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with the Creator, deduces from that connection men's obliga-Quint-like a resident ruler as Charles's daughter, the Duchess tions : first, to God, from whom they are; and next, to each of Parma. other, whom for God's will, and God's sake, they are to love Notwithstanding that she was obliged, in order to carry out and serve.
Philip's policy, which was much less liberal than his father's, Delusion and illusion, though much alike both in derivation to govern the people somewhat more sternly than they had been and import, yet differ somewhat. The common idea is that of wont to be governed, the duchess was popular enough; and as misleading. By delusions others mislead and cheat us; by she had many ties of sympathy with the people, she was a illusions we mislead and cheat ourselves. Delusions are subguarantee to the Netherlanders that so long as she ruled they stantial shows, presented in order to mislead; illusions are would not be oppressed. dreams and fancies which arise in an ill-regulated mind; the But the Duke of Alva! That was a very different matter. former are mostly dishonest, the latter are always weak; the Although his name was not so famous, or infamous, as it be former are preconcerted, the latter are spontaneous.
came after he retired from the Low Countries, it was known PARSING AND COMPOSITION.
to the people as that of a bigoted Spanish soldier, who had
narrow ideas of his duty, but a tremendous energy in carrying For your exercise in parsing and composition take the ensu. ing letter of Mrs. Barbauld. Give an account of every part
out those ideas-as the name of one who made no secret that of it as well as you can. Convert it into simple sentences; he considered his highest duty to God and man was to root ont and having studied it carefully, close the book and write down heresy wherever he had the chance, not stopping to criticise the from memory all you recollect of it. Then correct your copy Lowlanders fear when such a man was coming, with a numerous
means adopted, so the end were attained. Well might the by the original. Having done so, write a letter to a friend, if possible, on similar topics.
and well-appointed army at his back, to supersede the duchess. "July 28, 1803.
They knew not what instructions he carried, what “I am glad to find that you have spent the spring so pleasantly. power his commission gave him, but they could rcad the signs But when you say you made the excursion instead of coming to Lon
of the times as well as any statesman in Europe, and they saw don, you forget that you might have passed the latter end of a London winter in town after enjoying the natural spring in the country.
in Alva and the Spanish army nothing but oppression, and most have been spending a week at Richmond, in the delightful shades of likely bloodshed, to come. The political and municipal insti. Hain walks and Twickenham meadows. I never saw so many flower. tutions of the country were far too free to be to the liking of ing limes and weeping willows as in that neighbourhood. They say, an absolutist like the King of Spain or his lieutenant, and the you know, that Pope's famous willow was the first in the country; people feared lest assaults should be made upon those instituand it seems to corroborate it, that there are so many in the vicinity, tions accordingly. But still more they feared for what the Under the shade of the trees we read Southey's 'Amadis,' which I
new governor might bring against that freedom to worship suppose you are also reading. As all Englishmen are now to turn
God according to the dictates of their consciences, which they knights-errant, and fight against the great giant and monster, Buona
had hitherto virtually enjoyed. parte, the publication seems very reasonable. Pray are you an alarmist? One hardly knows whether to be frightened or diverted
With very many of the Netherlanders the doctrines of the on seeing people assembled at a dinner-table, appearing to enjoy ex
Reformation had found a cordial welcome, so that it is not tremely the fare and the company, and saying all the while, with a perhaps exceeding to say that one-third of their number were most smiling and placid countenance, that the French are to land in a Protestants. Charles the Fifth, himself a rigid Catholic, half fortnight, and that London is to be sacked and plundered for three allowed, while he disapproved, the spread of the Reformation days-and then they talk of going to watering places. I am sure we among his people. No persecuting measures had been taken do not believe in the danger we pretend to believe in; and I am sure
to secure uniformity during his reign; and though the Catholics that none of us can even form an idea how we should feel if we were complained of toleration, and did what they could to stir up war forced to believe it. I wish I could lose, in the quiet walks of litera- against it, the Protestants were allowed to meet in their own ture, all thoughts of the present state of the political horizon. My brother is going to publish ‘Letters to a Young Lady on English places of worship. But now it was felt--and there had been Poetry.' He is indefatigable. 'I wish you were hall as diligent, soveral straws showing which way the wind was likely to blow say you. * Amen !' say I.
Love to Eliza and Laura, and thank the —that all this was about to be changed. What had been former for her note. I shall always be glad to hear from either of attempted in France was to be attempted in the Netherlands, them. How delightful must be the soft beatings of a heart entering and, as it seemed, with much better chances of success. The into the world for the first time, every surrounding object new, fresh, Inquisition was to be imported as part of the baggage of the and fair-all smiling within and without! Long may every sweet Spanish army, and the Protestants of the Low Countries were illusion continue that promotes happiness, and ill befall the rough hand to be brought into slavery by it. In France, where the that would destroy them !”
Huguenots numbered over two millions, and included among
their ranks some of the most influential of Frenchmen, the HISTORIC SKETCHES.-XXXII.
attempts of the League--with its Guises, its Lorraines, and its
Mayennes—to thrust the Inquisition upon the land, were met by ALVA'S MASTER.--THE NETHERLANDS.
a stubborn organisation of singularly brave men, who had MANY a stout heart quailed, and many a brave man feared, in moreover the countenance, and could procure the material the cities of the Netherlands, when it was known there, towards support, of several foreign powers, enemies to their enemies. the close of the year 1567, that Ferdinand, Duke of Alva, was In the Netherlands there was not any such organisation, coming with an army from Spain to assume the government of at least not then, nor was there, as it seemed, the slightest the provinces. Under the regency of the Duchess of Parma, prospect of one being formed. It seemed at first sight that daughter of their beloved Charles Quint (Charles the Fifth, the provinces were utterly at the mercy of the Spaniards, men Emperor of Germany, King of Spain and the Indies, Duke of in whose composition the quality of mercy was left ont-bigots, Burgundy and the Low Countries), they had lived contented sincere in their bigotry, and cruel by their nature against enough, save that occasionally they complained of the number everything that thwarted it. Only those whose trust was not and weight of the taxes, and resented grumblingly any attack in the arm of flesh only, who believed indeed that there was a that was made upon their old commercial and municipal privi. God who judgeth the earth, One who could “mock the counsel leges. They adored the memory of Charles the Fifth, the of the wise and valour of the brave”-only such men did not grandson of their own Mary of Burgundy. Charles had dwelt despair. Long and bitter was tho struggle, dark and frightful among them, known them as it were intimately, preferred to was the night, but with the morning came joy, albeit a subdued live in their country rather than in any other spot in his one, and the result of the struggle was to show the world once dominions, and ever got back to it again as soon as he could again that the victory not always to the strong. when the exigencies of public business took him out of it. His Alva came, the Duchess of Parma was superseded, and the rule was kindly, though it did not brook rebellion, but then no worst fears of the Netherlanders were justified. Both in politics one wanted to rebel against Charles Quint. Under his rule the and religion their liberty was to be taken away, and that by Netherlands were happy and flourishing, more so than they means which showed an almost brutal indifference to all their had been at any previous period of their history. When he tenderest susceptibilities. The system of local self-government abdicated in favour of his son, Philip II. (in 1556), and it was was changed for government by soldiers, troops were quartered found that the new king intended to live in Spain, the Nether. | in all the large towns, and the smaller places followed of landers thought themselves fortunate in having so Charles necessity the example of submission into which their larger
brethren were surprised. The Netherlands were occupied as into the strife, and came promptly to an untimely end. But 3 hostile country; the irresponsible prerogative of martial law the great nobles, the men of influence and fortune, hesitated was substitut:d for the known laws of the land ; and the harsh to guide the storm of their countrymen's indignation against ness and insolence of military commanders usurped on the the oppressors, until they were satisfied that nothing was to judgment-seat the place of magisterial calmness and equity. be got by other means, and until, when satisfied of that,
This was meant only as a foundation on which to build the things were actually ready for the tremendous contest. There hateful Inquisition. When the people were bound hand and no lack of patriotism, of self-denial, self-sacrifice, or foot by an army, it was supposed they might be made to personal courage in the Dutch, Flemish, and Brabant nobles, accept this darling project of Philip. But there was a limit but they felt themselves constrained to hope, almost against to the patience even of the Dutchmen and Belgians.* There hope, that so dreadful a sorrow as that which threatened, was a line over which they could not be pushed without re- would not be thrust upon their country. They felt it to be sistance; and when the people found that the Inquisition was their duty, in spite of what was daily going on through among them, they rose in spite of the presence of the Spanish Spanish instrumentality, to try—as the Long Parliament did soldiery, so that throughout the provinces there was nothing in England before the Civil War-every constitutional means but tumalt. It was a state of things well pleasing to Alva, of easing the people's burdens before they committed themwhose cruel disposition took delight in the prospect of dragoon- selves and the country to opon war with the government. ing the people into submission, of getting rid, by the way, of They tried and failed. The crafty Spaniard who governed sundry inconvenient nobles, and at the same time of doing pretended to listen to their remonstrances, and made a show what his bigotry told him was a service acceptable to God, of asking their advice, but he simply wanted to gain time, viz., the punishment and eradication of heresy.
and to mature his plans for getting them into his net. Alva's powers were of the fullest. There was no need to Greatest of all the noblemen in the provinces was the Prince send to Madrid for instructions, though reinforcements were of Orange, known in history as William the Silent. Of vast demanded and sent. The risings which took place in most of estates and fortune, second to none in rank, of extraordinary the large towns were put down with Spanish cruelty; men were ability and indomitable will, he was eminently fitted to be the hanged summarily over their own doors ; the prisons were not leader of his country. He was of those who tried everything erowded, for the Spanish system was too “thorough” to be rather than rebellion to bring the Spaniards to their senses. bampered with prisoners, its judicial procedure too simple to He was the first to see that nothing but rebellion would do, the be fettered with a sliding scale of punishments according to first who set seriously to work to organise and draw to a head offences, and so Death got his due, and more ; and there was that spirit of resistance which was rife throughout the country. mourning of widows and orphans wherever the Spanish officers Being a man who kept his own counsel, and who never made set up their courts. These first risings were the expression of a feint till he was ready to strike, he succeeded in keeping spontaneous, natural resistance to tyranny, not the result of clear of Alva's toils, though not of his suspicion. Convinced organised rebellion. The Netherlanders formerly, under their when he saw the Inquisition actually established, its victims counts and dukes, had been so tetohy and independent as to of both sexes publicly burned by scores, whole townships ruthhave acquired a notoriety in Europe as the most rebellious and lessly butchered, in return for trivial signs of disaffection, and unmanageable of subjects, and had dared on several occasions a reign of terror begun, that there could be but one end of it to provoke and resist the wrath of so hard and haughty a all, he kept out of the Spanish monster's way, and gave
him. lord as Charles the Bold, of Burgundy. But under more self heart and soul to the cause which, but for him-unless a judicious and larger-hearted government, especially that of their miracle had been wrought-must have perished miserably. now persecutor's father, they had forgotten the art of factions. The spark which fired the train of every Netherlander's fury ness, and scarcely knew what it meant to rebel. Now they was the seizure, mock trial, and execution of Counts Egmont had to learn hurriedly, and in the face of cruel necessity, the and Horn at Brussels. These noblemen fell victims to their long disused science, and to unite heart and hand in a com- own generous impetuosity, which led them, in the discharge of mon cause, which was not only the cause of patriotism, but of what they deemed to be their duty, to place themselves at the humanity. It was seen very clearly that unless a stop were mercy-save the mark !-of the Duke of Alva. They were pat, or at least a protest raised, against the policy of which exceedingly popular, and in their blood was quench the last the Duke of Alva was the exponent, both the name and form spark of allegiance towards the Spanish king. Many merchants of political independence were gone, and the hitherto free and skilled artisans left the country, and brought to England Netherlanders must become the slaves of Spain. This fact the wealth and industry which helped so materially to enlarge brought over to the ranks of the malcontents even those who, the commercial prosperity of that country during the time of being Catholics, might not have been disposed to stir against Elizabeth ; but there remained enough of willing hearts and the Inquisition. The attempt to subvert civil liberty struck a strong bodies to bear the cause of the Prince of Orange stiflly chord in all hearts which vibrated right through the land. But up, and to resist even to death, and beyond the power of death, most of the Catholics resented the Inquisition with nearly as the wicked attempts of the Spaniards to tread down their much anger as the Protestants, the result being that every brethren. man, woman, and child in the Low Countries, with a few In 1572 William the Silent put himself at the head of the ignoble exceptions, was ready, from one motive or the other, to Beggars, as the insurgents were contemptuously called, and rebel against Alvaism. Remonstrants were treated as mutineers, gave the Spanish soldiers something else than unarmed burghers deputations to Spain to beg the interference and protection of and defenceless women to practise on. Alva took the field, and Philip were insulted and maltreated, and orders were given to made preparations on an extensive scale for crushing the rothe Duke of Alva to “ quiet” the provinces.
bellion; but his wary opponent, possessing an intimate know. The spirit of rebellion unguided, not concentrated but dif. ledge of the country, and having the sympathies of all nonfused, could only expose those in whom it dwelt to revengeful combatants-all the fighting men were with him-avoided any destruction, without in any way helping them to the goal they decisive actions, and practised his troops in skirmishes and aimed at. Organisation, and some definite object to be gained small engagements with the enemy. Aware, however, of the through it—these were necessary to success; and for these the importance of securing the sea-coast, in order to keep up his people looked, naturally enough, to the nobles, their country. communications with England and to ensure supplies, he made then, who lived among them, knew their ways and thoughts, a dash at Brille, captured it, and having fortified the place, and were thoroughly identified with themselves. At first the began fitting out cruisers to proy upon Spanish commerce. nobles held back. They were shy of entering upon an enter. The war went on with drea lful fury. The raw levies of the prise wherein the alternative of success—success against the insurgents were no match in the open field for the splendidly. power and resources of the mightiest empire in the world—were trained troops of Spain, and they had more courage than discre. death for themselves and their followers, and ruin, thorough tion even in the defence of their besieged towns. The result was and complete, for their families. A few generous spirits, and a that the Netherlanders experienced defeat after defeat, each few with little save their own heads to lose, entered precipitately loss being followed up by barbarous executions of prisoners,
and the captured towns being exposed to all the brutality of a The existing kingdoms of Holland and Belgium were at this time licentious soldiery. But no disaster could daunt the spirit of focluded in the Netherlands, of which there were seventeen provinces. I the Prince of Orange : bowed down though he was with the
en route ?
weight of cares and responsibilities, grieved and shocked for the trouvaient là,9 en les invitant à faire quelques acquisitions. Le sufferings which the rebellion had brought upon the people, he marchand poussa un cri de joie : never gave way to despair. Quietly, doggedly, trustfully, he “Enfin te voilà (h) retrouvé, mon brave Moustache,” 10 s'écriz. applied himself to his work, convinced of the righteousness of t-il en fattant (i) le chien. his cause, and willing to leave the issue in His hands with whom Alors il se mit (j) à raconter, qu'en traversant la forêt, son are all tiinus. Generally defeated, he set the example which chien s'était élancé à la poursuite d'un animal sauvage," qu'il his descendant, William the Third of England, followed, of ne s'était aperçu que long-temps après de sa disparition, qu'alors immediately showing front again, and of snatching from the il l'avait vainement appelé; Moustache n'était pas revenu. n enemy the fruits of victory. Alva fretted like a galled horse, avait alors supposé, qu'entraîné par son ardeur, son chien s'était but he could not make any impression. All his cruelty, all his égaré, la ou bien encore, qu'ayant attaqué quelque bête féroce, il cunning, all his energy went for nothing; he had found his avait succombé dans la lutte. master; and after two years spent in incessantly trying, with "Je ne m'étais pas tout à fait 13 trompé,” (k) ajouta-t-il, "carje enormous means, to win back the revolted provinces, he was vois que Moustache a été blessé. Mais qui donc a eu la bonté obliged to give up in despair, and return to Spain with the (to de le secourir, de panser sa blessure ?” 14 s'écria-t-il en apercehim) grim satisfaction that during his term of office he had vant le mouchoir qui enveloppait la patte de Moustache. destroyed some 18,000 of the Netherlanders by public execu- À ces mots, le chien, comme s'il eut compris (!) ce que venait tions.
de dire son maître, se mit à courir au-devant des trois enfants 15 Requesens succeeded him, and after carrying on a desolating qui se dirigeaient de ce côté, et se plaçant près de Fanny, 16 il ne war for three years, during which the people of the provinces la quitta pas d'un instant, qu'elle ne fût arrivée à l'endroit où suffered horribly, he was obliged to come to terms with some se trouvait le marchand. 17 of the states, eleven of which agreed for peace on condition of
COLLOQUIAL EXERCISE. Alva's laws being repealed, all foreigners being expelled, and
9. Que faisait le marchand amthe power of the States-General being restored. Don John of 1. Que fit Fanny après avoir ar.
raché l'épine ?
bulant? Austria, brother to Philip of Spain, succeeded Requesens, and
2. Que fit-elle de son mouchoir ? 10, Que dit son maitre en voyant artfully wrought upon the southern provinces to desert the 3. Comment le chien marqua-t-il le chien ? northern by appealing to their anti-Protestant prejudices. The
sa reconnaissance ?
11. Que raconta le marchand? Prince of Orange knew what he was doing, and anticipated the 4. Où se coucha-t-il ensuite ? 12. Qu'avait-il supposé ? result by forming, in 1579, the Confederacy of Utrecht, which 5. Que fit le chien de Terre. 13. Qu'ajouta-il ensuite ? was the foundation of the Dutch Republic, known as the Re- Neuve, quand ils se remirent 14. Que demanda-t-il en apercepublic of the United Provinces.
vant le mouchoir ?
15. Comment le chien sembla-t-il The war continued, the Belgians joining with the Spaniards, 6. Quel signe lui fit alors Fanny ?
répondre à la question de son under the first generals of the age, to crush the Hollanders! 7. Que fit le chien sur le chemin
de l'habitation ?
maitre ? The sufferings of the devoted people were horrible, but they 8. Où courut-il après avoir franchi 16. Où ce plaça-t-il ? never talked of surrender; they were often brimful of despair, la barrière ?
17. Quand quitta-t-il Fanny ? but they never allowed it to find vent. In 1581 they offered the crown to the Duke of Anjou, brother of the French king, but he could not take it; then they offered it, in 1585, to
(a) From fairo.
(9) Marchand ambulant, itinerant Queen Elizabeth, who also declined, but she helped them with (6) Se coucha, laid down.
(h) Te voilà, here you are. (pedlar. an army, in which Sir Philip Sidney fought and died, in which
(c) From remettre.
(i) Flattant, caressing.
(d) From faire. Walter Raleigh served, and which the Earl of Leicester com
(j) Il se mit, he commenced. manded. In 1584, when the murder of William of Orange ) From prendre.
(c) Forma cortège, escorted. (k) Trompé, mistaken.
(l) From comprendre. seemed to render the cause of the patriots utterly hopeless, the Hollanders gave Maurice, the dead man's son, the supreme
SECTION III. command; and he, emulating the wisdom and valoar of his Alors, remuant la queue et regardant tour à tour Fanny et father, strove so well, in conjunction with his English allies, son maître, Moustache sembla la désigner comme celle qui lui that he beat back the oppressors of his country, weary and avait donné ses soins. Le marchand apprit (a) alors des enfants exhausted, and compelled Spain, in 1609, to acknowledge the ce qui s'était passé ;2 le pauvre homme ne savait (b) comment independence of the Republic.
leur témoigner sa reconnaissance, car dans ses longues courses, The other provinces which made peace with Spain remained Moustache était non-seulement pour lui un compagnon de route, to that power till 1714, when they were made over to the c'était un véritable ami, un brave défenseur qui l'avait préservé Austrian Hapsburgs, who kept them till 1791. In that year de mille dahgers. Il voulait mettre à la disposition des enfants the French annexed them, and they formed part of the empire toute sa petite cargaison ;ó mais M. Dérambert s'opposa à ce till the overthrow of Napoleon. On that occasion they were qu'il fît aucun sacrifice onéreux ;6 seulement, comme il vit (c) added to the kingdom of Holland, with which they remained que ce refus l'affligeait, il permit à ses enfants d'accepter quel. till 1830, when the existing kingdoms of Holland and Belgium ques jouets de peu de valeur.? Le lendemain, le marchand were marked out and recognised.
partit en demandant à M. Dérambert la permission de revenir dans quelque temps visiter son habitation, ce qui lui fut accordé
de grand cæur. READINGS IN FRENCH.–VII.
Trois mois à peine s'étaient écoulés (d) depais cette époque, UN BIENFAIT N'EST JAMAIS PERDU. lorsqu'un jour Alfred, s'étant mis (e) à la poursuite d'un papillon,
s'écarta sans qu'on fit attention à sa disparition. Sur les dix SECTION II.
heures du matin, heure à laquelle les trois enfants avaient FANNY arracha l'épine, nɔn sans peine, lava le sang qui coulait l'habitude d'aller à la vallée déjeûner à l'ombre du châtaignier, de la blessure ;' puis, prenant son mouchoir, elle en fit (a) un on fut très-surpris de ne le point voir avec Auguste et Fanny.10 bandage avec lequel elle enveloppa la patte du patient, qui, se On l'appela, on le chercha de tous côtés ; 11 bientôt tout le sentant soulagé, léchait le cou et les mains de sa petite bien- monde fut sur pied. Alfred ne parut (f) pas. Le père et la faitrice,3 en faisant entendre un grognement de plaisir ; puis il mère, tous les domestiques parcoururent en vain les alentours ;'2 de coucha (b) à ses pieds + jusqu'au moment où les enfants se ils n'en découvrirent aucune trace ; 13 désespérés de cet événedisposèrent à regagner l'habitation. Quand ils se remirent (c) ment, ils se partagèrent en plusieurs bandes ; l* ils allèrent avec en route, il alla se placer à côté de Fanny,“ en fixant sur elle leurs voisins, qu'ils avertirent du malheur qui leur était arrivé, des yeux expressifs et qui semblaient l'interroger. Elle lui fit à la découverte, et ils s'enfoncèrent dans la forêt qu'ils batti. signe de la suivre. Alors, oubliant sa blessure, faisant (d) un rent (4) en tout sens avec la plus scrupuleuse attention. 15 Mille bond de plaisir, l'animal forma cortège (e) à la petite troupe,? fois ils appelèrent l'enfant par son nom, ils n'en reçurent aucune qui ne tarda pas à rentrer dans la cour de l'habitation.
réponse.le Cependant, les dernières lueurs du jour n'éclairaient À peine avaient-ils franchi la barrière, que le chien prit (1) sa plus que faiblement les recherches, 17 et rien encore n'était venu courze et se précipita vers un groupe* rassemblé autour d'une i calmer les inquiétudes de M. et de Mme. Dérambert : les apsorta de marchand ambulant (g) qui, ayant ouvert plusieurs proches de la nuit redoublèrent leurs alarmes. 18 Dans leur ballots, étalait ses marchandises devant les personnes qui se désespoir, ils ne voulurent jamais consentir à retourner dans
lenr domicile.19 Ils allumèrent des torches de résine et firent (h) LESSONS IN CHEMISTRY.-XXII. retentir les bois, les vallées, Ju nom chéri d'Alfred.20 Alfred, mon Alfred! où es-tu ?" s'écriait la mère de l'ac
DENUM-VANADIUM. cent de voix le plus déchirant; mais c'était en vain. Je D'essaierai (i) pas non plus de vous peindre le désespoir d'Au.
3. Refining.--Although “pig-iron" is used for casting, it is guste et de Fannya plenrant, sanglotant. Le châtaignier, le unable to be worked at the forge, and before it can become rnisseau, les frais bocages qu'ils parcouraient ensemble ne pré-"wrought-iron” it must pass through two processes, in which Bentaient aucune trace d’Alfred.
all extraneous matter is removed. The finery into which the
pig-iron is introduced is a furnace, or forge, on the hearth of COLLOQUIAL EXERCISE.
which it is melted, not in contact with the combustible matter, 1. Que fit le chien en regardant 11. Que fit-on alors ?
which is usually coke; a double row of blast-pipes urge the Fanny ?
12. Où allèrent le père, la mère et heated air, etc., from the burning coke over the hearth on 2 Qa'apprit le marchand, des tous les domestiques ? which the pig-iron is placed, and thus it is melted. Fig. 51 enfants ?
13. Trouvèrent-ils le petit garçon? will afford an easy explanation of this process. The iron is 3. Le pauvre homme paraissait- 14. Comment firent-ils ensuite ?
melted on the hearth, A, which is made of iron plates, which are il ému ?
15. Examinèrent-ils bien la forêt ? kept cool by the air being allowed to circulate freely around. 4. Pourquoi était-il si reconnais. 16. Leur recherche eut-elle quelque The fire is fed with coke through the door 1, and the iron is sant?
succès ? 5. Que voulait-il donner aux en. 17. Quelle heure était-il alors ?
introduced by a side door in the wall, which has been taken fants ?
18. Quel fut l'effet des approches away to exhibit this section ; B are two of the blast-pipes; F is 6. À quoi M. Dérambert s'op- de la nuit, sur les parents de the floss-hole, out of which the slag escapes as it rises over the posa-t-il ?
partition, floating on the melted iron. The following will at 7. Que perinit-il à ses enfants 19. Voulurent-ils rentrer chez once show the effect the refinery has on the cast-iron :d'accepter ? eux ?
Carbon. Silicon. Phosphorus. & Que demanda à M. Dérambert 20. Que firent-ils ensuite ?
92.3 = 100*0. le marchand, à son départ ? 21. Auguste et Fanny parta
Refined Iron. 1.7 + 0.5 + 0.0
978 = 1000. 9. Qu'arriva-t-il trois mois après ? geaient-ils le chagrin de leurs 10. À quelle heure s'aperçut-on de parents ?
The carbon and phosphorus are burnt out. Some of the iron l'absence du petit Alfred ?
is oxidised, and this, with the silicon, forms a fusible slag, and
comes away through the floss-hole. The melted iron is run off NOTES.
into flat cakes about three or four inches thick, and is suddenly (a) From apprendre. (f) From paraitre.
cooled by throwing water upon it. It has now lost the coarse (6] From saroir. (9) From battre.
grain of the pig-iron, and its colour is a silvery white. (c) From voir. (n) Firent, caused; from faire.
4. Puddling is the last process by which the remaining silicon (d) S'étaient écoulés, had elapsed. (1) From essayer.
and carbon are separated from the iron. The refined iron is (8) From metire.
broken into pieces, and again melted in a reverberatory furnace, similar to the one drawn in Fig. 51. The melted mass is stirred
with iron rods, upon the end of which it agglomerates, forming KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN FRENCH.
blooms. The rod is drawn from the furnace with this mass of EXERCISE 121 (Vol. II., page 202).
white-hot molten paste adhering to it, and although it weighs 1. Would you be glad to become acquainted with that gentleman ? 2.
some three-quarters of a hundred-weight, yet with the greatest I should be very glad of it. 3. Does that horse go a league in a quarter
ease and rapidity one or two men drag it to the shingling press, of an hour? 4. He went a league this morning in twelve minutes. 5. where a huge hammer descends upon it; again and again the Have you asked them questious ? 6. I have. 7. What questions pressman turns it under the blow of the hammer, which squeezes bare you asked them? 8. I have asked them if they had made pur. out the impurities, and welds the metal into a plate of “ wroughtchases. 9. Do your pupils improve in their studies ? 10. They do iron.” bot improve much, they seldom come to school. 11. If you were at bome, would you pretend to sleep? 12. I should not certainly pretend operation of reducing iron from the ore; but it must be re
As fully as our space will permit, we have described the to sleep.
13. Why do you not let in that beggar? 14. My mother las jast given him alms. 15. Does the merchaut use his credit?
membered that the quality of the iron is affected by the least
16 He uses it. 17. Of what food does that sick man make use? 18. He
change in the fuel, the lime, or the quantity of air driven by makes use of rice and broth. 19. Are you doing your best to succeed ? the blasts, and that at every point of the process experience has 2). I am doing my best. 21. Have you let in those children, or have suggested certain improvements, to understand which a work you made them go out? 22. I left thein where they were. 23. Have on metallurgy must be consulted. Te made you wait? 24. You have made us wait several hours. 25. Steel is a carbide of iron; it contains from 1:3 to 1.7 per cent. li for made those ladies wait, they would be angry.
of carbon. The usual mode of manufacturing steel is to pack EXERCISE 122 (Vol. II., page 202).
bars of wrought-iron in boxes of brickwork, with cement powder,
which is a mixture of soot and salt. The boxes are so arranged 1. Cet enfant fait-il semblant de lire ? 2. Il fait semblant de
that they can be elevated to a temperature which will melt lire. 3. Ce monsieur ne fait-il pas semblant de dormir ? 4. Il ne fait pas semblant de dormir, il dort réellement. 5. Voulez-vous copper, and maintained at that point for six or eight days; thus faire un tour de promenade ce matin? 6. Je le ferais avec plaisir, i carbon is introduced into the iron. It will be evident that the si j'avais le temps. 7. Avez-vous fait connaissance avec le médecin exterior of the bar will be more highly carburetted than the S. Je n'ai pas encore fait convaissance avec lui. 9. Combien de interior; hence the bars are melted in crucibles and cast into questioos avez-vous faites à l'enfant ? 10. Je lui ai fait beaucoup ingots, forming the cast-steel of which cutlery is made. Seeing de qaestions. 11. Lui avez-vons demaudé s'il avait étudié sa that there is 3 per cent. of carbon in pig-iron, and none in
12. Je ne le lui ai pas demaudé. 13. Cette petite fille ne wrought-iron, it is plain that if the process were stopped just at feri--elle pas son possible pour apprendre sa leçon? 14. Elle fera that point when the metal was combined with 1.5 of carbon we possible pour l'apprendre. 15. De quelle nourriture faites-vous
should have steel. Upon this principle Mr. Bessemer founded unge quand vous êtes malade ? 16. Nous faisons usage de pain et de riz
. 17. Avez-vous oublié de faire vos adieux à Mme. votre mère? his process of making steel; he forces a quantity of air into the 18 Je ne l'avais pas oublié, j'aviis l'intention d'aller chez elle cette bottom of a cylinder full of melted "pig-iron," and thus burns après-midi. 19. Avec qui avez-vous fait connaissance ? 20. Avec le
out the carbon; the process is arrested just when the proper bbraire. 21. Ne faites-vous pay attendre ces dames ? 22. Je ne les quantity of carbon remains to form steel. Bessemer's steel is fuis pas attendre, elles ne sont pas prêtes. 23. Est-ce que je vous largely used for rails of railways, and, indeed, is fast supplanthis attendre? 24. Vous ne me faites pas attendre, 25. Avez-vous ing the use of wrought-iron, where hardness is required. kaussé vos enfants dans votre chambre? 26. Je ne l'ai pas fait. 27.
When steel is touched with a drop of nitric acid a grey spot Les gvez-vous fait sortir? 28. Je ne les ai pas fait sortir, je les ai laissés où ils étaient. 29. Avez-vous fait des emplettes ce matin ?
appears, the acid dissolving the iron, and the carbon remaining.
30. Je n'en ai pas fait, je n'ai pas d'argent.
Iron forms with oxygen three distinct oxides—ferrous oxide
31. Le domestique a-t-il fait du feu dans ma chambre? 32. Il en a fait. 33. Ferez-vous votre (Feo), ferric oxide or sesquioxide (Fe,0,), magnetic oxide, possible pour venir demain? 34. Je s rai mon possible pour venir
which is a compound of these (FeO, Fe,0z), and ferric acid de bonne heure. 35. Nous fîmes hier quarante lieues en seize (H,,Fe0.). beures.
The first can never be obtained, for its great affinity for
oxygen causes it to unite with that element and become the out into wire. When bent it emits a “crackling" poise. It next higher oxide. In a hydrated form it is precipitated from melts at 235° Cent., and can be volatilised, though with difficulty. any ferrous solution by potash.
The air has but little effect on it; but when heated to a high Ferric oxide (Fe, 0g) appears in nature crystallised as specular temperature combines with oxygen, burning brilliantly into a iron ore, and as red hæmatite. It may be prepared artificially white powder, stannic oxide (Sn0,). by precipitation from ferrio sulphate or chloride by ammonia, It is chiefly used in commerce as a covering to sheets of iron. and heating the precipitate. Both the above oxides are bases The best iron is used, and by a series of processes is rendered for corresponding salts.
chemically clean; the sheet is then immersed in melted tin, and Ferrous sulphate (FeSo, + 7H,0) is copperas or green vitriol; an alloy is formed at the surface of the iron. The sheet is it is the result of the action of sulphuric acid on metallic iron. dipped a second time, and the superfluous metal drained off. If it be permitted to absorb oxygen it changes colour, and If the surface of a sheet of tin be sponged with a mixture of becomes partially Ferric sulphate (Fe,380.). Green vitriol is two parts nitric acid, two of hydrochloric, and four of water, used with astringent matters as a black dye. With gallic acid the crystalline appearance known as moirée métallique is proit forms ink.
duced. The plate must be gently heated before the application Ferrous chloride (Fe,CI).—When iron is acted upon by hydro- of the acid, and quickly plunged into water and varnished. chloric acid, and the solution evaporated, green crystals of this Different effects may be produced by using coloured varnishes. salt, with four molecules of water of crystallisation, are formed. Alloys of Tin.-Britannia metal is equal parts of brass, tin,
Ferric chloride (Fe,cla) is produced when hydrochloric acid antimony, and bismuth. Pewter is 4 parts of tin and 1 of acts upon ferric oxide.
lead. Solder, 2 parts of tin and 1 of lead. Bell metal is 78 Ferric acid has never been prepared, it is very unstable ; but of copper and 22 of tin. Gun metal is 90 of copper and 10 of if nitre and ferric oxide be fused together, potassium ferrate tin. Bronze contains less tin than gun metal, and usually 3 or (K,Fe0.) is formed. This metal forms many other salts, but 4 per cent. of zinc. Speculum metal, which admits of a high they are of no great interest.
polish, and is used for the mirrors of reflecting telescopes, conThe ferrous or protoxide salts give green solutions; with sists of 2 parts of copper and 1 of tin, and an amalgam of tin alkalis they yield white precipitates, and a light-blue colour and mercury is employed for silvering mirrors. A sheet of tin. with potassium ferro-cyanide, which rapidly becomes dark. If foil is laid on a level marble slab, and covered by clean mercury; their solution be slightly acid, sulphuretted hydrogen has no the superfluous quicksilver runs into a groove cut in the stone effect upon them.
round its edge. When the mercury remains on the foil in a Ferric or peroxide salts are of a reddish-brown colour, and layer of the thickness of half-a-crown, a perfectly dry and clean such is the colour of their
sheet of glass is carefully precipitate with the various
slid over the mercury, bealkalig.
ginning at one end of the Potassium sulpho-cyanide
slab by dipping the edge of in neutral solutions gives a
the glass beneath the sur. thick precipitate of a dark.
face of the quicksilver-thus red colour, similar to that
all air-bubbles are excluded; of blood. Potassium ferro.
the glass is covered with cyanide affords a copious pre
flannel and weighted, the slab cipitate of a rich dark-blue
being inclined to allow the colour.
mercury to drain off. This It should be said that
B inclination is increased until, under the action of the blow
in a month, the glass is verpipe both classes of salts
tical, and is then in a fit con. act alike, namely, with them
dition to frame. a borax bead becomes green Fig. 51.-SECTION OF REFIXIRG FURNACE.
Tin forms two oxides : in the reducing flame, which
Stannous oxide (Sno) is all but loses its colour when it is exposed to the oxidising flame. prepared as a white hydrate, by precipitation from a solution
of stannous chloride by an alkaline carbonate. When moist TITANIUM
it absorbs oxygen, and becomesSYMBOL, Ti — COMBINING WEIGHT, 50.
Stannic oxide (SnO2), which is found as tin-stone. It may be This is a rare metal, generally associated with iron. They artificially prepared by the action of nitric acid on tin, or by appear together in Rutile, and it would seem that a minute quan- adding an alkali to a solution of a stannic salt. It is remarktity of titanium is disseminated through the clay iron ore. For able, that when prepared in the former way it is insoluble in in the cindery coating of the crucible of a smelting furnace, hydrochloric acid, whereas, in the latter case, it is readily after many years' work, there appears beautiful cubic crystals of soluble. a red metallic substance, which are found to be a compound of When tin is treated with nitric acid, a white crystalline in. nitrogen and titanium. Though this metal is found with iron, soluble mass is formed it bears a close analogy to
Metastannic acid, which, when heated to 100° Cent., parts
with some of its water and becomes SYMBOL, Sn COMBINING WEIGHT, 118 - SPECIFIC GRAVITY, 7.3. Putty powder, which is much used in making enamels. These
The only ore of tin of importance is tin-stone, which is the oxides of tin are of great use to the dyer as mordants. binoxide of the metal (SnO,); it is by no means widely dis- Bisulphide of tin (Sns,) is mosaic gold, a powder which closely tributed, only being worked in three or four localities. The resembles the precious metal, and is used in decoration. mines of Cornwall furnished the Romans with their supply, The purple of Cassius appears when stannous chloride (SnCL) and still yield 6,000 tons annually. The island of Banca, in is added to a solution of chloride of gold. the East Indies, is almost a block of very pure ore.
TUNGSTEN. also possesses tin mines. When a stream of water wears away the rock through which a vein of tin passes, the ore is found
SYMBOL, W COMBINING WEIGHT, 184. water-worn in the bed of the stream. This is the most valuable This metal, combined with iron, occurs in the mineral wolfram. ore, and goes by the name of stream-tin. The reduction of the It has been lately discovered that a little of it in steel greatly metal is easily accomplished, since the washed and pure ore has increases the hardness of that substance. only to be submitted to heat in a reverberatory furnace, mixed Tungstic acid (W03) is obtained as a yellow powder when with coal and a little lime. The ore gives up its oxygen to the native tungstate of lime, scheelite, is treated with nitric acid ; coal, and the lime, with some silica, which is unavoidably pre with sodium, the tungstate of soda is formed, which is mixed sent, forms a fusible slag. The metal sinks to the bottom of with starch, and used by the laundress to render muslins, etc., the furnace, and the slag swims on its surface.
uninflammable. Tin is a white brilliant metal, capable of being beaten ont Molybdenum and Vanadium are closely allied to tungsten, but, into "foil,” and sufficiently ductile to allow of its being drawn / as yet, have no commercial value.