flame for some time. It at first appears as if the tube was sent to market.

“smoked.” Soda Alum, or Ammonio Alum, may be made by using the Coloured glasses are obtained by the addition of various salts of those alkalies, instead of the potassium salt, in the above metallic oxides. Gems are imitated by making a glass which process.

contains as much as 53 per cent. of lead oxide. This is termed The sesquioxides of iron, chrome, and manganese are capable of “paste." taking the place of alumina, with its compounds; hence they are Porcelain differs from glass in the great preponderance of silisaid to be isomorphous with alumina. When they do this in cate of alumina in its composition. It consists mainly of clay, alnm, iron alum, chrome alum, or manganese alum is produced. / which is infusible, and some alkaline silicate which fuses and. ('lay is aluminum silicate, and is the result of the decomposition binds the clay together, rendering it impervious to moisture. The of felspar, one of the constituents of the primary rocks. When fineness of the ware entirely depends on the purity of the clays, clay is got directly from the felspar, it is called kaolin, or etc., from which it is made. The glaze which covers porcelain is porcelain clay.

produced by dipping the “ biscuit” ware into water in which is Clay, when it absorbs water, becomes soft and plastic, offering suspended finely-ground felspar ; the porous mass absorbs the the best of mediums by which the tender rootlets of plants can moisture, leaving the surface covered uniformly with the felspar. take up the potash, ammonia, etc., necessary for their growth. It is then exposed in seggars to a very high temperature, by which The clay used for making bricks must have a large proportion the felspar is melted and the glaze produced. Stone ware and of silica in its composition.

common “pottery ware" are glazed by means of common salt. The following table will at once show the difference of the The ware is dipped in sand and water, placed in the furnace, various clays :

into which has been thrown moist salt. The heat quickly con

verts the salt into vapour. In the presence of the steam the Cornish Stourbridge

Brick
Pipe-clay. Blue-clay.

silica on the ware decomposes the salt, forming a silicate of Kaolin. Fire-clay.

clay.

sodium which glazes the article, and hydrochloric acid which Silica, 46-32 64.10 53.66 46.38 49.4+

escapes. Alaining 39.74

32.00 38:04 34.26 The other nine metals of this class having no interest, we pass Iron Oxide 0.27

1:58
1.35

7.74

to the “ metals proper.”
Iime.
0.36

0.40
1.20 1.48

ZINC.
Magnesia
0.95 trace trace

5:1+ Potesh

SYMBOL, Zu- COMBINING WEIGHT, 65 — SPECIFIC GRAVITY, 7.1 – 1267

MELTING Poixr, 4239 CENT.
10.00
12.08 13.57

1.9% This metal is never found native, but is associated with

sulphur and carbonic acid in its two chief ores, blende an I 99.80 100.05

100.23 100.00

calamine. The former is zinc sulphide, and in England is

usually found with galena, the sulphide of lead, in mountain Alumina enters into the composition of numerous minerals. The zeolites contain their water of crystallisation, and there. limestone; the latter is zinc carbonate, of which there are natrolite, and stilbite are examples of this class. Granite, basalt, crushed, is roasted ; by this process the sulphur of the blende is fore swell up before tho blow-pipe--hence their name. Analcime, mines in the Mendip Hills.

Extraction of the Metal from its Ores.--The ore, after being garnet, mica, and lazulite are familiar aluminous minerals.

burnt away as SO2, and the carbonic acid of the calamine is GLASS, PORCELAIN, ETC.

driven off. Glass is a compound of silicates of the alkalies and of the The oxide of zinc which remains is mixed with half its weight of alkaline earths; its properties are too well known to require powdered coal, and placed in large clay crucibles; these are heated description. There are various kinds of glasses which have in a furnace, their delivery tubes passing through holes in the certain distinctive properties due to their composition which walls. At first the blue flame of carbonio oxide issues from render them valuable for specific purposes.

them, and when this changes to white the metal is distilling. A Window glass consists of silicates of soda and lime. Soda long iron pipe, eight feet long, is then fitted on the discharge produces a more fusible glass than potash; and lime increases pipe, and zinc distils into iron vessels placed to receive it at ita lustre and bardness. The best manufactory of plate glass the end of this tube. is at St. Gobain, in France, where these ingredients are used :- Zinc is a very crystalline metal. A little below 150° it is soft

ܪ

23:15

1.04

0:44

Soda S Water

99.49

and ductile, but at 200o it becomes so brittle as to bear pound. To complete my remarks on the alphabet, I must now say ing in a mortar. At a bright red heat it melts and volatilises, something of the letters K, W, X, and Y, important letters in and its vapour burns with a bright yellowish flame into the English, but which do not occur in Italian. oxide.

Instead of k, the Italians use before consonants, and beforo Zine can decompose both steam and carbonic acid at a red the vowels a, 0, and u, the letter c; and before the vowels e heat, and, as we have seen, is dissolved in sulphuric, nitric, and and i, ch. For example, instead of Kalend, the Italians write hydrochloric acids, giving off hydrogen and forming the corre- Calende. sponding salt. With nitric acid, however, the action is varied The English letter w does not occur at all in Italian. with the strength of the acid and the temperature; nitric oxide, The letter X, which represents, properly speaking, a compound nitrous oxide, nitrogen, or ammonia being given off according to sound (ks), is unknown in pure Italian words, and the English circumstances.

sound is never heard. In words of foreign origin, which would Zino precipitates all metals less oxidisable than itself from have this sound in English, the Italians place an s or ss, or c; their solutions; but a strong boiling solution of potash dissolves as for the word example (from the Latin exemplum), the Italians it, hydrogen being liberated and an oxide of zino formed, write essempio; for extreme (from Latin extremus), they write which is dissolved by the alkali. When exposed to the air, it estremo; for Xenophon, Senofonte; for Xerxes, Serse ; for Alexbecomes covered by a firmly-adhering coat of oxide, which pro- ander, Alessandro. The letter c replaces the æ in words which tects the metal beneath from any further action of the air ; are the compounds of the prefix er, when c follows it; for hence it is used to galvanise iron, which is effected by plunging example, for excellent they write eccellente; for excess, eccesso, a sheet of iron, perfectly clean, into a bath of molten zinc, etc. Custom has, however, sanctioned the use of the x in a few covered by sal-ammoniac; the zinc readily adheres to the iron. words of Greek origin, for Xantippe and Xanto (Xanthus, the

It forms many useful alloys. Brass is the most important, river in Asia Minor) are just so written in Italian. They are consisting of two parts of copper and one of zinc. German nevertheless pronounced as if they were written Santippe and Silver is brass whitened by the addition of a little nickel. Santo. (The latter word has retained the x principally that it

Zinc Sulphate, or White Vitriol (Zn80.), appears, whon a might not be confounded in writing with the word Santo, a solution of zinc in sulphuric acid is evaporated, as colourless saint.) four-sided acicular prisms.

The letter y is always replaced in Italian by i; as, for exZinc Sulphide (ZnS) is precipitated as a white gelatinous ample, for physics (physical science), the Italians say fisica; for mass when sulphuretted hydrogen passos through a solution of stygian, stigio. zinc sulphate. The presence of a mineral acid prevents the

SECOND PRONOUNCING TABLE, precipitation.

Showing the combination of Vowels with Semi-Vowels in Zinc Chloride (ZnCl,) is largely used as an antiseptic, as

Natural Order. “Burnett's Disinfecting Fluid.” It is easily obtained by dissolving the metal in hydrochloric acid.

That my pupil readers may thoroughly exercise themselves in The salts of zinc are distinguished by giving no precipitate pronunciation, in order to giv a complete illustration of the with sulphuretted hydrogen in acid solutions. They yield a junction of vowels and semi-vowels in natural order, I have white precipitate, with potash, soda, or ammonia, which is selected words of two syllables, in which the first syllable of soluble in excess of the alkali.

the first word is the same as the concluding syllable of the If placed on charcoal in the blow-pipe flame, when moistened second. with cobalt nitrate, a green residue remains which is not

Italian,
Pronounced.

English, fusible.

Fere
fe-rai

Beasts.
Refe
rái-fai

Thread.
Foce
fo-tchai

Mouth (of a river).
LESSONS IN ITALIAN.-IV.

Cefo
tchè-fo

A monkey.
III.-THE SEMI-VOWELS (continued).

Fugo
fóo-go

I put to flight.
Gufo
góo-fo

A horned owl.
I HAVE not yet spoken of the letter H. It is named in the
alphabet acca (pronounced ah'k-kah). According to its alpha-

The vowel u in Italian, as a final letter, is only to be found betical sound, and because its two syllables are substantially in monosyllables ; as, tu, thou; fu, was; or in those words that one, only placed inversely, it might be classed as a semi-vowel; have the grave accent on the last syllable; as virtù, virtue ; but as it is only an auxiliary letter to modify the sounds of c Corfù, Corfu. I am therefore compelled, by the use of the word and g, as I shall have occasion to explain fully hereafter, it is a gufo, and others to follow, to depart from the strict system. more soundless, written sign, not a letter. It also serves to dis- Lago

láh-go

Lake. tinguish the words ho, I have, from o, or; hai, thou hast, from Gola

gó-lah

Throat. ai, dative plural of the article; ha, he has, from a, the proposi- Leso

lai-zo tion “to”; and hanno, they have, from anno, the year. This dis

Sole

só-lai
Lico
lée-tchai

It is permitted. tinction is, however, only for the eye, for, in pronouncing, the h

Cieli
tcbd-lee

The heavens. is quite mute ; and some purists, headed by Metastasio, instead

Lode
ly-dai

Praise. of an h, put the grave accent in those first four words.

Delo
de lo

Delus.
The Italian has no aspirates, which essentially distinguishes

Lume
lóo-mai

Light. it from the leading languages of Europe. Only in the middle, Mule

mbo-lni

Mules. and at the end of some few interjections, a kind of aspiration

máh-ro

Wild basil. is heard, which is only produced by the prolongation of the Roma

ró-mah

Rome, sound of the vowel, or of the transition of the voice from one

mái-zai

Month.

Seme vowel to another-principally, however, by a more emphatic

sái-mai

Seed.
Mira

mée-rah emotion by which such interjections are thrown out; as, for

The sight in artillery, aim. Rami ráh-mee

Branches. example, ah ! ahi! deh! ahimè! eh ! oh! ehi! ohi! ohimè! doh!

mô-do

Manner, mode,
In the early period of the language, the Italians wrote all

Domo
domo

Tamed. words manifestly of Latin origin with an initial l; as, for Muro

múo-ro

Wall, example, habile, now abile; hinno, now inno; hora, now ora ;

rúo-mo

I reconsider. historia, now istoria, This insignificance of the h has given Navo

náh-vai

Ship. rise to some proverbial expressions : as, Questa cosa non vale

Vena
vai-nah

Vein. un' acca," "this is not worth an h,” or, as an Englishman would

Nera
nái-rah

Negress. say, "not worth a fig, or a farthing;" or, Non m' importa un'

ráh-nai

Frogs.
Nice
née-tchai

Berenice, a woman's name. acca, ," " I don't care an h for it," or, as an Englishman would

Ceni
tchái-Dee

Thou suppest. say, "I don't care a straw for it;” or “ Non ne saper un'acca,"

Nome
nó- mai

Name. “not to know an h of something;” or, as is often said in Eng.

Meno
mái-no

Less. land, “an iota of it.” When an Italian has to pronounce the Nuca

Nape of the neck. h in another language, it is only with the greatest difficulty he Cuna

nóo-kah

kúo-nah

Cradle. can ma ter it.

Rado
ráh-do

Thin, rare.

Hurt.
Sun.

Maro

Mese

Modo

Rumo

66

Rane

Dora
dó-rah
He gilds.

with " duels of honour," in which men have met each other in Resc rái-zai Surrenders (cf towns).

the field, and risked dear life itself, for the supposed preservaSere sé-rai Sir.

tion of their name from insult, or their courage from question. Rido rée-do I laugh.

But the world itself has long since decided tirat such a use of Dori do-ree Thou gildest.

the word honour is neither legitimate nor wise-as under many Roba : 0-bah

Property, victuals, merchandise,
Baro
bih-ro
A cheat.

circumstances it may be more honourable and heroic even to

[robe. Rude rio-dai Rude.

endure injustice and wrong, than to resent it at the precious Dure déo-rai Durations.

sacrifice of human life. It was a fact that oftentimes the most Sara sáh-rah Sarah.

dishonourable men could cleverly handle the apier, or point R:80 ráh-zah Erased.

the pistol; and victory was seen to be a question of nicelyScoo sái-ko With himself.

balanced skill, rather than of well-contested principles. Honour Cosa kö-sai Things.

is something far nobler than any mere exercise of physical This is the plural of cosa, thing (pronounced kô-sah), one of courage such as the duel embodied; it is more connected with those exceptional words where the s must be pronounced with a that moral courage of which in these articles we have had sharp, hissing sound, though it is placed between two vowels. to speak—a courage which knows how to endure as well This exception should be imprinted on the reader's memory, as how to act. No outward possessions can make up for the becanse, as is obvious from its meaning, the word is of the most absence of this moral quality; those who wilfully forfeit honour frequent occurrence.

may be well assured that as no wealth can buy it, so no material Sire sée-rai

grandeur or estate can compensate for its logs. If, indeed, it is Formerly Sir, now Sire. Reco rái-zo Rendered.

felt by us that an amassed fortune has been accumulated by Soma số-mah Burden.

oppression or wrong, there will always be a lessened respect Maso máh-zo Tom.

awakened in us concerning the possessor; and although our eyes Befare bef-fáh-rai To scoff

may be dazzled by his wealth, our moral sense will be affronted Offeso of-fái-zo Offended.

and pained too, if it be understood that the loud-voiced panegyrist. Soffice sóf-fee-tchai Soft, flexible, supple.

of virtue does not pay his own debts or neglects his own family Soffogo sóf-fo-go I suffocate.

-then his public professions will be, as Young says, “but the Sreffuso soof-fóo-zo Wetted.

gibbet of his name.” Corallo ko-rahl-lo

Coral. Vitello

The sense of honour should be cultivated in children. Na vee-tel-lo

Calf.
Carillo
kah-vil-lo
I annoy, quibble.

turally prone to selfishness, it is well to show them that the Satollo sah-tól-lo

Satisfied, satiated, tired. mere gratification of self will lead to that love of ease and Catullo kah-tbol-lo Catullus.

indulgence which would rather do the pleasant than dare Cenammo tchai-náhm-mo We supped.

the right; and in the outgrowth of early character it is of Dilemina dee-lemn-mah Dilemma (logical).

the highest moment to learn that we may lose more by one Enirama ai-nim-mah Enigma.

(chin.

mean or ignoble act than we can gain by a multitude of hard Somnom mo som-mom-mo A blow with the fist under the

endeavours. Aliummo abf-fóom-mo I smoke (meat).

The abbreviations Hon. and Right Hon. in the English lanIn anno in-gábn-no

Deceit.
Antenna an-tên-nah Yard (of a ship).

guage show us what a value is set upon that honour of which Erimni ai 'n-nee The Furies.

these titles are the symbols; and abroad, to be ranked amongst 4:24 ab-rón-nii Aaron.

the Legion of Honour is the highest dignity that the French llica 20 al-10o0-12 Alumnus, pupil.

nation can bestow. True, indeed, we may never be called upon Cer; arra kah-pálir-rud Earnest money.

to draw a sword or to defend our country, but none can watch alt-terr-ro I knock down.

the course of commerce without feeling that noble posts are open Butirro boo-tirr-ro Butter.

to honourable men. It is evident that in all circles in the end Ricorro ree-kórr-ro I recur.

character tells. Noble deeds are blazoned forth by the “coat of Azturto ah-dzóor-ro Azure.

arms” which is all unconsciously being painted by every good Abbasso ahb-bábs-80

Low.
Orseseo
os-sis-so
Possessed, bored, dunned.

man's life; and as honour is not a matter which appertains Afisso ahf- fis-60 Affixed.

merely to noble lineage or to high estate, it may be a common Indosso in-dôs-so Upon the back.

distinction attainable in every sphere of human life. To be disConcusso con-kóos-80 Moved, shaken, contrite. honourable is in the end to be despised ; not that ignoble acts

always show themselves at first; there may be some consider

able period before the seed sown shows its up-springing rank ESSAYS ON LIFE AND DUTY.-XIV.

grass, but the dishonourable life will by slow but steady pro

gress become known, and then will ensue loss of character and HONOUR.

of reputation too. The definition of the word honour in olden times was this—a The proverbs of nations show that the question of hononr is noble kind of seignory or lordship; and, inasmuch as honour one of the most potent matters in all climes. Thus there is an is the crown of character, we may regard its possession as one English proverb against the dishonour of meanness—“The of the patents of a true nobility. It is generally understood to groat is ill-saved which shames its master;" and the Spanish mean nobleness of mind-magnanimity-a scorn of meanness, one agains: hasting to be rich careless of principle_"Quien springing not only from fear of reproach, but from an innate en un año quiere ser rico, al medio le ahorcan” (He who will be loyalty to principle. Honour came in a secondary sense to rich in a year, at the half-year they hang him); and the German mean reputation, or a good name; and it sometimes happened one showing that dishonour even in little things affects larger that men were more sensitive concerning reputation, or what affairs—“Ungerechter pfennig verzehrt gerechten thaler ” (The 623 thought or said of them, than about character, which was unrighteous penny corrupts the righteous pound). Thus we see, what they really were. We take honour, in its primary sense, in these proverbial crystals of truth, how dishonour is supposed to mean trae nobleness of mind--a lofty scorn for the base, the to bring with it loss and disgrace. We might, as a kind of per low, the shabby, the tricky, the false, the unjust, and the mean ; contra, show the favourable estimate of honour which has been and most assuredly in the formation of character this is one of also condensed into national proverbs. Thus there is the proverb the most to be coveted possessions. We are told, on the highest “ La verdad es hija de Dios” (The truth is daughter of God), anthority, that a good name is rather to be chosen than great picturing forth, as it does, the dignity and immortality of honourriches ; and certainly to be dishonoured, as it is one of the able character ; as also the Swiss proverb, “It takes a good severest punishments, is also one of the saddest disgraces of many shovelfuls of earth to bury the truth ;” showing that there life.

is a beantiful resurrection for all honourable characters, even It may be admitted that the word honour has been greatly though they may have been unjustly defamed. We may be misused. It has come to be associated with debts of honour, sure of this, that judged by the ultimate outcome of things, to or debts which could not be sued for in a regular way in our be dishonourable does not pay. It may, for the time being, common law courts, but which it is supposed no honourable man seem to serve the purposes of aggrandisement and success; but would escape from on that account; and it is also associated ! it is only for a brief and uncertain period; the fabric of am.

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