Imágenes de páginas
[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small]

2. A king can make a belted knight,

3. Then let us pray that come it may,
A marquis, duke, and all that ;

As come it will for all that,

That sense and worth o'er all the earth,
For kings they can't do all that.

May bear the palm and all that.
For all that, and all that,

Their dignities, and all that,

The pith of sense and honest worth

That man to man, the wide world o'er,
Are better far than all that.

Our Scottish friends must pardon the Anglicisms and sing the expression, or not at all. The tune illustrates the mental
Scottish words. This true and noble song should be sung with effects of LAH, rather than of Ray and TE.


less needlessly destructive of these creatures, which are neither ARACHNIDA.

ugly nor uninteresting, it is worth repeating. The unfortunate

Arachne still weaves her inimitable fabrics, and still hangs susThe type of this class, and that which gives it its name, is the pended from our ceilings, while the omnipotent housemaid, common spider. According to Greek mythology, Arachne was goddess of this lower sphere, still rends her web, and drives the the daughter of a famous Lydian purple-dyer. She so excelled weaver to despair. The little metamorphosed Lydian dyer's in weaving that she challenged the great Athena, goddess of all daughter excites a childish disgust, which is handed down from

[ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small]



SYSTEX. VII. PYCNOGONIUM LITTORALE. VIII. Ixodes (DOG-TICK). IX. SCORPION. Ref. to Nos, in Figs.—II. 1, mandible, or antennary jaw; 2, maxilla ; 2', its palp; 3, labrum ; 4, breastplate ; 5, origin of legs. V. 1, brain ; 2,

thoracie ganglion with the cut ends of the nerves of the legs; 3, optic nerves ; 4, mandibular nerves ; 5, mouth; 6, commencement of stomach. VI. 1, Four-chambered heart; 2, lung. IX. 1, cephalo-thoracic shield succeeded by the abdominal segment; 2, mandible ; 3, maxilla, with its pincer-like palp; 4, 5, 6, 7, legs ; 8, comb-like organs on the sternum of the tenth segment; 9, telson, or sting.

the arts, to compete with her. To display her skill she wove a generation to generation; but if any one will substitute a reason. piece of tapestry representing the loves of the gods, which was able examination for an unreasonable avoidance, he will find that so faultless that Athena herself could not find a flaw in the de- beautiful which he preconceived was ugly, and that interesting sign or execution. Not to be baffled, the goddess did what so which he misjudged as repulsive. In those dark ages when many mortals do when surpassed by others-she tore the master superior wisdom and virtue were more certain to bring to their piece to fragments. Arachne, in despair, essayed to hang her. possessors hopeless imprisonment than the greatest crimes, self; but Athena, more in anger than in' kindness, changed the many a solitary prisoner of refined and appreciative nature has rope into a cobweb, and Arachne into a spider. If this legend waited to see the little Arachne descend from the roof of his should induce any one to be a little more considerate, or a little cell with as much impatience as any lover beneath tho casement



of his love. Since the spinning faculty is that which is most We will now take a common spider as the example of the intimately connected with our idea of a spider, it was extremely class, so that we may go into detail without misleading the natural that the old Greeks should make the spider represent a reader by the idea that the description will apply to other woman. Despite its false fame of ugliness, we, who call single members of the class. ladies spinsters, naturally associate the spinder, or spider, with The cephalo-thorax is a somewhat flattened segment. Its them. Unfortunately for the reputation both of spiders and integument is of a harder consistence than that of the abdomen. women, we cannot stop short in admiration of the art displayed The upper plate is called the shield, and the lower the breastin the construction of the web, but the mind runs on to the plate or sternum. Between the edges of these two, along the design and uses for which the art is employed. These designs sides of the body, spring the legs. The shield is wider than the are to ensnare and to destroy. Hence deceit and cruelty, the breastplate, and overlaps it, so that while the bases of the legs vices of the weak, have been attributed to spiders. The bitterest are well seen from below they are not seen from above. The satirists of the fair sex have found in the spider a simile which shield is usually narrower in front, and wider and heart-shaped, has painted their invective from the earliest ages of literature. or rounded, behind. It is raised into a conical protuberance at Thus, in one of the most famous tragedies of Æschylus, when the fore part, and on this the eyes are set. Two lines of depres. the chorus find Agamemnon slain in his bath by his deceitful sion run on each side of the cone, and from these other lines run wife Clytæmnestra, they exclaim

off to the spaces between the legs, while a marked dent is often « Κείσαι δ' αραχνης εν υφασματι τωδ'

seen at tho middle of the hind part. The breastplate is often ασεβεί θανατω βιον εκπνεων.”

rounded, or heart-shaped, with the apex backward, or in the

form of an escutcheon. The box of the cephalo-thorax contains (“Thou in the female spider's toils art lying, And breathest forth thy life, dishonoured dying.")

the stomach, main nervous masses, and the muscles of the limbs.

The eyes in the common spider are eight in number, in two Since the spider is the type of the class, we shall first call transverse lines of four each. They are, however, in the various attention to the character which it possesses in common with species very differently situated, and of different relative size. the whole class Arachnida ; then proceed to describe the struc- Their relative position, number (two, six, or eight), and size are ture of the common spider in detail; and finally notice the varia- much depended on to distinguish the genera. Sometimes they tions of this type in the different divisions of this class, such as are mounted on a pyramid, or elevated watch-tower, which rises scorpions, mites, etc.

from the shield in a very grotesque manner. The mandibles The Arachnida are articulated animals, whose bodies consist spring from under the truncated front of the shield, and are of a longitudinal series of segments like those of insects. This directed downwards. They are of two joints, the thick descendsegmentation into rings is, however, often less marked than in ing basal joint having attached to the outer part of its end a insects, and in the true spiders, which have a smooth soft integu- hooked claw, which works on a joint, so that the point of it can ment, the divisions are rather inferred, from tracing them in allied play from the side towards its fellow on the other side. When forms or in the embryonic state, as they become more and more the claw is completely flexed, it lies in a groove which runs obliterated, than from any indication of their actual presence in along the far edge of the rear joint. This groove has its two the adult animal. In all cases they are distinguished from in- walls generally armed with points or teeth. The maxillæ, or sects by having no marked division between the head and thorax. under-jaws, consist of two plates, the inner edges of which are Both these divisions are combined, as in the higher crustaceans, in motion approximated or removed from one another. Their into one piece, called the cephalo-thorax. In the mites a still ! edges and upper surfaces are often studded with small spines. further amalgamation of the divisions of the body into one From the base and outside of these plates arise the long-jointed globate bag occurs, which represents at once head, thorax, and 'palps, which in the female end in claws like the legs. In the abdomen. Where there is a constriction between the thorax male a very complex organ is found, which can be doubled up and abdomen, so that one can be distinguished from the other, into a rounded fist, by which the adult male can be readily disthe limbs are wholly confined to the thorax. This distinctive tinguished from the female. The lower lip, or labrum, is of feature cuts them off from the Myriapoda and Crustacea. The various shapes, but usually quadrate. The legs are sevenArachnida never possess wings, and instead of the three pairs of jointed. The first joint is called the coxa, or haunch; the legs of insects, they have four pairs. These limbs are all jointed, second, the trochanter; the third, the femur. These last two but they are built upon a somewhat different type to those of form the thigh, and to this point the legs are like those of ininsects, as we shall find when we come to describe them more sects.

The tibia, or shank, which is whole in the insect, is in minutely.

spiders of two pieces; while the foot, instead of being in fire They have no antennæ for the purposes of touch. These, small bead-like joints, is of two pieces only, and they are of the however, are probably represented by the great poison-jaws. same thickness as the joints which precede them. The last These jaws are so utterly different in form and function froin joint has two, three, or more movable curved claws which are the feelers of insects that it is only by a careful examination, often toothed like a comb. On the under-side of both joints combined with a good deal of speculative reasoning, that they there are sometimes found pads, hairs, or spines, which can have been identified with them. Thus the absence of antennæ be opposed to the claws, and so form an effective hand for (in the proper sense) is a good distinctive character. Other weaving. jaws, situated further back, arc possessed by the Arachnida, the The abdomen is a globular or oval bag. It often overhang: most distinctive feature of these being the usually enormous the thorax in front. Its walls are very flexible and elastic, as development of the palps which correspond to the flagra or fla- is necessary, in that at certain seasons it is distended with eggs. bella of the crustacean limbs. These palps are so elongated It contains the major part of the fat and liver masses, the organs and jointed in the spiders that they wonld be taken for legs by of generation, and the web-secreting glands. It is attached to an ordinary observer, and hence spiders appear to have ten in the front segment by a very narrow stalk. Through this thin stead of eight legs. "In scorpions these maxillary palps are stalk, however, prolongations of almost all the organs of the larger than any of the other limbs, and will be described here- body are carried. Thus the alimentary canal and the small after. The eyes of the Arachnida are, when they are present, hinder continuation of the nervous cord pass from the cephaloalways simple and few in number—eight, six, four, and two thorax to the abdomen, and the blood-system is continued forbeing the common numbers found. They never have a multi- ward from the latter to the former. If the spider be placed on tude of hexagonal or quadrate ocelli grouped into one organ as its back, two plates, with a slit on the inner side of each of insects have. The method of breathing is very various in the them, will be seen. These plates cover the breathing cavities

, class, the lowest having their juices oxygenatod through the or pulmonibranchiæ, as they and their contents are called. Be ekin, others having trachex like insects, while the highest have tween them is the opening of the generative organs. The anus What are called lungs, or, more properly, pulmonibranchiæ, to is at the extreme end of the abdomen, and immediately below bo described hereafter. The sexes are usually distinct, the it are the palp-like jointed protuberances through which the silk females exceeding the males in size. With the exception of the of the web is forced or drawn. These are in three or four pairs, Pantopoda (or Pycnogonide), a doubtful order, allied to the and they are perforated at the ends with many small pores, to Crustacca, none of the Arachnida are marine in their habitat. the number estimated at 1,000. We trust the reader has Some of the lower orders inhabit fresh water, as, for instance, the now a pretty clear idea of the outer form of the spider; and ho little scarlet water-spider. Tho major part live in and breathe air. cannot do better than verify the description by catching a spider, killing it in hot water, and then examining it with a Coddington great number of tubos, on which rounded clusters of follicles lens.

are found. These have also dilations in their course. All the We proceed to describe the internal organs in detail. The tubes end in the spinneret, and the substance they secrete is a moath, situated between the jaws, leads to a throat which runs a sticky liquid which is squeezed through the open pores at the short way backward, then bends sharply upward, and then again ends of the external organs. It would seem that not only all backward, in a horizontal position. From the outside of this the threads of each spinneret run together, but that all the last-named flexible horizontal portion, which opens into a globu- strands so formed from all the spinnerets are united into one lar stomach behind, muscles run to the inner wall of the shield, cord. As the thread is evolved, the spider usually grasps it and thus provide the means of sucking up juices. The lower with its two hind feet, which may be either to consolidate it or oral and depressed portion of the stomach sends from each of to draw it out. The sticky secretion of the web dries on exits sides five tubes, which bend upwards, and then enter an posure to the air. Perhaps, however, in the singular web of the annular second stomach, which is situated above the other. A Ciniflo the separate strands are not blended, for the web has solid mass lies between the stomachs, and to this a muscle is this peculiarity-the lines are composed of one stout thread, attached, which passes through the central hole of the npper encompassed by thinner lax lines, which twist in all directions. ring-like portion, to be attached to the dorsal shield above. All the spiders appear to be silk-spinners, but they do not all Tois muscle not only suspends the stomach, but, by contracting apply their arts to the fabrication of snares. Fully one-half of and relaxing, causes the lower sac to work like a bellows, and them confine their weaving to the construction of cocoons for 50 stirs its contents, driving them through the side tubes into their eggs, or for lining or making tubes and tunnels into which the upper stomach, and this favours the functions of digestion they can retreat. The little Salticus, which, dressed in a harleaud absorption. Almost the whole nutritive process is carried quin suit, courses over the upright walls that the hot summer on in the stomach, for only a narrow prolongation of it is carried sun shines upon, springs on its prey, first securing itself by a into the abdomen; and although this receives ducts from the thread lest it should fall. Those spiders which spin snares, do liver-fat masses, yet it runs as a short straight narrow tube to 80 according to very different methods. The Agelenida spin the vent. Just before the exit, the intestine dilates into a loose, irregular webs over foliage, etc., that communicate with ronndish cavity, which is called the cloaca, and receives two tubes in which the spider lies concealed. The Linyphiida dacts, one on each side, which are thought to be excreting spin horizontal webs, and stand clinging to their under-sides, organs to remove the azotised products of the breaking down of back downwards. The chief of all spinners are the Epeirida. the tissues of the body. The ducts, three or four in number on These spin vertical webs whose lines are all in one plane. The each side, which enter the abdominal portion of the alimentary outer framework of these webs is necessarily irregular, because canal, proceed from the large masses of fatty substance which this is determined by the support on which it rests, but all is collected into a mass of vesicles on either side of the bag-like within this is beautifully symmetrical. Lines radiating from a hind segment. These masses may, therefore, represent the common centro pass to the cords of the frame, and on these is liver, but they no doubt also act as a store of nutriment laid up sustained a close-set spiral line, which runs continuously from in the body. This arrangement would seem to be necessary on centre to circumference, being attached to each radius as it account of the precarious nature of the supply of food. These passes them. These lines are very elastic, and will bear a good creatures, having to lie in wait for their prey, must be able to deal of strain. It is a peculiarity of these lines that they have play a waiting game; and they manifest, by their fierceness on them, at regular intervals, beads of viscid matter, which when a stray victim falls into their toils, that they appreciate an does not dry in the air like the silk. A clew runs from the opportunity which may be long before it is repeated.

web to the neighbouring retreat where the spider hides; and A heart shaped like that of insects lies immediately under the this would seem to answer the double purpose of informing the skin of the back of the abdomen. It is divided into four chambers, spider when the enare is shaken by an entangled insect, and of placed in a longitudinal series, and propels the blood forwards. affording it a way whereby, at once to rush upon its victim. It is contained in a loose membraneous investment, which is When the insect is powerful the spider will wait till both ends called the pericardium. This is a reservoir of the blood received of the body are attached to the web, and then, striding over it, from the system, and it passes from this outer court of the it will hold the cords of attachment tense with its wide hind. heart into its four compartments, through small valvular holes, legs, touch the insect with its spinnerets, fix a thread to it, and one to each compartment. The large vessel given off in front then set it rapidly revolving with its fore-legs, until the insect is partes into the cephalo-thorax, and there divides into three completely enswathed silk, like a mummy. The watoh-box pairs of vessels. The top pair goes to the eyes and mouth of the spider is usually under some leaf, but often it constructs organs, the middle pair to the stomach, and the lowest pair to a dome of silk to protect it from the rain, etc. A most remarkthe legs. The blood from these is collected again, and flows able instance of an animal formed for air-breathing, all of whose through a long central vessel running along the floor of the body relatives live in air, having invaded the water, is found in the right to the spinnerets, giving off vessels to the skin viscera, Argyroneta aquatica, which makes a dome under water, and then and also sending part of its supply of blood to the pulmonary carries down air, which it places under its diving-bell. kaos. After being distributed through the pulmonibranchiæ, the The scorpion is the type of another group of Arachnida. blood is collected into a number of vessels which run from This creature is much more elongated than the spider, and its these along the sides of the body, mounting upwards, and dis- segmentation is very much more distinct, the segmentation of the charging themselves into the pericardium. The lung-bags con- abdomen furnishing its distinguishing characteristic. The thotain a number of fine leaves which lie close together like the racic shield, which is supposed to represent the dorsal half, is of leaves of a book, and in these the blood is aërated.

eight rings. About the centre of this aro seen two eyes, one on The nervous system in the spider is so concentrated as almost each side, and close to the mid-line, while at the front outer to lose its homogangliate character. A small double ganglion angles groups of simplo eyes are found. All the jaws and limbs rests on the top of the throat, and sends words to the eyes and are supposed to belong to these coalesced segments. The next aws. This is connected by two cords, one on each side of the eight segments of the back are as wide as the cephalo-thorax, throat, to a large nervous star-shaped mass, which lies on the while the succceding six are very narrow, and capable of moving Look of the cephalo-thorax, and sends nerves to the legs, while on one another by definite joints in an up-and-down direction. from its hind part a thicker cord passes into the abdomen, and The last segment has a hooked spine with its point directed there splits into a number of small nerves which go to all parts of downwards. This is the instrument of attack, and it contains a the viscera. The great star-shaped mass represents the whole gland from which poison is ejected in the wound it makes. Thus chain of double ganglions, shortened, and compressed into one. the sting, instead of being in the antennal jaw at the head end, It will be seen that this arrangement is very much like that of as in the spider, is placed in the very hind-joint of the scorpion. the nervous system of the short-tailed Crustacea, or crabs. The bases of the legs almost obliterate the under-segments or The glands of special secretion are of two kinds. The poison. sterna of the fore-part of the body, but the succeeding ones are glands lie in the cephalo-thorax, one on each side of the throat, well represented, and through four of them the slits which lend and in the upper part of the mandibles. A duct from each into the eight pulmonibranchiæ are cut. Between the black Bland passes to the point of the fang, and it conveys a liquid horny back and front pieces of these segments is a white flexible which acts as a rapid poison to insects.

membrane. In the six tail-pieces the top and bottom parts aro The silk-secreting organs found in the abdomen consist of a united immovably together. The nature of the limbs is best seen in the illustration. The small forceps in front would seem familiar with their formation. He should also write out from to correspond with the mandibles of spiders, and the large and memory our remarks on the construction of hortor, vereor, etc., long pincers to the maxillary palps, while the four pairs of suc- correcting his work by comparison with the original. ceeding legs represent the legs of spiders and the hind walking

VOCABULARY. legs of decapod crustaceans. Thus it would appear that the

Cito, quickly.

Inanis, -e, empty (E. R. Nego, 1, I deny. hind foot-jaws and first pair of walking-legs of crustaceans are Confiteor, 2, confessus inanity).

Nondum, not as yet, absent. The stomach in the scorpion is much simpler than in sum, I admit, confoss Informo, 1, I instruct. Penitus, thoroughly. the spider, and there is scarcely any distinction of parts. The (E. R. confession). Inopia, -æ, f., want. Præsidium, -i, D., proheart has eight segments, and the hind one, not being situated Cunctus, -, -um, all Intueor, 2, I look on, tection, support, as further back than the broad part of the body, sends the blood

unitedly, in oppo- contemplate (E. R. sistance, backward by a vessel to the tail. Besides the ventral vessel, a

sition to omnis, intuition).

Profiteor, 2, professus sub-ganglionic or portal vessel exists, which drives the blood to

which is, all seve- Liberaliter, freely. sum, I profess, prothe lungs. Perhaps the course of the blood can be gathered Denuo (de novo), anew,


Malitia, -æ, f., badness, mise (E. R. pro

baseness, malico. fession). from the rough diagram below. It would take too long to de

again, lately.

Medeor, 2 (no perfect), Reor,2(reri, ratus sum), Detråho, 3, I take away. I heal, with the da. I am of opinion, think. Exemplar, -āris, 1., a tive; that is, the ob. Trado, tradere, tradidi, pattern, model.

ject of this verb must traditum, 3, I kard Impetro, 1, I obtain, be in the dative case. down, I give up (E.E. Imploro, 1, I entreat Mereor, I deserve, etc., tradition)

(E.R. implore; ploro, is followed by de, as Venia, -e, t., pardon,
I weep).
de aliquâ re.

leave, permission, Observe that the conjunction quum requires its verb to be in the subjunctive mood, when it denotes a cause or reason, and is rendered by since or although ; quum is then said to have a causal force.

EXERCISE 110.—LATIN-ENGLISH. 1. Vix peccatum tuum fassus eras, quum pater tui misertus est. ? Jam te errasse confessus eras, quum denuo negasti. 3. Nondum vestrum auxilium imploraveramus, quum jam id nobis professi estis. 4. Vix inopiam nostram fassi eramus, quum liberalissime vestrum præ

sidium nobis polliciti estis. 5. Magna vis est philosophise quum scribe it here. The nervous system consists of seveu double medetur animis, et inanes sollicitudines detrahit. 6. Artes magnum ganglia besides the brain.

nobis præbent præsidium, quum seipsa per se tuentur singulæ. 7. The mites have a smooth bag-like body, with a small head Præclare de patriâ merentur præceptores, quum juventutem bonarum united with it. They breathe through trachea, whose entrance

literarum studiis informant. 8. qum philosophia animis medetur er orifices are situated on the under-side of the body. Some,

totos nos penitusque tradere debemus. 9. Omnes miserebantur restri, however, have two exit-holes for the tracheal system, one on

quum non propter malitiam sed propter fortunam in miseriis essetis. each side of the mouth, through which they expel the air Nigere. 11. Avarus, quum sit divitissimus, non fatebitur se satis habere.

10. Quum milites pericula vererentur, non audebant cum hostibus conderived through the other openings. The nervous system in these is said to consist of only one ganglion. These creatures quisque tuetor filium.

12. Miserere nostri; medemini, O cives, inopiæ nostræ. 13. Suum

14. Nemo, cunctam intuens terram, de divini often live on the bodies of other animals. The shard beetle has providentia dubitabit. 15. Cives, hostes urbem oppugnaturos rati, cos almost always a multitude of them clinging to its body in the acriter propulsare studuerunt. 16. Venio meum præsidium tibi pollici grooves between the segments of its body underneath. The turus. 17. Adolescentis officium est majores natu vereri. 18. Omnibus organs of the mouth in these are usually converted into sucking modis vos inopiæ civium mederi debetis. 19. Quis nescit te præclare snouts, with points directed outwards, so as to secure the holà de republicà meritum esse ? 20. Spero te mei miserturum esse. of the creature.

EXERCISE 111.-ENGLISH-LATIN. Two other orders of very low grade would seem to indicate 1. They confessed their sins. 2. They will confess their síns. 3. that the spiders are related to the articulate type directly Will they have confessed their sins ? 4. He will not confess his sins. through the worms. In one of these the body is completely 5. My sister has confessed her sins. 6. The young men deny that they like a worm. These are internal parasites. The other order will confess their sins (acc. case and infinit. fut. ; drop the that: is represented by a creature which inhabits the skin-follicles of "deny that they will,” is equal to say they will not, that is, refuse). 7. the human face, generally fixing on the nose as its habitat. Religion heals men's minds. 8. True religion only can heal men's

minds. This starts in life with a worm-like form, and gradually shortens

9, Religion has always healed the minds of the pious. 10. into a mite-like animal. The orders are defined as follows :

Pity me, O my father. 11. O God, pity us.

12. O God, pity all men.

13. Let every husband guard his wife. 14. The young men, thinking 1. Pantopoda.--Arachnida, with the cephalo-thorax segmented the soldiers about to attack their homes, slew themselves in fear (being into four pieces ; a rudimentary abdomen, and long many. afraid). 15. The arts severally protect artists (artificers). 16. Do the jointed legs ; without true organs of respiration.

arts protect each other? 17. The arts have protected, do protect 2. Linguatulina.-Wormlike Arachnida, having the habits of (present tense), and will protect artists.

18. Look at the heaven, intestinal worms; with sexes distinct, and no apparent organs

and thou wilt fear God.

19. Contemplating virtue, men become wise. of respiration.

20. He has served the republic well (deserved well of the republic, de 3. Tardigrada.--Hermaphrodite Arachnida, with stumpy legs, republica). 21. The queen will serve the republic well

. and without organs of respiration.

soldiers served their country well. 23. I am not able to serve my

home well. 4. Acarina. -Arachnida, with biting or sucking mouths; an

24. He contemplates a model of virtue. 25. He confesses his sins, and obtains pardon.

26. They have confessed their unjointed abdomen united to the cephalo-thorax ; second feeler-sins, and obtained pardon.27. Since you have confessed your sins, jaws foot-shaped, with a tracheal system.

you will obtain pardon. 5. Araneina.-Arachnida, with biting jaws, stalked unseg. mented abdomen"; second pair of feeler-jaws shaped like feet, one's

own infirmity, as compared with the

high attributes of the

Vereor denotes the reverence which arises from a sense of and with combined lungs and tracheæ. 6. Arthrogastra.--Arachnida, with a distinctly jointed abdo- the root of reverence.

object who calls forth the sentiment. Vereor, accordingly

, is men, breathing by pulmonibranchiæ.

Vereri denotes the feeling of children towards a parent. But when the sentiment of self-abasement

rises into a fear of some evił froin a superior power, or an LESSONS IN LATIN.-XXXI. oppressive consciousness of superior power over you, then the DEPONENT VERBS (continued).

sentiment is expressed by metuo. In our last lesson the learer was furnished with a model of a

CONSTRUCTION OF VEREOR." deponent verb of the second conjugation and a list of verbs to Accusative of object; with ne; ne non; non and ne; with ut; be written out according to the example given. This should be infinitive as an object. done frequently, in the case of all the parts of speech in Latin Note.--Vereor ne is used of things you do not desire. that suffer declension, if the student desire to become thoroughly Vereor ut is used of things you do desire.

22. Tho

[ocr errors]
« AnteriorContinuar »