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3. General exercises in diphthongs :

GEOMETRICAL PERSPECTIVE.-VIII. dere áhai-rai

Air, gas.
Panse
pah-ni-zai
Country.

PROBLEM XXIV. (Fig. 45).-Draw the perspective view of a
Laido
láhee-do
Ugly.

flight of three steps, each 4 feet long, 1 foot wide, and 9 inches Coins kah-ée-no Cain.

high ; their front making on angle of 40° with the picture plane. Traino tráhee-no

The trot of borses. The distance of the eye of the observer from the picture plane is Traino trah-ée-no Sledge.

6 feet, from the plane to the nearest point of the object 1 foot. Linda lée-nai-ah A line.

The height of the eye 4:5 feet. Scale at pleasure. Idea ee-de-ah

Idea. Idee ee-dé-ai

From a in the picture plane, draw the line a b, at 40° with

Ideas,
Lines
lée-Daiai
Lines.

PP. From c, 1 foot within the Pp, make e b equal to the length
sê-se
Six,

of the steps, and c d equal to the width of the three steps Omei O-me-ce Woes, sorrows.

divided in e and f. The heights to be marked presently on the Leone lai-ó-nai Lion.

line of contact. There will be no difficulty in drawing the rest Euro eoo-ro East wind.

of the plan. Place the station point sp, draw the base of Creusa krui-60-zah

Creusa, a woman's name. the picture, and the HL three feet and a half above the base, Bioda beeáh-dah Corn.

and find the vanishing point. Bring down visual rays from Diana dee-sh-nah Diana.

the ends of the steps at both extremities of the plan. Produce Cielo tche-lo

Heaven, horizon, the air. Lieto lee-e-to

dc to h, and gb to k for points of contact, and bring them

Cheerful.
Paolo
páho-lo
Paul.

down perpendicularly for lines of contact. From the base i on Fauno fáhoo-no Fawn.

įh mark the heights of the three steps one above the other, Paura pah-oo-rah Fear.

and also from m, on m k, numbered on both lines 1, 2, 3, and I have stated that au is, strictly speaking, a diphthong; but from each of these divisions draw retiring lines to the VP, principally in those words where the accent of tone falls on the which, being cut by the visual rays, will give the respective second of the vowels that compose it. It makes in its pro- points upon which to draw the ends of the steps, marked again nunciation the impression as if it were no diphthong at all, I c, e, f, and d; their fronts and edges extend between the corbecause each of the vowels is distinctly separated in pronuncia- responding visual rays drawn from the gb end of the plan. tion. On that account, I have ventured to place it amongst

PROBLEM XXV. (Fig. 46).-A rectangular block of masonry these words, with vowels in coalition, that are not diphthongs. 24 feet long, 20 feet high, and 16 feet broad, is pierced by an arch Giove jø-vai Jove, Jupiter.

springing at a hight of 10 feet, and of semi-circular form, with a 1:o dée-o God.

span of 12 feet. Let the point of view be on one side of its centre. Giuda jóo-dah Judas.

Distance vithin the picture plane 2 feet. Height of eye 8 feet.
Lanto
lee-oo-to
Lute.

Station point from the picture plane 26 feet. Scale 5 feet to the
Oec-bo
Fio!

inch.
Annai
ahn-no-ee
Thou annoyest.

We will first draw the perspective view of the arch when kwáh-zee Almost, as it were.

the front is parallel with the picture plane. If the pupil has Deale doo-ah-lai Dual.

not a scale of inches divided into fifths, he can easily construct Qucte kwento Quiet, calm.

one in this manner :Duello

:-Draw a line, say 6 inches long, to doo-el-lo

Duel, fray.
Taido
flúoee-do
Fluid.

represent 30 feet, and divide it into three equal parts ; divide Luigi loo-ée-jee Lewis.

the first division into ten parts, which will represent single L4090 loo-ó-go Spacz, spot, locality. feet, and the main divisions will represent tens of feet.

Number it similarly to the scales given in Lesson I., Vol. II.,
FOURTH PRONOUNCING TABLE.
For Additional Exercise in the Powels.

Draw the pp, and two feet beyond, and parallel with it, draw 1. Words that contain a, e, i, o, or repeated u:

the line a b equal to 24 feet; a c 6 feet, and c d 12 feet. Ililion. Pronounced.

English.

Draw a e equal to 16 feet, and complete the rest of the plan as Calafatita kah-lah-fah-táhtah Calked.

shown in the figure. Place the point f a little to the right of Abbacinata ahb-bah-tchce-náh-tah Dazzled.

the centre, and draw the line f sp, making g SP equal to 26 Accanalata ahk-kah-nah-láh-tah Channelled (column). feet. Draw the line BP (base of the picture) anywhere below Salanandra sah-lah-máln-drah

Salamander,

the PP, allowing sufficient room for the elevation between the Albracara ahbbrah-tcháh-vah I kindled.

base of the picture and the plan above, also the horizontal line Casalcıra kah-vahl-káb-vah

I rode.

8 feet from BP. Pexercicte

Draw visual rays from a, c, d, b, h, i, and per-sai-vai-roi-ri-tai

You will persevere. Dependen'emente dai-pen-den-tai-mén-tai

Draw a k perDependently.

bring them down perpendicularly from the PP. Pretenderete prai-te-dai-rai-ti

You will pretend.

pendicularly to the PP, for the line of contact or measuring line Eccellentemente et-tchel-len-tai-mén-tai Excellently.

for the heights; mark the ps (point of sight) and draw km from k Insipidissimi in-see-pee-dis-see-mee Most insipid.

towards Ps, stopping at the ve from a. Draw m n parallel Vicinissimi vee-tchee-nis-see-mee Very dear or vicinal. to be, which will be the perspective front of the base of the Inimicissimi ee-nee-mee-tchís-see-mee Very hostile or inimical. building. The visual rays from c and d will determine the Mirifici mee-rée-fee-tchee

Wonderful, miraculous. width of the arch o p. Make the distance k r for the height Distintissimi dee-stin-tis-see-mee Very clear or distinct.

equal to 20 feet. Draw rs from r as was done from k, and draw Dificuissimi dif-fee-tchee-lis-see-meo Very difficult. Oinroso

st for the top of the building. At u, ten feet from k, draw 0-do-ró-so

Fragreut, odorous.
Doloroso
do-lo-ró-so
Painful, dolorous.

u y towards the ps, and also y v w; bisect v w; from x as a Pomocologno* po-mo-ko-tón-nyo Quince.

centre heing brought down from q, draw the semicircle v w; Tulluo too-móol-too-o I excito a tumult.

the front of the building will then be completed. For the Usufrutuo 00-200-fróot-too-o I have temporary use of. other end of the arch which spans h i of the plan, draw lines 2. Words comprising five vowels :

vl, wz, from v and w to Ps, meeting the visual rays from h Afettriosi ahf-fct-too-ó-si

Kind, affectionate.

and i in l and %; join l and %, and either bisect it, or draw a Communicare kom-m00-Dec-káh-rai To communicate.

line from * to Ps, which, cutting 1 %, will give the centre point Il cmt1230 dai-lee-kah-tóo-tso Orer-refired, delicate.

from which the interior or further end of the arch must be Entusiasmo en-too-zee-áh-zmo

Enthusiasm.

drawn with a radius from the centre to l or z. For the base Fulminatore fool-ee-nah-tó-rai 0:0 wlio fulminates. of the interior of the archway draw lines from o and P, I usingheranno loo-zív-gai-rühn-10 They will flatter.

towards Ps, cutting the visual rays from h and i; join these Procuratrice pro-koo-rah trée.tchai A solicitor's wife.

points by a line parallel to BP; this will complete the perRepublicano rai-poo-blee-káh-no

Republican. Serrino

spective elevation. sa h-oo-bérr-reo-mo Very whc'esome. Secilat rri spai-keo-lah-tó-roo Think re, sunclators.

Fig. 47.- We will now draw the same subject at an angle with Subordinata 800-ber.dec-náh-rai Tos bordinate.

our position. Let the angle of the front of the building be 24° &zperict 3 Eco-per-1nh-téc-va H ghat, smclatiro.

with the PP. The other conditions as before.

Draw a b at an angle of 24° with PP, and complete the plan The sound of the gn will be explained in another lesson. upon a b, as in the last figure. We will use one VP, as in Figs.

page 161.

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40, 41, 45, and some others. We trust, after all that has been

LESSONS IN GREEK.-XVIII. said upon the method of drawing an object with the use of one

ADVERBS AND THEIR FORMATION. VP, the pupil will have no difficulty in first drawing the perspective of the block. The principal difficulty will be with the UNDER the name of adverbs we indicate those indeclinable arch, to draw which we shall have to repeat the same principles words which denote the relations of time and place, or the which were employed for the circle on the board (Problem XX., relations of way and manner ; as ekel, there ; vuv, now; kalws, Fig. 40, page 140); therefore, in order to get the necessary points well. through which the arch is to be drawn by hand, we must rabat Adverbs of manner are formed from adjectives, by affixing the semicircle. From c as a centre draw the aro fh g; draw

ws to the pure stem of the adjective. As a practical rule, you dh e parallel to s y, and the semi-diagonals c d and c e may take this through the points where these last lines intersect the arc: The termination -ww of the Genitive Plural of the Adjective is draw lines parallel to f d to meet the front of the plan of the changed into ws; for example :building in i and k; visual rays must be drawn from g, k, c, i, f.

Adjective.
Genitive Plural.

Adverb.
From the spring of the arch marked on the line of contact at m,
make m n equal to fd; the visual ray from c the centre will pidos, loving,

φιλων, , pilws, lovingly.

καλων, , kalws, beautifully. produce the points o and p; draw the semi-diagonals pr and kalos, beautiful, ps; where these last lines intersect the visual rays from i and

aalois, simple,

απλών, , årds, simply.

παντων, k will give the points through which the arch to u must be tas, all,

TAVTws, altogether. drawn by hand. We have not entered into the other part

owopwy, wise,

σωφρονων, ,

owopovws, wisely. of the work, as we have no doubt that our pupils will be able Taxus, swift,

ταχεων, , Taxews, swiftly. to do it from the experience they have gained in the solution uegas, great,

μεγαλων, , Meyahws, greatly. annons, true,

αληθων, , of previous problems.

aanows, truly. PROBLEM XXV. (Fig. 48).–Give a perspective view of a

ournons, accustomed, συνηθων, , ournows, according to

custom. door.frame, a sir-panelled door, partly open, the door-frame being parallel to the plane of the picture, and the line of sight two-thirds

The terminations -Dev, -01, and -de form adverbs by being added of the height of the door. (From the Military Examination to nouns, pronouns, and verbs, to signify relations of place; thus Papers.)

Oev denotes from a place (whence); 01, at a place (where); and de, There are very few conditions given. The door is said to be to a place (whither): for example, oupavo@ev, from heaven ; ovpavodi, partly open, therefore it may be placed at any angle at pleasure; in heaven ; oupavovde, to heaven. With pronouns de becomes ce, the wall and door-frame may be placed at any distance from thus alloge, to some other place; so with ever, there, as EkELOE, the pp, but they must be parallel to the PP; the proportions of thither. In the plural of the substantives in -as, vô€ passes the door and frame are discretionary. This is one of those into -se, as Aonvace for Aonvaode; from Aonvai, -wv, the city

Athens. problems which are frequently given at public examinations with very few working conditions. It gives us an opportunity

Adverbs of place terminate in -w, as avw, above ; katw, below ; for advising all who may at any time have to compete in these exw, without ; eow, within. There are many adverbs which are eraminations to use some definite scale in the construction; it obviously cases of nouns or pronouns, as etamins (so in Latin, will probably save a great deal of confusion and much un- derepente), suddenly; tov, somewhere ; Štov, , where; autov, certainty. There will be much in the drawing of this subject on the spot, exactly here or exactly there ; ovdajov, nowhere : these that has occurred before, all of which we shall pass over to adverbs are all genitives. avoid unnecessary repetition of former instructions. In the

Accusatives are also common, as apwny, at the dawn ; Makpav, plan it must be observed that the width of the door a b a long way; nepav, beyond a place, whence the country along must be made equal to a c the space within the frame. The

the east side of the Jordan had the name of Peræa, that is, the division of a b for the plans of the stiles and panels must be land beyond ; owpeav, gratis, gratuitously; onmepov, to-day (Lat. proportionally divided, and those proportions must be set off hodie); avplov, to-morrow (Lat. cras). on a d.

(See Lessons in Geometry, Problem XVI., Vol. I., page 209.) There are three lines of contact; the first is from ab produced to the PP. Upon this line of contact all the

Adverbs of manner have commonly no peculiar adverbial perpendicular measurements of the stiles and panels are termination, but employ in the comparative the neuter singular, arranged. The second line of contact is from the back of the and in the superlative the neuter plural, of the corresponding door produced to the PP. This is for the purpose of arriving adjectives. The same fact may be stated thus, namely, that at the perspective thickness of the door; therefore from the the neuter singular of comparatives may be used adverbially, bases of these two lines of contact at e retiring lines are drawn that is, with an adverbial signification ; and that the neuter to the FP; these retiring lines cutting visual rays drawn from plural of superlatives may be used with an adverbial signification, the end of the door a in the plan, will give the perspective

for example :-thickness of the door. The principal retiring lines are those of

Comparative. Superlative. the top and bottom of the door, and the horizontal edges of opws

(copos), wisely, σοφώτερον, , σοφωτατα. . the panels, all drawn from the perpendicular measurements rapws (raons), clearly, σαφεστερον, σαφεστατα. . above stated. The third line of contact is gh; f g being xaplevtWS (xapers), charmingly, Xapleotepov, χαριεστατα. . made parallel to α ο for the sake of the advantage of the same | ευδαιμονως (ευδαιμων), happily, ευδαιμονεστερον, ευδαιμονεστατα. VP; a line drawn from the base of g h towards the VP, cutting alo xpws

(alo xpos), shamefully, aloxiov, αισχιστα. . a ve from f, gives the position of the base of the frame i k. ndews (nous), pleasantly, ήδιον,

ήδιστα. . The width of the frame across the top is obtained thus :- ταχεως (Taxus), swiftly, θαττον, ,

ταχιστα.

. 12 0 being the height of the opening of the door, a line must be drawn from n to m at an angle of 135o with n 0; con- parative and superlative.

Adverbs of place in -w retain that termination in the comsequently, after mr is drawn, m n will be found to bisect the right angle r mi; therefore, the visual rays from the plan of

Comparative.

Superlative. the frame at c cutting the line m n will produce the points in avw, above,

avw-tepw, Tu n from which to draw the mouldings both horizontally and Katw, below,

κατω-τερω, perpendicularly ; Ps will be the VP for the interior edge of the frame, as shown in the line drawn from o.

The comparative and superlative of most other adverbs of

The great advan. taze of using several lines of contact will be seen when

place end in -w, asworking the details.

Comparative.

Superlative. We allude to this for the purpose of observing that it is advisable to draw these lines of contact

Trepa, beyond,

περαιτέρω, ,

(none). from produced lines of the plan all parallel with each other,

inlov, at a distance, τηλοτερω, ,

τηλοτατω. .

Ékas, at a distance, so that one vanishing point may be used for all ; otherwise, if

έκαστερω,

έκαστατω. ,

. they are not parallel, other vanishing points will have to be eyyus, near,

εγγυτέρω, ,

εγγυτατω. . foond, becanse crery retiring line must have its own vanishing Some adverbs have a reciprocal relation to each other. The point.

simple forms stand as relatives. By prefixing a to the relativc“,

COMPARISON OF ADVERBS.

From

ανω-τατω.

κατω-τατω.

.

ως, as,

πως, how ?

ΤΟ

Tais

you make direct interrogatives. Put d before the a, and you 14. Ανδρ. παντ. σοφωτ, etc. The superlative governs & convert the direct into indirect interrogatives, and indirect genitive; thus we say in English, “the fairest of women." relatives. Prefix τ instead of π, and then you obtain demon. 15. Φυσικως, naturally, by natural impulse ; λειος, -α, -ον, soft, stratives; as

mild, sweet; χρηστικος, , -ον, useful. Simple Rel.

Direct Interrog. Indirect I, and R. Demonstratives, 18. Eποιησας (from ποιειν), thou hast done; προειπων, τη foreή, whither, πη, whither ?

όπη, τη, there, thither. telling (that). ηνικα, when, πηνικα, at what time ? οπηνικα, τηνικα, at that time.

19. Τους αλισκ. the captives ; αλισκειν, to take, capture ; δθεν, whence, ποθεν, whence ? οποθεν, τοθεν, thence.

κλεπτειν, to roo; τιμωρεομαι, I punish. oi, whither,

όποι. ποι, whither ?

20. Εσται, it will be, future of ειναι. οτε, when,

οποτε,
ποτε, when ?

τοτε, then.
21. Τιμφη, could he honour ? I honour.

τιμα,
ου, where,
που, where?
όπου.

22. Μειρακιον, α young man ; ανδραποδον, -ου, το, α slave. όπως, τως, 8Ο.

EXERCISE 61.-ENGLISH-GREEK. Of these forms oι, τοθεν, and τως are found only in the 1. Wise men seek not external advantages. 2. Women sufer poets, and consequently are not to be ordinarily used in prose very much in adversity. 3. An intemperate man cannot become composition. .

a faithful friend. 4. The nightingale is the sweetest (in EXERCISES FROM THE CLASSICS.-GREEK-ENGLISH.

voice) of birds. 5. Girls are more given to sorrow than women

6. The wisest (man) is greatest. 7. I am admired for having 1. Παν σκληρον χαλεπως μαλαττεται. 2. 'o oupavos much wealth. 8. How can men admire me for having much χαλκους εστι τα εξω. 3. Ελεγεν ο Βιας, ατυχη ειναι τον ατυχιαν | wealth ? 9. My brother is wise, my father is wiser, the philoμη φεροντα. 4. Η φιλοσοφια διδασκει, ότι δει μητ'

sopher is wisest. ευπραγιαις περιχαρείς υπαρχειν, μητ' εν ταις οργαις περιπαθεις 11. Fight, o citizens, well and bravely for (περι) your (the)

10. Children naturally love their parents. και θηριωδεις. 5. Πως η αχαριστοι, η αμελεις, η πλεονεκται, η

city. . απιστοι, η ακρατεις ανθρωποι δυνανται φιλοι γιγνεσθαι; 6. Ο πλουτος και τα εκτος αγαθα χωρις αρετης ανωφελη εισι τοις

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN GREEK,-XVII. έχoυσι. 7. Τις ορνις ευφωνoτερα εστιν αηδονος ; 8. Αι δευτεραι

EXERCISE 57.-GREEK-ENGLISH. πως φροντιδες σοφώτεραι. 9. Δαρειου και Παρυσατιδος γιγνονται παιδες δυο πρεσβύτερος μεν Αρταξέρξης, νεωτερος δε Κυρος. 10.

1. The deepest sleep is the sweetest. 2. Many flowers yield a very Γυναικες ανδρων φιλοπενθεστεροι εισι. 11. Το αδικειν κακιον εστι

sweet smell. 3. Nothing is swifter than youth. 4. The incontinent του αδικεισθαι. 12. Ο Αγησιλαος περι του μεγαλου βασιλεως

serve a most vile servitude. 5. Friendship is the sweetest of all

things. 6. Nothing is more disgraceful than to have one thing in the ειπεν, Τί γαρ εμου μειζων εκεινος, ει μη και δικαιοτερος ; 13.

mind but to say another thing. Ζηνων όρων τον Θεοφραστον επι τω πολλους εχειν μαθητας | other animals.

7. Serpents are most odious to all

8. Nothing is more hateful to man than man. 9. θαυμαζομενον, και εκεινου μεν χορος, εφη, μειζων, και εμος δε Swiftly does time bear things away with it. συμφωνοτερος. 14. Σοφος Σοφοκλης, Ευριπίδης σοφώτερος, ανδρων δε παντων Σωκράτης σοφωτατος. 15. Η μελιττα φυσικως

EXERCISE 58.--ENGLISH-GREEK. εν τοις ανθεσι εξανευρισκει το λειοτατον μελι και χρηστικώτατον.

1. Ουδεν ιδιον εστιν η βαθυς ύπνος. 2. Ηδιστος εστιν ύπνος. 3. Ουδεν 16. Παντες, και επιστανται, ραστα τε και ταχιστα και καλλιστα και

αισχιον εστι της δουλειας. 4. οξυτατον εστι δουλεια. 5. Ιπποι εισι ταχιστοι. ήδιστα εργαζονται. 17. Καλως και ανδρειως έκαστα ποιει. 18. 6. Ουδεν εχθιον εστιν η βουλη κακη. 7. Αισχιον εστιν αλλα μεν λεγειν, αλλα Ω Αστυάγης, καλως, εφη, εποιησας, προειπων.

19. Τους αλισ. δε εν τω να εχειν. 8 Οι πονηροι αλλα μεν εν τω να εχειν, αλλα δε λεγειν. κομενους, ως κακως κλεπτοντας τιμωρουνται. 20. Αδηλον εστι

9. Ουδεν εστιν ήδιον πιστου φιλου. ειτε βελτιον ειτε κακιον εσται. 21. Πώς καλλιον η ευσεβεστερον

EXERCISE 59.-GRECK-ENGLISH. τιμφη θεους ; 22. Σωκρατης ιδων μειρακιον πλουσιον και απαιδευ- 1. The longest life is not the best, but the most virtuous. 2. τον, ιδου, εφη, χρυσουν ανδραποδον.

Moderation is the best in all things. 3. The judgments of the more

aged are the better. 4. No counsellor is better than time. 5. Either VOCABULARY.

utter things better than silence or keep silence. 6. That which is 1. Σκληρος, -α, -ον, diy, hard; παν το. The article is fre

most secure is always the best. 7. You jeer, O excellent friend. &. At

times cowards are more fortunate than brave men. 9. There is no quently used in Greek when it must be omitted in English; as

worso evil to man than grief. 10. Flattery is the worst of all the other in general propositions ; μαλαττομαι, I am softened.

evils. 11. A man soft in soul, and even capable of bribery. 12. Pru2. Ta etw, in regard to the things without, that is, on its dence is the fairest virtue for women. 13. There is no nobler posses. exterior.

sion than a friend. 14. Slavery is most painful to a free man.

15. The 3. Tov un pep., that he who could not bear misfortune.

way is very long. 16. The crocodile grows very big from being very 4. Ευπραγια, ας, ή, prosperity, literally, well-doing, from ευ little. 17. The earth is less than the sun. 18. Be content even with less. and patteiv, I do, I am in a certain condition, as in our phrase, 19. Very few men are happy. 2). No law is stronger than necessity. 2. “How do you do ?” Trepixapns, very joyful, trepı gives the idea Small gains often produce greater damage. 22. No evil is greater than of much or excess ; opya, uns, Ý, anger, here used for adversity,

anarchy. 23. War brings very many evils. 24. A desire for more is

natural to man. considered as a consequence of the anger of the gods; repitaons, good things. 26. Bear the necessities of life as easily as possible. 27.

25. A good woman brings to her house very many -es, suffering greatly, acutely sensible to suffering ; Onpiwdns, -es,

To order is easier than to do. 28. The fruits of wisdom are very ripe. like the animals, low, downcast.

29. The branches of the vine in my father's garden are riper than in 5. Αχαριστος, , -ον, ungrateful ; αμελης, -ες, neglectful; my neighbour's garden. 30. Iberia rears very fat sheep. πλεονεκτης, αυαγίcious ; απιστος, unfaithful.

EXERCISE 60.-ENGLISH-GREEK. 6. Ewrns, adv. without; Ta EKT. ay. external goods, advantages; ανωφελης, -ες, useless ; χωρις, αραrt from ; τοις εχουσι, το

1. Ουδεν βελτιον πρακτικου βιου. 2. Η δοξα των παλαιων εστι κρατιστα. 3. those who have (them), that is, their possessors.

ο χρονος εστι συμβουλος αριστος. 4. Το ασφαλεστατον εστι κρατιστον. 3. "Η

λυπη εστι κακον μεγιστον. 6. Ουδεν εστι χειριoν η κολακεια. 7. Ο ακριτης ταις 8. Iws, how, somehow, some way, in a measure ; the adverb

ηδοναις δουλευει. 8. Γυναιξι εστιν ουδεν καλιον της σοφιας, 9. Το ελευθερη restricts or qualifies the statement.

ουδεν εστι κακιον της δουλειας. 10. “Ο κροκοδειλος μηκιστος εστι.

11. ο υιος 9. Δαρειου και Παρυς. These genitives depend on παιδες; we

μείων του πατρός.

12. Τοις κακoις εστι πολλακις πλειονα η τοις αγαθοις. 13 should say, D. and P., have two sons.

Πολεμος φερει πολλα κακα. 14. Το μεν κελευειν εστι ραδιον, το δε τει10. Φιλοπενθης, -ες, fond of mourning; πενθος, -ους, τo, grief, | Θεσθαι ισχυρον. 15. Οι καρποι πεπαιτατοι εισιν ήδιστοι. 16. Τα προβατα lamentation.

τον πατρος εμου εισι πιοτερα η τα του πλησιου. 11. Το αδ. The infinitive mood with the article is often equivalent to a noun in English: to injure another is worse than to suffer an injury.

LESSONS IN MUSIC.-XVIII. 12. Ο μεγαλου βασιλεως, the great king, that is, the king of Persia, who was the great king to the Greeks ; EKELVOS, he,

EXAMINATION OF THE NOTES TE AND RAY, that one.

We have now to complete our study of the “scale of all 13. 'Ορων, seeing, pres. part. from οραω ; επι τω, etc., η con- nations and all times by examining the two notes which are sequence of having many disciples ; xopos, our chorus, here class, at once the most difficult to sing correctly, and the most diffiaudience ; quupuvos, -ov, agreeing, harmonious ; ó fuos, mine; cult to understand the seventh (TE) and the second (RAT). literally, the mine.

1. These are the only notes of the scale which do not sound

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well with the key-note. They are its dissonances. It is generally confessed by teachers of singing that RAY and TE are the most difficult, " the most artificial,” notes of the scale. This is especially noticeable, in uncultivated voices, on the note te in ascending the scale, and on ray in descending. The mathe

11 :t d' r matical musician who wrote the article “Scale” in the “ Penny

flower, That drinks the morn - ing dew, Cyclopædia” states, that a note sharper than the present RAY and one flatter than TE would be more natural. General Another beautiful example of the effective use of TE you find Perronet Thompson, however, seems to have come nearer the in Haydn’s “ With verdure clad :"practical truth in his discovery of what he calls “the duplicity of the dissonances.” He believes these notes to be “duple or double, and asserts that a good ear and voice will intuitively choose that one of the two which best accords with the accom. pausing notes. Ray, for instance, in any near fellowship with KEY Bb :S

S:tı : ti id:m :s S:t :tild:FAH and Lay will be slightly flattened, but to tune well with BOH will remain in its sharpened form. He has constructed

En- han ced is the charm - ing sight. instruments upon these principles which have approached more Darly the "just intonation” of the good singer or violinist able to enjoy by studying Handel's song,

But the finest examples of these mental effects you will be than anything before attempted. We have heard musicians and fair." The character of Ray preceded by Lau is shown in

Angels ever bright say, that to hear Mr. Purkis play on General Thompson's organ the opening on the word “fair :”— in "the Great Exhibition" of 1851 was the most delicious treat imaginable to true and delicate ears. Unfortunately, his key. board looks discouragingly complex. We shall have to speak of these points more definitely when we come to treat of har. mony. We have mentioned the difficulties connected with these notes that the pupil may understand why they are placed last

S:-10:- dit.l is :1.r in the order of illustration. It was necessary to make him

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ver bright and fair, familiar with the simpler and easier notes of the scale before he advanced to any characteristic or difficult use of these two.

Then follows the soft appeal of Me, seconded by the urgency Our pupils will also see the mistake of the ordinary methods of FAH, on the words, " Take, O take me, to your care:"of developing the voice, by practising it at once on the scale of successive degrees, instead of the chord of easily recognised intervals, to which the more difficult notes may be afterwards added. 2. The note TE, when heard at length, and after the ear has

f :m Ir :d S:-1 been filled with the other notes of the scale, inspires the mind

Take, 0 take

your with a feeling of suspense accompanied with a strong desire for its resolution in the key-note. For this reason, it is generally called the “leading note”—leading the ear to the key-note.

This is repeated and again varied with the introduction of To prove this, let the pupil sing the notes of the scale either

lower TЕ, thus :op or down, and try whether the ear can be satisfied by resting on TE.

3. The note RAY, when heard in similar circumstances, excites a feeling of suspense almost as strong as TE, but does not so

If :-.5 decidedly indicate its resting note. The ear is pleased by its

:rid Iti :-.d d : rising to the third of the scale (ME), but more satisfied by its Take, O take

your falling on the key-note. Try the well-known Gregorian Tone with these two endings :

And when desire has risen to the intensity almost of despair, it is expressed by the piercing voice of the higher Te, thus :

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Key F. m ;
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your 1st ending. 2nd ending After several repetitions and variations of the softer theme

referred to, the whole piece closes with this last piercing appeal. Indeed, examples from the great masters might be multiplied

easily, but space forbids us to enlarge. :d

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5. It may easily be noticed that every tune is divisible into

parts which correspond with a line in poetry. The notes most 4. The musical effects of TE and Ray carry a strong appeal frequently used for the close of these phrases are don, ME, SOH, to the mind's emotions, but do not touch so directly those softer the resting notes of the scale. Next to these in frequency are and gentler feelings which Fax and can affect. There is

RAY and te. But the more emotional notes, Fan and LAH, are more of hope and energy about them. Te may be called the but seldom found in that position. Let our pupils test this EENSITIVE or piercing note, and Ray the HOPEFUL or rousing interesting fact by examining the previous exercises. They are

now invited to study the following exercise, the words of which The touching and elegant effect of both these notes is beauti. were written by Robert Burns, the national poet of Scotland, fely shown in the opening of Handel's song, “What though I but are slightly altered here to obviate the difficulty of protrace."

nunciation which the Scottish form of many of the words might' present to some of the students of our Lessons in Music. A finer lyric, as far as the sentiments of the poetry goes, was, perhaps, never written. Every line has a genuine ring which must find its way to the heart of every man who hears or reads the poem.

The theme is a noble one, and its .d :-.f

:-.8 11 :-.1 dignity is in no way marred by the simplicity of the language What though I trace each herb and in which it is couched.

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