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Things Real; or English History from the accession of Henry their constitution, the education, discipline, and duties of the VIII, to the death of William III., and that part of English students are the same in both colleges and halls; they lead a Lay which relates to Persons and Things Personal. These are cenobitic life; dinner is served daily in the common hall; and the subjects most commonly in use (Lingard's “ History of Eng. divine service celebrated morning and evening in the chapel. land” and Stephen's “Blackstone” being the usual text-books), But for all students without exception-collegiate, aularian, but some variations are allowed. The honour examinations and unattached—the duties, discipline, examinations, and other extend over a far wider range of subjects.

exercises for degrees, and responsibility to the University as a In the School of Natural Science the pass subjects consist of body, are identical. The usual chapel role in the colleges and Mechanical Philosophy, Chemistry, and Physiology. Every can- halls is to attend once each week-day (in the morning as a didate, to obtain the Testamur, must satisfy the examiners in rule), and twice on Sunday. In some few colleges week-day two out of these three branches of Natural Science, as well as in / attendance at chapel has been dispensed with for students who some one of the particular sciences dependent on Mechanical prefer to answer a “roll-call” at an early hour to show that Philosophy, which includes Mechanics, Hydrostatics, Pneumatics, they are not spending their time inactively. Sound, Light, Heat, Electricity, and Magnetism. The course The colleges are as follow :for honour-students is based on the above subjects, but requires

University.

Brasenose. a far more extensive knowledge than the pass-examination.

Balliol.

Corpus Christi, In each of these schools a Testamur is awarded to pass-men

Merton.

Christ Church. and class-men alike; the names of the class-men being printed

Exeter.

Trinity. alphabetically in four classes; the names of those who only

Oriel.

St. John's. satisfy the examiners without taking honours being added in a

Queen's.

Jesus College. separate division, also alphabetically arranged.

New College.

Wadham. For the degree of M.A, no examination is required. For

Lincoln.

Pembroke. degrees in Divinity, Law, Medicine, and Music, special exercises

All Souls.

Worcester. most be performed, examinations passed, and requirements

Magdalen. satisfied, particulars of which can be obtained from the Pro

The five halls arefessors of the respective faculties, and from the Registrar of the University, E. W. Rowden, Esq., D.C.L., of New College,

St. Mary Hall.

St. Alban Hall. whose official residence is at the Old Clarendon in Broad Street,

Magdalen Hall.

St. Edmund Hall.

New Inn Hall. and whose kindness and courtesy in imparting information can but be gratefully acknowledged by the writer of this sketch of In most of the colleges both scholarships and fellowships are the University and its curriculum.

now open to public competition, the latter being the more

free of the two from local restrictions. In: New College, Christ II. PRIVATE HALLS.

Church, and St. John's, a strong connec'ion still subsists beThere are two other ways of going through the University of tween these societies respectively and thr, schools of Winchester, Oxford than by entering it as an unattached student. The Westminster, and Merchant Taylors, in a corresponding order. first of these is by matriculating at a private hall, of which Exeter has still a connection with Devonshire; Queen's with societies there are now two, known as Charsley's Hall and the North of England; Brasenose with Hereford, Marlborough, Berison's Hall, so named, according to the statute De Aulis and Manchester, and (by its rich Hulmeian foundation) with Privatis, after the licensed masters who preside over them— certain other parts of Lancashiro; Jesus College with Wales ; Darnely, Mr. W. H. Charsley, M.A., and the Rev. R. M. Benson, Pembroke with Abingdon School and the Channel Islands; and M.A., both members of Christ Church. Two other private Worcester with certain parts of Worcestershire ; but a large halls have existed since the statute above referred to was number of scholarships and exhibitions are now open to the passed, but both were short-lived, and Mr. Charsley is the first most unrestricted competition. Few scholarships are master who has achieved any success as the head of such an in- worth less than £80 per annum; many as much as and more stitution. His hall, however, is the resort of a class of pupils who than £100; and any economical student who can add £20 or hare, for the most part, larger means than those who enter the

£30 a-year to the income of a scholarship, can go through the Triversity avowedly as frugal stadents, the terms being some- University in comfort and respectability. Scholars are usually what high. It is popular, and has many members on its books. expected to be candidates for honours; and any one who has the Mr. Benson's hall is opened for the benefit of those who ability to procure election to a scholarship can only be preintend not only to live in a strictly economical manner, but vented from offering himself for honours either by failing health to conform to a course of study and discipline more ascetic

or idleness. For the former cause, allowance will be readily than that of the normal collegiate life. There are also several made. The latter, or failure in the schools (vulgo, plucking), students on the books of this hall.

may terminate the tenure of a scholarship. Several of the halls III. COLLEGIATE LIFE.

have scholarships or exhibitions as helps to economical men; It is not to be thought that, because the writer of these pages but they are, for the most part, of less value than in the colleges. has thrown the bulk of the matter relating to the University It must also be mentioned that of the five halls, three-viz., St. course into the portion assigned to instructions for young men Mary Hall, St. Alban Hall, and St. Edmund Hall-offer special wishing to matriculate as unattached students, he, on that advantages to students who are resolutely determined to live account, undervalues the collegiate system, or would recommend according to a rule of economy. At the same time every reaang youths intending to go through the University to do so as

sonable comfort, joined to the social advantages of the cænobitio anattached students, if they can procure the means to do so

life, is secured by membership of one of these societies. But as members of a college or hall. The collegiate system and whatever temptations to extravagance the normal collegiate life life possess advantages, privileges, and safeguards, both educa. may present, any one can, with entire comfort, bring his annual tional and social, which the unattached student is without; and battel bills—including room-rent, tuition, kitchen and buttery will no doubt continue to flourish, a strong support and help to the expenses, i.e., all necessary food and drink (except wine and Founger system which has just been superadded in the University. luxuries), coal, and washing-within £90; while in some of the

There are in the University nineteen colleges and five halls, halls stricter frugality has reduced this sum to £60. It is the chief difference between these respective sets of societies hoped that these few facts may serve to prove that Oxford has being that the colleges are corporate bodies, each endowed to not yet come to the condition of being no longer a place for “the support a body of Fellows, who elect their own Warden, Provost, poor scholar.” Rector, Master, President, or Principal; while the halls have no such endowment, and their Principals, with one exception,

LESSONS IN BOTANY.-XXXI. are appointed by the Chancellor of the University. In the colleges the tutors are mostly appointed by the Head out of the

SECTION LXXV.-AURANTIACEÆ, OR CITRON-WORTS. body of Fellows; in the halls the Principals are responsible for Characteristics : Calyx free, monosepalous ; petals hypogynous, the tuition, and for the most part undertake the chief portion free, or almost free, in number equal to the parts of tho calyx, of it themselves, assisted by competent lecturers or assistant- with which they are alternato ; imbricated in restivation ; stamens tutors appointed by themselves. With these differences in in number double or in multiples of the number of the petals,

now

monadelphous or polyadelphous ; filaments ordinarily flat and ovary in the form of a cup; ovary generally from two to fiveuni-serial ; style simple ; stigma capitular; berry with thick rind celled, some plants of the genus having as many as ten or and pulpy-endocarp ; seeds provided with a raphe, and fre- twelve cells ; style single; ovules one, two, or four in number, quently containing numerous embryos; embryo dicotyledonous, attached to axile placentæ ; fruit succulent or capsular, with exalbuminous, straight; radicle superior.

loculicidal dehiscence; seeds few in number. The Meliacere The Aurantiaceæ are for the most part natives of tropical Asia, are trees or shrubs, natives for the most part of the tropics. but they are now distributed over all parts of the globe where the They contain acrid and bitter astringent principles, by virtue of temperature is sufficiently high to be congenial to their culture. which they are tonic and stimulating. The Melia Azederach Their leaves are alternate, without stipules, often growing at (Fig. 232) is a tree growing in Persia and Syria, sometimes called the extremity of a flattened petiole, solitary or in corymbs. The the Margosa tree, but which has been naturalised in Mediterbark, the leaves, calyx, petals, filaments, and epicarp, are all ranean Europe and North America. It has febrifugal prosupplied with vesicles containing volatile oil.

perties. This beautiful family is, chemically, remarkable for its vola

SECTION LXXVII.-MALPIGHIACEÆ, OR MALPIGHIADS. tile oil and aromatic bitter constituents, and its free acids (principally malic and citric). The citron (Citrus) is the prin. Characteristics : Calyx free, five-partite, each division ordinarily cipal genus of the family. The orange (Citrus

furnished with two glands at the base ; petals aurantiacum), originally a native of the East

five, either inserted upon the receptacle or upon Indies, is now cultivated in almost all tropical

a hypogynous or sub-perigynous disc; imbricated and warm temperate countries. In France, how

in æstivation; stamens double in number to ever, it requires protection during the winter.

that of the petals, sometimes all of them fertile,

[graphic]

.12

The citron (Citrus medica) is the most useful species of the genus; | in other cases partly sterile ; filaments ordinarily coherent at its berry, sometimes termed the bitter orange, is not edible, but their base ; ovary composed of three carpels, rarely two, either from it are extracted many delicious perfumes, and its pulp incorporated with the axis or free at the summit

, giving makes an excellent confection. It is from the Powers of this rise to three or two uni-ovulate cells

; ovule reflexed, attached to species that chemists obtain the essence of neroli. All its a pendent funiculus ascending by its free extremity; fruit comvarious parts are in point of fact more aromatic than similar posed of two or three scales, ordinarily samaroidal; seeds inparts of the orange-tree. The lime (Citrus limetta), and the verted, dicotyledonous, exalbuminous, rarely straight, cotyledons lemon (Citrus limonum), are all members of the genus Citrus ; ordinarily bent on themselves; radicle superior. all yield, from almost every part of their substance, an odorous The Malpighiaceæ are usually trees or shrubs, for the most volatile oil. The celebrated Eau de Cologne is nothing more part covered with hairs, which sometimes degenerate into than a solution of volatile oils extracted from many genera of prickles, though not invariably. The leaves are ordinarily Aurantiaceæ and dissolved in alcohol.

opposite, single, devoid of stipules. Inflorescence, a cyme or The citron was not introduced into Europe until subsequently corymb. This order takes its name from the Malpighia, or to the period of Alexander the Great's Asiatic conquests. It is Barbadoes cherry, so called after Professor Malpighi of Pisa

. a native of Persia and Mesopotamia.

This plant is nearly allied to the Galphimia, another of thọ SECTION LXXVI.-MELIACEÆ, OR MELIADS. same family, whose name, as the reader may see, is the word Characteristics : Leaves usually alternate, simple, or pinnate,

Malpighia " transposed. and without flowers, hypogynous, and generally symmetrical, ar

SECTION LXXVIII.-ACERACEÆ, OR MAPLES. ranged either in a panicle, corymb, cyme, or spike; the calyx Characteristics : Calyx free, with four or five divisions, cadu. and corolla having three, four, or five divisions ; stamens monaceous; petals four or five, alternate with the sepals, inserted delphous, and twice as many in number as the petals, with ses. upon a hypogynous diso ; æstivation imbricate ; stamens

four sile anthers ; disc

hypogynous, and sometimes surrounding the to twelve, ordinarily eight; ovary free, composed of two carpels,

bilocnlar and perpendicularly compressed at the line of junction; | the horse-chestnut, which is used in Switzerland for feeding sheep. ovules double in each cell, pendent or curved ; fruit samaroidal ; The burdock or Nephelium, and the Sapindus saponaria or Indian seed dicotyledonous, exalbuminous, cotyledons irregularly con- / soaptree of the West Indies, belong to this family. The seeds torted; radicle descending.

of all the soapworts, especially The Aceracece are trees with

the last named, contain a saponaopposite petiolate ex-stipulate

ceous principle, which in the case leaves, having regular flowers

of the Sapindus saponaria is arranged in cymes or corymbs.

turned to account in washing linen They all possess & saccharine,

in the West Indies. limpid, or lactiferous juice, which flows from the plant after incision.

SECTION LXXX.-HYPERIOne species, Acer saccharinum, or

CACEÆ, OR TUTSANS. engar maple, is so rich in sugar

Characteristics : Calyx free; that considerable quantities are

sopals four or five, joined together extracted in Canada and other

to a variable extent; contorted in parts of North America. The

æstivation; stamens indefinite, sugar is identical with that ob

free, monadelphous or polyadeltained from the cane, but it has

phous; ovary three to five-celled a certain flavour which renders

or uni-locular; junction incomit less palatable than the cane

plete; ovules numerous, reflexed sugar.

or curved ; fruit capsular or bac

[graphic]

234. THE PLANE - MAPLE (ACER PLATA

236. THE COCOA (THEOBROMA CACAO). 237. NOIDES). 235. THE PERFORATED HYPE

COCOA FRUIT OPENED TO SHOW SEEDS,

238. THE PRINCELY RICUM, OR ST. JOHN'S WORT (HYPERICUM

CAROLINEA (CAROPERFORATUM).

LINEA PRINCEPS). SECTION LXXIX.-SAPINDACEÆ,

ciform ; seed dicotyledonous, exalbu. OR SOAPWORTS.

minous ; stem ligneous or herbaceous; Characteristics : Calyx free ; petals

leaves opposite or verticillate, simple hypogynous, four or five unequal,

entire, ordinarily punctuated with pelfree, imbricated; stamens seven or

lucid glands; flowers regular, arranged eight inserted upon a fleshy or glan

in a panicle or cyme. This family is dular disc; ovary three-celled, bi-ovu

236

sometimes called the St. John's wort late; ovules curved ; capsule coria

family; it includes all the St. John's ceous, frequently by abortion uni

worts, many of which are grown in locular; seed dicotyledonous, exalbu

shrubberies, and are remarkable for minous ; stem ligneous; leaves opposite, digitate; flowers their brilliant yellow blossoms. arranged in a terminal panicle.

The Hypericaceæ are distributed over the hot and temperate One of the most noticeable of the large trees belonging to this regions of the globe, more especially of the northern hemisphere. family is the Æsculus hippocastanum, or common horse-chesnut. All the ligneous species are intertropical. The bark of this tree contains a peculiar febrifugal principle Almost all contain, in addition to a volatile oil, resinous and called æsculin. In France starch is extracted from the seed of balsamic juices which flow abundantly from the ligneous species,

errors.

and which in the herbaceous ones may be found in the pellucid In the midst of its bitter, pulpy fruit are found the seeds, glands with which the leaves are studded. The tutsan which, when roasted, constitute the cocoa of commerce. (Androsamum officinale) is a native plant formerly employed in

SECTION LXXXIV.–STERCULIACEÆ, OR STERCULIADS. medicine, but now fallen into desuetude. The Hypericum per. foratum (Fig. 235) is so called in consequence of the sieve-like

Characteristics : Calyx four or five-partite; petals hypogynous, appearance of its leaves, dependent on the number of trans- five, imbricated in æstivation, often absent ; stamens indefinite, parent glandular points scattered over their surfaces.

monadelphous; anthers two-celled, more or less complete; stem

ligneous, covered with radiating hairs; leaves alternate, simple, SECTION LXXXI.-TERNSTRÆMIACEÆ OR CAMELLIACEÆ.

or digitate; flowers solitary, or in oymes or panicles. Characteristics : Leaves alternate, generally ex-stipulate ; Many species of Sterculiacere are cultivated in Europe. Presepals and petals of flowers for the most part imbricated in eminent amongst these is the baobab, which remains a small æstivation ; stamens hypogynous, many in number, with adnate shrub in our green-houses, but which, in its own country, grows or versatile anthers; ovary superior; styles filiform; seeds to an enormous size. The Pachira insignis, a tree of Central dicotyledonous, exalbuminous, few in number, or solitary, at- America, has digitate leaves, elongated flowers of a bright-red tached to axile placentæ.

colour, the petals of which are spread out at their summits. The most important member of this family is the tea shrub The Pachira aquatica, or Carolinea princeps (Fig. 237), is a (Thea). The virtues of tea depend on a combination of an plant which bears very large and elegant flowers, the petals of astringent with a peculiar nitrogenised principle termed theine, which are yellow on their upper surface, green below, ornaalso in part to'a volatile oil.

mented with red filaments and yellow anthers. The Bombar, Two centuries have not yet elapsed since tea was first intro- or silk cotton-tree, so called from the woolly hairs which sur. duced to Europe as an article of drink. Everybody is aware round the seed, as in the cotton-plant, is a member of this that two species of tea exist-black and green tea. Both are family. produced by the same plant, and the difference between the two results from peculiarities of manufacture. Several attempts have been made to naturalise the tea shrub in Europe, but

LESSONS IN ENGLISH.-XXXII. invariably without success.

LATIN STEMS (continued). The beautiful camellia (Camellia Japonica), with its white LANGUAGE, in one point of view, is a silent record of human and rose-coloured blossoms and dark, glossy green leaves, is a member of this family. It was originally brought from Japan, that the sun rises and sets; that upwards and downwards

If we believed language, we should have still to believe and takes its name from a Moravian Jesuit, Camellus.

denote fixed relations, and that heaven is upwards alike at mid. SECTION LXXXII –TILIACEÆ, OR LINDEN-BLOOMS. night and mid-day; that good humour and bad humour are the Characteristics : Sepals five, caduceous; valvate in æstivation; offspring of certain liquids (Latin, humor, moisture) in the petals inserted upon a hypogynous disc, four or five or sometimes material frame; that temper and distemper were the results of absent; imbricate in æstivation, often supplied at their base the due or undue mingling of these diverse liquids; that & with a scaly appendage ; stamens double in number or a mul- jovial man was born under the planet Jupiter (genitive case, tiple of that of the petals, all fertile, or the external ones Jovis), the emblem of a jolly god; that a man of saturnine dissterile, free or polyadelphous at the base; ovary two to ten position owed his dull moroseness to his evil genius, Saturn; celled; ovules reflexed ; fruit capsular or indehiscent, coriaceous and that a mercurial fellow jumped about and frisked away or fleshy; seed dicotyledonous ; embryo straight in the axis of because he had in him too much of the pagan god Mercury, the a fleshy albumen, sometimes absent; stem ligneous; leaves swift-footed messenger of Olympus. However, men suffer disordinarily alternate, stipulate; flowers regular, solitary, or in asters (from the Latin, dis, not, bad; astrum, a star) without cymes or corymbs.

imputing the blame to their stars; though many are still under The Tiliaceæ for the most part are inhabitants of the tropical the vulgar delusion that our lot here depends on good luck and zone; they contain an abundant mucilage mingled with astrin- bad luck. Portents and prodigies in the skies and on the gent and resinous matters. The flower of certain species con- ! earth are words which show how men were once alarmed by any tains a volatile oil; others possess a fleshy sapid fruit and unusual phenomenon. Even so late as the reign of Charles II. edible stems: The seeds of most species are oily. The lindens Englishmen had faith in portents. During the plague, the are generally diffused, and in much estimation on account of vision of a flaming sword, reaching from Westminster to the the beauty of their foliage and the sweet aromatic odour of | Tower of London, seemed nightly to be present to the excited their flowers. The bark is fibrous, and sometimes turned to fancy of many of the residents in the metropolis, like the account in the manufacture of cordage. The wood, easily meteor-sword that hung over Jerusalem during the siege. The worked, is in repute amongst turners and sculptors. The

appearance of a comet some months before had caused superflowers, much sought after by bees, contain an abundance of stitious feelings of alarm in the weak-minded, and by such volatile oil, sugar, mucilage, gum, and tannic acid; their persons it was regarded with scarcely less terror than that with infusion is anti-spasmodic and diuretic. The oily seeds are which the Anglo-Saxons had beheld the comet which visited occasionally employed as a substitute for cocoa.

For an

our hemisphere in the year 1066, on the eve of the Norman example of the leaves and blossoms of the common lime or invasion. linden-tree (Tilia Europæa), see Lessons in Drawing, Vol. II.,

However, these false fears and vulgar errors are rapidly dis

appearing. Lunacy is preserved amongst us in the close em. SECTION LXXXIII.-BÜTTNERIACEÆ, OR BUTTNERIADS. brace of Westminster Hall, but we hence cease to believe that

Characteristics : Calyx four or five-partite ; petals five, mental alienation is caused by the moon (Latin, luna, moon); hypogynous or absent ; æstivation valvate or contorted; stamens and if we still in good Saxon speak of the moon-stricken, we do in some species equal in number to the petals and opposite to so as we speak of star-gazers, without ascribing any influence them, in other species double or multiple this number; filaments to the heavenly bodies. ordinarily joined in the form of a cupola, tube, or column; Ono or two additional instances of the depravation of words ovary four or five to ten-called, uni-, bi-, or pluri-ovulate; ovules may be given. ordinarily ascendant, reflexed; fruit generally a capsule; seed The term officious is nsed in a bad sense ; an officious man is albuminous or exalbuminous ; stem ordinarily woody, covered constantly interfering with what does not concern him. But in with radiating or bifurcated hairs ; leaves alternate, simple, the root of the word there is nothing questionable or offensive. stipulate; flowers regular, arranged in panicles, spikes, or Officium, in Latin, signifies duty. According to its derivation, glomerules.

an officious man is simply a man who attends to his duty. Bat These plants contain an abundant mucilage, to which is even so pure a virtue may be carried to excess. generally added a bitter, astringent, extractive matter. The perverted the attention does become if it is ourward rah9r fruit of many species is saccharine ; the seeds contain a fixed than inward, more apparent than real--if duty is a pretex, JI oil. The most celebrated plant of this natural order is the

A misunderstood sense of duty prompts even cho cocoa-tree (Theobroma cacao, Fig. 236), a South American tree, sincere to meddle, and in meddling they become officions. the cultivation of which, however, has now extended to Africa subjoin two instances : in the first, officious is used in a good and Asia.

i sense; in the second, it is used in a bad sense:

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" Yet not to earth are those bright luminaries

Lego

I gather, read leg, lect collect, legible, lecture. Officious; but to thee, earth's habitant."- Milton.

Lenis

gentle
leni, len

lenity, lenieut, relent. “ You are too officious

Levis

light

levi, lief, liou levity, relief, relieve. In her behalf that scorns your services." -Shakespeare.

Levo

lev

lever, elevate. Lex (legis)

leg, legis legal, legislator. Why should the word resentment signify the harbouring of a

Liber (libri)

libr

library. desire for revenge ? Its component parts are very innocuous- Libellus

a litile book libel

libellous. namely, the Latin participle re, again; and the Latin verb Liber

free
liber

liberty, liberal, libertine. sentio, I feel. Resentment, considered in its origin, is simply a Licet

it is lawful licit

illicit. return of feeling. Are, then, ill feelings more prevalent than Lignum wood

lign

ligneous, pyrolignous.

I lind good ones, that a return of feeling should be equivalent to Ligo

lig, liga ligament, oblige, religion. retaliation? That retaliation should involve the bad feeling of Linquo I leave

linqu

relinquish. Lictus (relictus) left

lict

relict. revenge is not surprising, since its root is the Latin talio, which

Liqueo

I melt

lique, liqui liquid, liquefaction. calls to mind the lex talionis, the law of repaying like for like

Lis (litis)
strije, lav-suit liti

litigation, litigious. "ege for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot' (Exod. Litera

a letter
liter

literal, literature. xxi. 24). The idea of revenge was moulded into the term long Locus

a place
loc, loco

locality, locomotion. before it became a part of the English language. Yet, while Longus long

long, longi lonyitude, oblong. resentment or a return of feeling is used in a bad sense, recom

to speak

loqui, loquy, colloquial, obloquy, loqua

Loqui pense or repaying is now used exclusively in a good sense. In

loqu, locü

city, elocution, ventri

ventriloquist. Scripture, however, these words are used in a strictly judicial Venter (ventris) the belly

Ludo

ludi, lud

delude, ludicrous. and juridical sense, thus: “Vengeance is mine ; I will repay,

Lusus

played saith the Lord” (Rom. xii. 19). “ To me belongeth vengeance, Lumen (lumịnis) light

lus

delusion, illusion. lumin

luminary, illumination. and recompense” (Deut. xxxii. 35). Here, vengeance merely Luna

the moon
lun

lunatic, sublunary. mans the penal retribution which follows the infraction (or Lux (lucis) light

luc

lucid, pellucid. breaking) of the law. To attribute vengeance to God, in the sense Macies

leanness
maci

emaciate. of revenge or mere retaliation, is the height of moral absurdity. Macula

a spot
macul

immaculate. The word knave meant once no more than lad, nor does its Magnus great

magni magnify. original (knabe), in German, now mean more. Villain was

Male

wickedly
male, mal

malevolent, malversation, Volo (volens) I wish

volen

benevolent. simply a peasant. A boor was a farmer ; a varlet, a serving.

Verto (versus) I turn vert, vers convert, converse, versatile. man; a churl, a strong fellow. Time-server was used two hun.

Mando
I entrust or bid mand

mandate, command. dred years ago quite as often in an honourable sense as in a dis

Марео

man, main

permanent, remain. honoarable one. Conceits had once nothing conceited in them. Mansio

a staying mans

manse, mansion.
Mano
LATIN STEMS.

I flow
man

emanate.
Manus

a hand Latin Words.

manu, mani

manual, manipulation, Meanings. Stems.

English Words.

Mare

the sea
mari

marine, maritime, Genitas

begotten
gen, genit

progeny, progenitor. Geons (generis) kind

Mars, the Ro.
gener, genera generation, degenerate.

Mars (Martis)
man god of Smart

martial. Glacies

glaci

glacial, glacier. Gradus

a step
grad, gred, graduate, retrograde, in-

Mater (matris) a mother

mater, matri

maternal, matricide. gradu, gross

gredient, aggression. Retro backwards retro retrogradation.

The word progenitors has for its corresponding Saxon term Granen

forefathers; the term ancestors is used in nearly the samo sense, (gramynis) grass gramini graminivorous.

only the latter simply points out those who have gone before Gravis

heavy
gravi gravity, gravitate.

us, our predecessors; the former includes the idea of descent: Gres (gregis) a flock

grog
gregarious, egregious.

they of old were our progenitors, we are their offspring; they Hereo

I stick
her

adhere, coherent. Hesus

were our forefathers, we are their children or descendants. stuck hes

cohesion, adhesion. Hæres (hærédis) an heir hered, herit hereditary, inherit.

The word degenerate denotes that which has lost the qualities Halo I breathe hal exhale, inhale.

of the kind (genus, generis) or race. Haurio(haustus) I draw haust

exhaust.

“ The which thing declareth that men which have caste down their Homo homi, hum homicide, human.

minds from the dignity of their nature, are so degenerat, and growen Hortor

I advise
hort
exhort.

out of kinde, that thei seeme vtterly to be brute beastes."--Caluino Hospes (hosp'tis) a guest, a host hospit, host hospitable, hostess.

(Calvin), “Foure Godlye Sermons." Hostis

an enemy
hosti
hostile.

To graduate is to take a degree or step in learning in one of Humus

the ground
hum
inhume, exhume.

the universities. On entering a university, a young man is said Idem

iden
identity.

to matriculate (mater, a mother), because he becomes the child Ignis

fire
igni, igno ignition, igneous.

or pupil of the institution, which in regard to knowledge and Infra

below
infern infernal.

discipline is his mother. After passing through a course of Insula an island insula insulate, insular.

instruction, he, on proving fit and worthy by examination, takes Pene

almost
реп
peninsula.

a degree—that is, by receiving certain tokens, as the privilege Intra, intus within

inter, inti

internal, intimate. Iter (itiněris)

of putting after his name B.A. or M.A., which is the same as a journey itiner

itinerate, itinerary. Iterum

again
iter
iteration, reiterate.

calling himself, in the one case, Bachelor of Arts, or, in the
it
exit,. circuit, transit, se-

other case, Master of Arts, he is declared and made known as Jaceo

I lie
jac

adjacent. [dition. having made proficiency in a greater or less degree in university Jactus throwon joct inject, conjecture.

learning. Jugam a yoke jug conjugate.

“ Invest me with a graduate's gown, Janctus joined junct adjunct, conjunction.

Midst shouts of all beholders,
I scar
jur
conjure, adjure.

My head with ample square-cap crown,
Jos (juris)
right, law juris, juri jurisdiction, juridical.

And deck with hood my shoulders."-Smart. Jutus assisted jut

adjutant, coadjutor. Juvenis a youth juveni juvenile.

Egregious (from e, out of; and grex, a flock or crowd) denotes Lacer

torn
lacer
lacerate.

a person who is out of, that is, does not belong to, the multiLædo

I strike
lid
collide.

tudo ; one who is extraordinary and distinguished. Egregious is Lesus

struck
lig
collision.

generally employed in a bad sense :-
Lapis (lapidis)
a stone lapid

lapidary, dilapidate. latus

“Thus have I adventured to expose the egregious folly, and to un. carried lat

elate, translation. Latus wide

mask the extreme corruption of heart, which assun.es the buffoon or lat, lati

latitude, dilate. Iatus (latěris)

a side
later

the philosopher indifferently, to laugh at misery and enth, and make

lateral, equilateral. Legatus an ambassador legat

a mockery both of law and religion."-Warburton.

legate, delegation. legatio

a gift
lega
legacy, legatee.

Religion is here given as from ligo, I bind. This seems the

best etymology. Viewed in this light, religion is the source of Legatio is a Latin word of the Middle Ages.

obligation. Religion, placing man in immediate connection

a man

}

the same

Itum

to go

Juro

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