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tive eye. It is singular that our common cattle, the aurochs or first swallow, and then, after some time, commence the chewing European bison, and the bison of America should each differ in process, called “ruminating" by the learned, and “ chewing the the number of the ribs. The domesticated or has but thirteen cud” by the peasant. Let us trace this process in our well. pairs, the aurochs fourteen, and the American bison fifteen pairs. known friend the cow. We see the tongue collecting a monthThese wild cattle of the New World are sometimes, though im- ful of grass into a small bundle, which is then nipped off by the properly, called buffaloes, but the name is of small importance, combined action of the teeth of the lower jaw and the grasping the chief fact calling for notice being the countless hosts which power of the muscular lips. It will be observed that the cow spread over the prairies. Some of these droves are estimated at does not pause to masticate the grass, but swallows, or, as 20,000 head of majestic cattlo, many being eight feet long, and some would say, “ bolts” the whole. The matter, thus speedily weighing nearly eighteen hundredweight each. No wonder is disposed of, is deposited for awhile in the first stomach or it that the fiercest wars between the Indians and the white races rumen, which serves as a kind of cupboard or store-room, in should arise from the intense desire of the red men to keep the which the food is kept till wanted for further operations. It magnificent hunting-grounds of the bison regions for them consists of four small sub-divisions, and the coat is covered selves. If the white man should advance, as he surely will, the with thousands of little elevations, which doubtless produce bison will depart or perish, for the European slaughters them by some chemical change on the newly-received food. The tens of thousands for the hides and tallow only. Nor will this diseases of this stomach often demand the attention of be matter for wonder, when it is remembered that 150 pounds the rustic “cow doctor," and even of the skilled veterinary weight of fat are obtained from the best animals, and that the surgeon. Here are frequently formed dangerous concretions of hides are so valuable as to have been called “ Californian bank hardened vegetable or even mineral matters. The once famous notes.” Then the white man is grieved at the dearness of meat bezoar stones, supposed to be universal remedies against in the crowded homes of civilisation, and is forming societies for poisons, were simply formed by disease in the stomach of preserving bison beef, and transporting it to the meat market the wild goat of Persia. These

of phosphata of England. The red man has heard of this, and is gloomily of lime have been sold for five or six times their weight of pondering over the one great article of his creed, “If white man gold! From this first large stomach the food descends into comes, bison goes.” But the departure or destruction of these the second, much smaller, but exceedingly complex in structure. wonderful herds means the annihilation of the red tribes. It is covered with multitudes of small cells, from which it is often Therefore is it that, even while we are reading these lines, the called the honeycomb bag. The food is so acted upon in this rifles are flashing along the Indian frontiers. The bison is the receptacle as to take usually the form of compact and rounded main cause of the contest. “Why don't the red men plough masses, which are returned from this second stomach, by a pecuthe ground? then there would be lots of food, and to spare,” liar muscular action, through the gullet into the mouth. Then cries the exasperated white settler, whose house has been burnt begins the process properly called ruminating, during which the by the savages. There is just the difficulty. The Indian will cow seems to enjoy the very perfection of animal bliss. As not plough; therefore he must hunt; therefore he relies on the each portion of the food is re-masticated, it is passed from the bison; and therefore he tries, but all in vain, to stop, even mouth direct into the third stomach. This is accomplished by with rifle and tomahawk, the white man’s resistless march. the closing of the tube which leads to the first and second Such is the importance of one member of the ox family in the stomachs. This third receptacle is very small, and is called the far West. Every poor man in England has an interest in the manyplus, from the numerous folds, arranged like the leaves of matter. If the Indian would become a tiller of the soil, then a book, of which it is composed. Between these active folds science would soon find means for sending to Europe the fine the food rests a short time, and is then passed into the fourth bison meat now left on the prairies for the wolves and vultures. or true stomach, where the final processes of digestion are Some of the flesh has for years been imported, but its appear completed. This short description will perhaps suffice to show ance does not, as hitherto presented, attract the ordinary how exceedingly complex is the organisation by which grass purchaser.

is gradually changed into beef. Many other peculiarities of Another American animal, the musk-ox (Ovibos muschatus), structure must be passed over for the present, our only reason is remarkable for three peculiarities—the shape and size of its being want of space to treat such topics satisfactorily. singular horns, the great length of the fine hair, and the fond. Allusion has been already made to the gigantic horns of some ness of the animals for the wild deserts of the North American ancient oxen ; and many readers will doubtless recollect those wastes. These herds wander far within the Arctio circle, dis- famous historical drinking horns, still held as heir-looms by puting for the lichens and northern herbage with their rivals, the some old families, especially those of Aubrey and Pusey. The reindeer. Often is a solitary Esquimaux tribe roused from its Borstal horn was the symbol by which Edward the Confessor torpor by the appearance of a herd of musk-oxen, thirty or forty conveyed a large estate to one Nigel, who killed a savage boar in number, which thus offer to the wild people of the Arctic which had imperilled the person of royalty in the neighbourhood shores a prospoct of high feasting and jollity. Clothing, too, of the palace at Brill. From the family of Nigel the treasured equal to the highest notion of an Esquimaux belle, is furnished horn has descended, with the Borstal estate, to that of Aubrey: by the beautiful hair of the musk-ox, which is twisted into The Pasey horn, above two feet long, has an inscription which many a curious form by the damsels of the frigid zone. The declares it was delivered by that descendant of Odin, King name given to this ox by the Cree Indians signifies “ ugly bison,” | Canute, to “Wyllyam Payse." Such ox-horns truly deserve and this, though not complimentary, is much more suitable their honours. than the absurd name of musk-ox. The designation of "little We must not, however, forget the extraordinary veneration bison,” given by some Indian tribes, is much more appropriate. for the ox in ancient days, the solemn worship paid to his The scientific name, Ovibos, assumes that the animal combines highness while living, the national mourning for him when dead, the qualities of the sheep (ovis) with those of the ox.

and the embalming of his venerable body, for the admiration of The buffalo of South Africa (Bos Caffer) is immediately dis- after ages. It was not, indeed, every ox which was thus tinguished from his American relative by the absence of the honoured, even in Egypt. That would have been too expensive shaggy mane, the large spreading horns, and the more massive even for the Pharaohs. But the homage paid to Apis at Mem. form of the body. These animals resemble the bisons in two phis, and his brother Mnevis at Heliopolis,* must have shed respects—the tendency to associate in large herds, and their reflected splendour on all humble bovidæ. Nor must we forget Desperate courage when wonnded.

the honours paid to the bull at Nineveh, where the figure of the We must omit any detailed description of the Abyssinian ox, animal was combined with the human and cherubic forms. The having its horns hanging as it were by hooks to the head ; of the man-headed and winged bulls now in the British Museum attest zebu, or sacred bull of India, as gentle, and yet as impudent, as the extraordinary veneration for the ox a spaniel ; and of various other species, simply from want of Even at this day India regards the white bull as a symbol of space. The above references will suffice to suggest to the her great divinity, Siva. reader the wide extent of the ox family.

In all these rude, wild, and pagan customs we may trace the As these animals are classed among the Ruminants, a few feeling of great benefits towing to mankind from the docility, remarks are necessary on the complex stomachs belonging to strength, and labours of the ox. each quadruped of the order. Every reader is probably aware that all ruminants masticate their food a second time; or rather, * Called Beth-sheinesh, and also On, in the Old Testament.

“ that eateth hay."

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LESSONS IN ALGEBRA.-IX.

Again, if all the signs of all the terms in the denominator of a

fraction are changed, the value of the fraction is also changed. FRACTIONS.

ab

ab Thus,

but 117. FRACTIONS in algebra, as well as in arithmetic, have

b

b reference to parts of numbers or quantities. The term is

125. If then the sign prefixed to a fraction, or the signs of all derived from the Latin word fractio, which signifies a breaking the terms of the numerator, or the signs of all the terms of the into parts.

denominator, be changed, the value of the fraction will be 2a Thus, 2

changed from positive to negative, or from negative to positive. is za ; and 3 7

126. If the same change be made upon the numerator and 118. Expressions in the form of fractions occur more frequently denominator of a fraction at the same time, they will balance cach in algebra than in arithmetic. Indeed, the numerator of every other, and the value of the fraction will not be altered. Thus, by fraction may be considered as a dividend, of which the denomi.

ab nator is a divisor,

changing the sign of the numerator, the fraction ta

b 119. The value of a fraction is the quotient of the numerator

- ab 6

becomes =-a. But by changing the signs of both the nu

b divided by the denominator. Thus, the value of

2
is 3; the

ab
ab

merator and the denominator, it becomes =+a, where the

aa bb value of is a ; and the value of

is a +b. b

b

original value is restored. By changing the sign before the frac130. From this it is evident, that whatever changes are made

ab

ab in the terms of a fraction, if the quotients be not altered, the

tion, the expression y +

b
=yta becomes y-

b

=y-a. But value of the fraction remains the same. For any fraction, by changing the sign of the numerator also, it becomes therefore, we may substitute any other fraction which will give the same quotient.

where the quotient -a is to be subtracted from y, or

b 10 4ba

8dre 6 +2 Thus,

etc.; for the quotient in which is the same thing [Art. 58], + a is to be added, making the 2 5 2ba 4drz 3+1'

6 6

6 each of these instances is 2.

value y ta as at first. In like manner,

2

2 121. It is also evident, from the preceding articles, that if the 6

6 -6

6

6 numerator and denominator be both multiplied, or both divided,

And

3. 2 2

2 by the same quontity, the value of the fraction will not be altered. Hence the quotient in division may be set down in different ways Thus, 1 = 3, each term being multiplied by 9; and %= %= 4, and still have the same value. Thus (a — c) = b is either each term being divided by 3, and the result by 3 again.

be abz 3b3 3b* __ fabc So ; for the quotient in each case o

+

b 7 6 b ab 36 16

REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS. 122. Any integral quantity may, without altering its value, 127. A FRACTION may be reduced to lower terms, by dividing be expressed in the form of a fraction, by making unity or 1 the both the numerator and denominator by any quantity which will denominator; or by multiplying the quantity into any proposed divide them without a remainder; or by throwing out any factor denomina tor, and making the product the numerator of the fraction common to both. According to Art. 121, this process will not ab ad + ah 6adh

alter the value of the fractions. required. Thus, a=

the quotient 1 b d+h ваh

ab

EXAMPLE.—Reduce to lower terms. Ans. cf each of these being a.

cb

c dx + hx

2dry + 2dr Also d th= ; and r+1=

128. If the same letter or combination of letters is in every 2dr

term, both of the numerator and denominator, it may be can-.

celled, for this is dividing by that letter or combination of ON THE SIGNS OF FRACTIONS.

letters. [Art. 98.] 123. Each sign in the numerator and denominator of a fraction

3am tay

3m ty EXAMPLE.—Reduce

to lower terms. Ans. affects only the single term to which it is prefixed. The dividing

adtah

dth line answers the purpose of a parenthesis or vinculum, namely, to connect the several terms of which the numerator and de

129. If the numerator and denominator be divided by the nominator may each be composed. The sign prefixed to it

, greatest common measure, it is evident that the fraction will be therefore, affects the whole fraction collectively and every term reduced to the lowest terms. individually. It shows that the value of the whole fraction,

5a+

EXAMPLE.- Reduce to its lowest terms. and of course every term, is to be subjected to the operation

3a2 denoted by the sign. Hence, if the sign before the dividing line

5a+ 5αααα 5aa Here,

Ans. be changed from + to, or from — to +, the value of the whole

За? 3αα fraction is also changed.

EXERCISE 13. ab Thus it is plain that the value ofis a. [Art. 111.) But this Reduce the following fractions to lower terms :will become negative if the sign — is prefixed to the fraction.

6dm

dry + dy
1.
3.

5.
ab
ab

edy
(a + bc) x mi

dhy - dj Hence, y + z =y+ a. But y

7m
=Y a.
6

am + ay
7mr

bm + by 124. In performing fractional operations there is frequent occasion to remove the denominator of the fraction; also to

EXERCISE 14. incorporate a fraction with an integer, or with another fraction. In each of these cases, if the sign — is prefixed to the dividing

Reduce the following fractions to their lowest terms :line, the signs of all the terms of the numerator must be changed, as

3x5 + 2* - 13 -2° + 2r + 3 1.

7. in Art. 64, where a parenthesis, having the sign before it, is

23 - 5.2" - 5x + 1 removed.

3a + 4a.

* -- 2 - 2x + 2
ad + ah
Thns b

8.
ad--ah
=b-d-h;

223-1-1
and b-
=b-dth. 8a3y – 12aoy+ bays

18.r*
ta'y + hayo

- 5.2" + 44.r - 5 Next, if all the signs of all the terms in the numerator of a

9. 23 + as

32+ + 20x3 - 57x2 + SO.X 50 fraction are changed, the value of the fraction is changed in the ab

ab
*" + 2ax + aa

161* - 53r3 + 45.0 + 6 Thus,

10.
= + a [Art. 101]; but
To
b

&* 30,3 + 314" - 12**

aa' ab- bc - ab + bc

823 - 27/3

2475

2214 - 1443 + 367?_ 8r
but
at C.
6.

11.
b
b

42

18x® – 18 – 143 x 30x? - 126*

a

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In great cities and centres of commerce the spirit of intogrity KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN ALGEBRA.

is often endangered. It is so difficult to be morally whole that EXERCISE 8.

some part of our nature becomes unreal or untrue. If we do 1. y. 6. 1 - X.

not adopt false weights, we are in danger often of using false 2. Q-b.

advertisements; and if we escape the temptation to adulterate 7. c + d + 3. b + c.

our goods, we may fall into the snare of unrighteously puffing 4. aa - ax + xa.

y

them. Multitudes fall victims to the influence of association; 3. a + b + 5. x - ax + 3aax.

d-h

they lose the sense of their individuality in a large company or EXERCISE 9.

a select directorate, and thus the balance of their judgment in. clines to what the majority deem expedient and wise.

The par 1. 2ay + ax – 3bm + 4.

1

ticular conscience is silenced in the general opinion, and thus 2. 4a - 3 + 2y + 1 - Sada + im. 6

3ry 6xyz (a + b).

very often vicious proceedings take place which never would

have occurred had each man been left to the convictions of his 1

5 for?! + 4 my + 6 5. - x -1+

+-+

abc. own mind, and the light of his own judgment. Integrity is not

Sabc r-a-3

so easy a virtue to preserve as it may seem to be; it consiste 1 20. 9ayx + Sax

10bcm + 12a. 6.

greatly in the balance of moral power. The amiable man may dy

21. - 4r + 6 - 24 - 21 + 5ax +
1
22. b.

forfeit integrity if he neglects to be angry with wrong and 7. :rd

Qar
ard"
23. x + y.

violence; the generous man may forfeit integrity if, whilst free 3

1

3h
24. X.

and easy with all around him, he yet leaves his children un8.7 axy 2a

cared for, and his family overborne with anxieties and difficulties; 2ax axy 25. 26 +

the kind man may be other than upright, if he props up lazi. 9. 4cr – 3xy + 6xd Why.

h 10. 3by + 6cdx + 2a – 5uab. 26. 2.r - b+c+

ness, and makes the gift of his charity a premium upon indo11. 4. - 2hd + 8m.

lence and vice.
27. aa + 2a - 4
14

Integrity requires thought and wisdom; only superficial 12. Q - 12b + 240 + 10a. 28. b + 2c. 29. 4a + 2ab + b?.

people think of virtues as spontaneously springing up in the 13. - 10a) + ( + y)-13-3(a+b) 30. 22 – 2ax + a'.

heart, and then taking care of themselves. Those who dislike - 12c. 31. 2y) - 3y + 2.

trouble are seldom people of integrity; they are indifferent to 15. 2.

32. x' + 2+ + 25 + x2 + x + 1. claims which harass and fatigue them, and are flattered some16. b + d - a(a + b) + 42ry.— b. 33. 2rx 3x +1

times as good easy souls, when, in fact, they are most cruel to 5h 10 6cd 17

2x2 + 3x - 1 17. 3 +

those who have righteous claims upon their energy and endea

vours. EXERCISE 10.

Integrity, if it be thus difficult to cultivate, yet more than 1. bc' and a*y'.

3537

compensates its possessor by the creation of a high moral tone; 15. 27-3 + 5x®y +22cy° +88ys +. 2. rin and m-2n.

the desire to be whole, or entire, keeps the mind from laxity,

I-4y: 3. 29 - ax + a'.

5x + 4 and acts like a tonic upon all the other powers. In time such

16. zado - 2x + 3x 4 + 4. 3a^ - - 2a^.

&' + 2x + 1 a man's word becomes regarded as his bond, and his opinions 2aba.

5x - 4 are received with the deference which belongs to those whose 17. 23 + 2x2 + 3x + 4 + Зах?.

** – 2x + 1 characters are un tainted with the suspicion of being fickle, time7. ** + 3xy - 2

72 - 7 18. ' + 3x + 7 +

serving, or false. 8. 2- 3 - 2.

x - 35 + 2

It is recognised integrity which makes the family solicitor 2a

393x – 5a 9. * +a+ 19. 5.9 - ax - ba?

trusted and respected from generation to generation--which 10. a + b - c. 20. 223 + 3x v + 3rv2 + v3.

makes the trustworthy clerk find a profitable sphere of duty 11. 2723 - 18x2 + 12x. 21. 3.3 - 9x2 + 2x - 1.

in some foreign city, where he remains connected with the ay - Q3 22. 3a2b + 2abo 26°c – 3bc?.

same commercial house at a vastly augmented salary-it is in12. 2x + ao

23. a2 + ab + b' + bc + 08 - ac. tegrity which makes the merchant able to command a credit 5a3,3_213,3 24. 203 - 3x + 27.

without which some of his largest enterprises would be impos13. 27° -3ay-2a” –

5y3-4073.+a”yo 25. x + 223 + 3x + 47* + 5x5 + 626 sible to him. 14, 7-5.

+ 7x7 + 8x'.

Integrity has been honoured in all ages—the word itself has EXERCISE 11.

synonyms in all languages. Doubtless, too, it has its root in

that old Latin tongue which embodies the best epoch of the 1. rtb. 4. a- 62. 7. a – 26.

Roman people, when their matrons were renowned as most 2. c+. 5. * +1.

8. a? - 2". 3. 23 - 8x - 3. 6. *- a. 9. a +b.

virtuous, and their stern adherence to rigid morals saved them

from the dangers which had imperilled other nations. Integrity EXERCISE 12.

has its root, however, deeper still in the old Hebrew1. bcej. 4. (a 62).

7. ** - a*. 2. a”.

5. 3623. 3. 60abcdef. 6. a* + a3x – aa?

me-preserve-shall uprightness-and-Integrity."

That is, indeed, the motto which, so far as it has been emESSAYS ON LIFE AND DUTY,-XVI.

bodied in the histories of peoples, has made them honoured, and

tended to the perpetuation of their power and influence. NsINTEGRITY.

tions, like men, perish from those permitted weaknesses which INTEGRITY comes from the Latin word integer-meaning the undermine the foundations of integrity and truth. whole of anything, and has the two senses of uninjured and Troubles and difficulties are incidental to all lives; but the complete. Wholeness, when applied to character, is manifestly sustaining power of conscious integrity is so great that it canconnected with the idea of wholesomeness. A life of integrity not be measured. Even in the hour of mercantile failure, or is a wholesome life, and that which distinguishes integrity from even of imputed dishonour, the consciousness of rectitude takes its cognate words is the idea of general completeness. There the barb from the arrow directed at us, and we stand not only are certain pet virtues which gain prominence sometimes in unharmed by the attack, but peaceful and hopeful amid the human character, and their possessors are greatly lauded for worst trials. It is complicity with evil and wrong that blanches beneficence, or temperance, amiability or charity ; but it some- the countenance, palsies the arm of energy, and undermines tho times happens that these special virtues so overtop others that arches of human endurance. Every nation has its heroes, and they almost wither and dry up under the shadow of these largely: these are to be found amid warriors, statesmen, philanthropists, developed or exaggerated virtues. Who has not known very and discoverers ; but let integrity be wanting, and the blot just people who have been sour and snappish ? and very soon comes out on the escutcheon, and not all the false paint of generous people who have been idle and slovenly? Integrity, flattery can hide the delinquency. Brilliant feats of arms, then, is moral completeness—the manifestation of a thorough- splendid oratorical efforts—these, indeed, remain the same, 28 ness of character which finds a place for all the excellences. monuments of gonius; but the characters lose their lustre if

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there be laxity of moral principle, and as the poet Young Schmeđt Ihnen dieser Suchen nicht? 15. O ja, er schmeđt mir sehr gut. 888

16. Schmeđt Ihnen das Essen? 17. Nein, Herr Docter ; es schmect " Their height is but the gibbet of their name."

mir Allee bitter. 18. Ich bin eß, der dies spricht und gesrrochen hat. Integrity, of course, applies to motives as well as to actions, 19. Er ist es, der diese Worte zu sprechen wagte. '20. Nicht wahr, Sie or it would not be wholeness ; it implies that mankind are sind es, der gesagt hat, man möge die Gefangenen (oggeben? 21. Ja, governed by principles of righteousness, quite as much as that und Sie sind es, der mir wirersprochen hat. 22. Diese Worte haben unsern their conduct is outwardly honourable; it thus happens that jungen Freund tief gefränkt. 23. Sie scheint gefränkt worden zu sein. the man of integrity is sometimes obliged to offend against the 24. Man darf sich nicht über jede Sileinigfeit gefränft fühlen. 25. Man popular sentiment for the time being. He cannot, it may be, darf dem Gedanfen, gefränkt worden zu sein, nicht lange dem Herzen fall in with some course of procedure, which, whilst it seems to be Raum geben. 26. Haben Sie schon dieses Obfi versucht? 27. Ia, ich harmless and to promise well, is not yet based upon sound prin- tabe es soeben versucht. cples; and just as he knows that some tiny flaw in the founda

EXERCISE 167. tion of a building will afterwards make itself felt and seen in 1. When did your friend meet with the accident? 2. It hapdisjointed walls and crumbling ceilings, so the man of integrity pened yesterday; he knows not how to get over it. 3. We will brows that a false principle, however seemingly expedient, will try everything to better his situation. 4. If the circumstances in the after time manifest itself in most ungainly ways. Thus of those people were to be changed, everything would go well it is that the upright inherit the future; they are not eager to with them. 5. It has often been the caso that his goodness catch at every straw of popularity, but their lives develop in has been abused. 6. The punishment which those idle boys the long run, and the pedestal on which they stand is based on

received was right. 7. Happen what will, I shall trust in God. to sandy foundation of popular sentiment, but on the firm rock 8. What is done cannot be undone, and what has been said of righteousness. It will be seen in the study of history that cannot be unsaid. 9. Do you relish your food ? 10. No, docmany of the noblest men were at certain epochs of their lives at tor, I relish nothing; everything tastes bitter, 11. It was my Fariance with their age; but on these very occasions their cha- friend who spoke these words; they might assist these poor racter shines the most brightly, as we see their motives to be emigrants. 12. What did your new carriage cost (you) ? 13. true, and their actions to be right. To be whole in all the It cost (me) fifty guineas. 14. Have you already tasted this virtues is difficult indeed; but it is an effort worth the making, cake? 15. Yes, I have, but I do not like it; have you any and nothing less than aspiration after this entireness meets the other ? meaning of the old and expressive word, “ Integrity.”

SECTION LXXXVII.-IDIOMS OF VERBS (continued). Verseßen (from ver, against, etc., § 97. 3, and seßen), has a

variety of significations; as, LESSONS IN GERMAN.-XLII.

to put in a wrong place, to mis

place, to remove, to pawn;" also, " to set against, i.e., to fetch, SECTION LXXXVI.-IDIOMS OF VERBS | deal out, or give," as a blow, etc. It likewise signifies “to frica, when used transitively, signifies " to test, or try by reply;” as:-Auf ticse Fragen und Beschuldigungen verseßte er Folgendes, tacting ;” as : -r fostet den Wein, he tastes the wine.

to these questions and accusations he replied as follows (followBerjuder has sometimes the same signification ; as :-Gr ver. ing). Er verfekte dem Pferde einen Schlag, he gave the horse a blow. isot ten Wein, he tries the wine (that is, by tasting).

Der Glaube verseßt Berge, (the) faith removes mountains. 1. Shmecen, to relish, denotes properly the impression made 1. Weber Feld gehen (literally, to go over field) signifies, " to by tasting ; as :- Der Wein schmect gut, the wine tastes good. take a trip across the fields ;” as :-Wir gehen morgen früh über fi ff medt mic nicht (it does not relish to me), I do not relish it. ! peld, we are going to take a trip across the fields to-morrow Tie Sreiie içmedt nach Rauch, the food tastes of smoke (is smoky). morning,

2. Daß (that) is sometimes used instead of seit, and may then VOCABULARY.

be translated “since;" as:-Ist es lange, onji Sie ihn gesehen haben? Leatern, to alter, Ker'fermeister, m.jailer. | Stellung, f. situation. is it long since you have seen him ? change. Kuchen, m. cake. Verschaffen, to pro

VOCABULARY. Sittet, bitter.

Cos'geben, to set free, Emrjan'gen, to

release.

Wunder, n. wonder, Aus'bitten, to beg for, Goldstück, gold- Städter, m. townsceive. Miß-brauchen, to mis- miracle, prodigy.

ask for, request. piece.

man, citizen. Bemüse, n. vegeta

Züch'tigung, f. chas. Bese'hen, to look on, Hicrauf, hereupon. Treiben, to drive. bles. Selig, blissful, bless- tisement, correc

at, to view. Mangel, m. want, lack, Verråtherei', f. treach. ig, present. ed, happy.

tion.
Dazu', thereto, to it. deficiency.

ery.
Dürf'tigkeit, f. neces- Politisch, political. Versek'en. (See above.)
RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

sity, indigence. Postmeister, m. post. Vorömittag, m. foreTie That ist geschehen, und alle The deed has transpired, and all Einfach, simple, plain. master.

Reidy thìmer der Erte fönnen sie (the) riches of this earth can. Fangen, to take, seize. Schlicht, plain, home. Welttheil, m. part of nicht ungeschehen machen. not make it otherwise. Flach, flat, even. ly.

the world or globe. Ter Träge wciß nicht, was er thun The slothful (man) knows not Flüchtling, m.fugitive. Srötteln, to jeer, jibe, Worü’ber, of what, sell (Sect. LXXIV. 2), um sich what to do in order to drive Fülle, f.fulness,plenty banter.

whereof, whereat. tie Langeweile zu vertrei ben. away (the) tediousness. Differ Pinterbraten richmeđt mir This roast beef relishes (to me) Der heim'tüdische Mensch versek'te The malicious man gave me, in

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. benice, ali jenes Geflügel.

better than that poultry. G: mar der Papagei', ter soe'ben It was the parrot that just mit hin'terlistiger Weise einen a deceitful manner, a blow Geisrochen hat. spoke. Solag in den Rüden.

upon the back. Der Jüngling fühlte fich über ren The youth felt (himself) deeply Der Vater geht tiefen Nach'mittag The father goes this afternoon Tetracht', ten man auf ihn hatte, mortified on account of the über feld

over the country. tii gefränkt'.

suspicion which rested upon Gr wciß nicht, wie er zu diesem Re'. He does not know how he came
him.
genschirm gefom'men ift.

by this umbrella.
EXERCISE 166.

Er geht beina'he alle Tnge auf's He goes nearly every day into

Land, und erfrischt' sich an Milch the country, and refreshes 1. Das Unglüd ist geschehen, und nicht mehr zu ändern. 2. Wann ist

und Obst.

himself with milk and fruit. itu tujes Unglüd begegnet ? 3. 68 geschab vor einer Stunde. 4.

Das Verbrech'en dieses Mannes ist The crime of this man has come Was geidehen kann, soll geicheher., um diesen Leuten eine bessere Stellung zu berichaffen. 5. Gå ist schon oft der Fall gewesen, tag tas Bertrauen Er ist lange nicht bei uns gewe'sen.

an den Tag gekomómen.

to light.

He has not for a long time been cemisbraucht werden ist. 6. Es fanden in früherer Zeit mehr Wunder

at our house. unt Zeichen Statt, als in der jepigen. 7. && geschah ihm recht, einmal Er ist nicht lange bei uns geide'sen. He has not been long at our eine Zidtigung empfangen zu haben. 8. 68 geschicht nichts ohne Vottes

house. Bisen und Willen. 9. Der Müßiggänger weiß nicht, waß er thun soll. 10. Der fleißige Knabe wußte nicht, was er weiter thun sollte. 11. Der

EXERCISE 168. Rcrfermeister fragte, was er thun folle, um selig zu werden. 12. Wie 1. Er verseßte ihm einen Schlag in das Gesicht. 2. Scherzwcise HT(chunedi Ihnen das Gemüse ? 13. Gs schmect mir vortrefflich. 14. I jepte mir tie Shwefter einen Schlag mit der flachen Hand. 3. Os chiar

cure.

use.

noon.

miss the way.

nommen.

sich nicht für Knaben, einander zu schlagen. 4. Der Vater ift über Land Ueberge'ben, to sur-, Versor'ger, m.provider, | Dorü'bergehen, to pass gegangen, und wird erst gegen Abend zurüdkommen. 5. Mein Bruder war render, deliver. sustainer.

by. diesen Vormittag auf dem Felde, um das Korn zu besehen, und diesen Nach Verfel'len, to miss, fail. Borbei'gehen, to pass Wehen, to blow. mittag geht er in die Stadt, um seinen franken Vetter zu besuchen. 6. Wie Verscheu'chen, to scare, one (unnoticed), to Wilddieb, m. poacher, sind Sie zu diesem Goldftüde gekommen? 7. Ich habe es gefunden, als ich frighten.

deer-stealer. auf das Feld ging. 8. Man weiß nicht, wie dieser Mann zu seinem Reichthume gekommen ist. 9. Reiche Leute wohnen den Winter über in

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. ber Stabt, und den Sommer auf dem Lande. 10. Wenn reiche und stolze Wir lieben einen Menschen nicht We honour a man no longer Städter auf das Land fommen, so spötteln sie gern über die schlichten und

långer, als wir ihn achten; ist than we respect him--if (the) einfachen Sitten seiner Bewohner. 11. Ludwig XVI. wurde noch an den die Achtung bin, so ist es auch die respect is gone, bo also is Grenzen Frankreich durch die Verrätherei eines Postmeisters gefangen ge

Liebe.

(the) love. 12. Der Dieb wurde vom Nachtwächter gefangen genommen, Wer einmal den ersten Schritt zu He who has taken the first step als er aus dem Hause entflichen wollte. 13. Man wuste lange nicht, wer

einem Verbrechen gethan' bat, to a crime, also easily takes bie Fremden waren, bis es endlich an den Tag famn, daß es politische Flücht- thut auch leicht den zweiten.

the second. linge waren. 14. Endlich ist es an den Tag gefommen, worüber Jahre Er hat einen guten Schuß gethan'. He has made a good shot. lang der Scleier des Gebeimnisses hing. 15. the er sich zu mir in Er ist fue'ben az dem Fenster vorü‘ber He has just passed by the winben Wagen seşte, bat er sich als Bedingung aus, daß ich langsam fahren

or vorbei“ gegan'gen.

dow. möchte. 16. Als er gefragt wurde, warum er diese entwürdigende Handlung Er will nicht autógehen, weil der He will not go out, because the begangen habe, verseßte er, daß ihn die Noth dazu getrieben habe. 17.

Wind so start weht.

wind blows so hard (strong). Hierauf verseßte ich ihm, daß Mangel fein Grund zum Diebstahl, und Noth Wir werden wohl noch Shinee be. We shall probably yet have fein Grund zu einem Verbrechen sei. 18. Das Schidsal verseßte ihn aus

fom'men.

(get) snow. ber Fülle in die gt ßte Dürftigkeit, wie es mich oft aus einer Stellung Es geht ein farfer Wind.

There is a strong wind blowing. in tie andere, aus einem Lande in das andere und aus einem Welttheil Von wem ist die Rede?

Of whom do you talk (is the in den andern versekte; aber den härtesten Schlag verseşte es mir dadurch,

question) ? daß es mir an dem Tage meiner Ankunft in Amerika den Bruder sterben

EXERCISE 170. licg.

1. Die beiden Freunde waren es (Sect. XXXV. 6) müde, länger mit EXERCISE 169.

cinander ju streiten. 2. Der König und die Kaiserin, des langen Bateri 1. My brother goes to-morrow morning with his friend over müde, fie machten endlich Fricde (Bürger). 3. Da der Wind ziemlich the country, and will return in the evening. 2. How came you start und anhaltend wehte, so erblidten wir schon nach vierzehn Tagen kant by this book ? 3. As I went over the country I found it. 4. 4. 68 weht heute ein sehr falter Wind, und ich befürchte, daß wir Some The father gave the boy a blow with his hand. 5. Upon the bekommen werden. 5. Der Wind hat sich seit Mittag sehr gelegt ; at questions which the judge asked the criminal, he replied that weht bei weitem nicht mehr so ftark, als diesen Morgen. 6. Es ging he had not committed the crime purposely. 6. I have not been eine so falte und schneidente Luft, daß er sich binnen fünf Minuter. for a long time in Germany. 7. I have not been long in Ger- beite Hände erfror. 7. Libt mein Vater noch? 8. Ja, er lebt nah, many. 8. It is a long time since I have seen my parents and aber unser junger Freund ist nicht mehr. 9. Wohl ihm, er ist hia. brothers. 9. He did not know for a long time who it was that gegangen, wo fein Schnee mehr ift. 10. Er, ter Versorger so vieler Armen

, had taken his pencil-caso, after it was found. 10. Let us take ist nicht mehr. 11. Woron (Sect. XXVIII.) lebt diese arme Familie? a pedestrian tour, as we have beautiful weather to-day. 11. 12. Wovon wird gesprochen? 13. Bon wem spricht man? 14. Das lift How long is it since you have heard anything of your friends ? etwas, wevon Sie nichts verstehen. 15. Wovon ist die Rete? 16. Ven 12. I do not know, but I believe it is more than a month since wem Haben Sie das gehört ? 17. Von wem hast du dieses artige Geschenk I have heard anything of them.

erhalten? 18. Der Wilddieb schoß nach dem Jager, allein die Kugel

verfehlte ihr Ziel, und ehe er noch einen andern Stuš thun fennte, san! SECTION LXXXVIII.-IDIOMATIC PHRASES.

er selbst, getroffen von dem Blei des Jägers. 19. Ohne Soup unt

Schwertstreich wurde die Festung übergeben. 20. Or that einige Stufe Hin (Sect. XXVII.), applied to time, may refer as well to the in dem Garten, um die Bögel zu verscheuchen. 21. Der junge Englänter future, as to the past; as :-Bis zu dem zwanzigsten Jahrhundert hin ging soeben an unserer Thüre vorüber. 22. Er ist an mir vorbei gegangen, können nog viele Umwälzungen, in der alten Welt sowohl, wie in der neuen, ohne mich zu erblicken. 23. Dieser Mann hat die günstigste Zeit feines Statt finden, up to (between this and) the twentieth century Lebens unbenüßt vorbeigehen lassen. 24. Als Friedrich der Große einen (thither) there may yet, in the Old World, as well as in the jungen Officier nach einer Schlacht sehr 118;eichnete und öffentlich lobte

, New, many revolutions take place. Mancher tlagt nach einem leicht so antwortete riefer : ,,Gw. (8 58. Note) Majestat beschämen mid vara finnig verlebten Jünglingsalter, daß nun die günstigste Zeit, um Kenntnisse diese Ghre." 25. Trage ($ 57. 7) mir riesen Bricf auf die Poft. zu erwerben, hin sei, many a one complains, after a frivolously Johann, und laß mir diese goldene Uhr ausbessern. 26. Wilt Du lichen spent youth, that (now) the most favourable period for acquiring bei dem Herrn Minister gewesen, und hast Du meine Aufträge fünftlich knowledge is past (lost, or gone). In this latter sense, dahin is besorgt? 27. Ja, gnätiger Herr, ich habe sie ausgerichtet

. 28. Id kake likewise employed; as :--Die Ernte ist vergangen, der Sommer ist heute feinen Schritt aus dem Hause gethan.

29. Obgleich ich den ersten bahin, the harvest is gone, the summer is past.

Schritt zu einer Versöhnung gethan habe, so fält es ihm doch dywer, tea 1. Einen Schritt thun= to take a step; as:—Welche Schritte müssen zweiten zu thun. 30. In seinem rechzehnten Jahre that er ten ersten gethan werben? what steps must be taken ? Schritt halten=to Schritt in die fremde.

31. Dieser junge Sốüler sucht mit dem ältern keep step, to keep pace; as :- - Dieser Knabe versucht mit dem Vater gleichen Schritt zu halten. gleichen Schritt zu halten, this bay tries to keep step with his (the)

EXERCISE 171. father. Heinrich ist nicht fleißig genug, um beim Erlernen ter deutschen Sprache mit Ernst gleichen Schritt halten zu fönnen, Henry is not dili

. dustrious. 2. Go step by step, and thou wilt not miss thy aim,

1. You will keep pace with your brother if you are more ingent enough (in order) to enable him to keep pace with Ernest 3. From whom have you received this present? 4. Of what is in learning the German language.

? 2. Ginen Schuß thun = to make a shot, to shoot ; as :- Vis zu alivo? 7. Yes, she is still alive; but my father is no more. Si

5. By whom is it made ? tiesem Tage hat fein Mensch einen so berühmten Schuß gethan, wie Wilhelm Peace to him? he is gone where troubles are no more

. 9. It Toll, up to this day has no man made so renowned a shot as William Tell.

blows very roughly to-day, and therefore it is better to stay at VOCABULARY.

home. 10. I think we shall have rain when the wind abates.

11. Do not go out, for the air is so very cutting, and I fear you Auftrag, order, Grfrie'ren, to freeze, Majestät, f. ma- may chill your hands. 12. As long as the wind is in the east, direction. chill.

jesty.

it will remain cold and dry. 13. Finally, tired of the long Aus’bessern, to mend, Onadig, gracious, Pünftlic), punctual, quarrel, I made peace with my friends, repair. clement.

punctually. Bescha'men, to shame, Bader, M. quarrel, Schuß, m. shot.

KEY TO EXERCISES TO LESSONS IN GERMAN. confound,

brawl.

Schwertstreichy
,

EXERCISE 119 (Vol. II., page 282). fuse.

Legen, to lay (lich legen, stroke with the Binnen, within. to abate).

1. Was er auch sagen mag. ich werde befarren. 2. Selbst mit vielem

sword.

6. Is my mother still

m.

con.

n.

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