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at a high heat, or by sodium from its chloride. It proves to be
ARSENIC. most difficult of fusion, even more so than platinum. When
SYMBOL., As -- COMBINING WEIGHT, 75. obtained by the latter process, it appears in crystals of the Arsenic is considered a non-metallic element by certain French first system. It is only of value on account of the colour of its chemists, on account of its striking analogy to phosphorus and oxides and salts, which are used as pigments.
nitrogen ; but seeing that it conducts electricity readily, and The oxides of chromium are four :-Chromous oxide (Cro); possesses a metallic lustre, it is generally classed among the chromic oxide (Cr,0z); an intermediate oxide, which may be metals. Probably its true place is between the classes, being considered as a compound of the Cro,Cr,Oz; and the only acid the “transition” element. Like phosphorus, its vapour offers oxide, chromic acid (Cr0,).
an exception to the rule. Its density, instead of being repreChromous Oxide is only obtainable as a hydrate. When sented by its combining number, is just double, or 150. This caustic potash is added to a solution of chromous chloride, it may be expressed by saying, that the volume occupied by an falls as a brown powder.
atom of arsenic in its gaseous condition is just one-half that of Chromic Oxide is a sesquioxide (Cr,03). When ammonia is the other elements. The reason of this has not yet been dis. added to a solution of chromic chloride, this oxide falls as a covered. The metal occasionally is found native, but generally hydrate. When heated to render it anhydrous, it becomes a as an alloy with iron, cobalt, nickel, etc. “Realgar" is the snl. green powder, which is used as a paint. Chromic oxide forms phide, and “orpiment” the tersulphide, both of which are rare two sets of salts-one green, which is amorphous; the other minerals. The metal is chiefly obtained from mispickel, an violet, which crystallises. The emerald owes its colonr to the arsenical sulphide of iron. The fumes from the furnace are presence of this oxide.
conducted into chambers where arsenious acid (As,0.2) is conChromic Acid (Cro) may be obtained in many ways-one is densed. When heated with charcoal, this oxide is reduced, and by mixing four measures of the solution of potassium bichro. the metal which vaporises is got by condensation. It has 2 mate with five of sulphuric acid. As the mixturo cools, the brilliant steel-like lustre, and is very brittle. It refuses to melt, oxide separates out into crimson needles. It exhibits an acid but readily volatilises, the vapours condensing on the first cold reaction, forming with bases chromates, which are yellow or red surface into rhombohedra of the metal. The vapour of arsenio salts. Neutral chromates are yellow, as potassic chromate possesses a strong odour of garlic. When heated in air, the (K,0,Cr03). Potassic bichromate (K,0,2Cro,) is the salt metal burns with a blue flame into chiefly manufactured, and from which the various pigments are Arsenious Acid (As,O2).--This is the virulent poison " arsenic," derived. It exists in large red transparent four-sided tables. the white arsenic of the shops. It is obtained from the ore, as
“ Chrome Yellow" is lead chromate (PbO,CrO2), and is pro- already stated, as a crystalline white powder. When heated, it cured by precipitation from a dilute solution of lead acetate by fuses into a semi-transparent vitreous mass, which gradually a solution of potassio bichromate. When chromic acid is heated becomes opaque, like a piece of white porcelain. It is soluble with strong sulphuric acid, it gives off half its oxygen, thus- in hot hydrochloric acid or hot ammonia, and these solutions, as 2Cr0, + 3H,,80, = Cr,380, + 3H2O + 30.
they cool, deposit arsenic in transparent crystals. If the process " This mixture affords one of the most powerful means of oxi. be watched in a dark room, light is emitted as each crystal is dising carbon at comparatively low temperatures.” (William- formed. Arsenious acid is soluble in alkaline solutions, soluble son.) The chromic sulphate formed in this reaction is the arsenites being formed. When to such a solution in potash compound which forms with potassium and ammonium sulphates copper sulphate is added, the much-used pigment “ Scheele's a series of alums.
green” is precipitated. A peculiar dark strongly-fuming liquid is obtained when a When silver nitrate is added to the solution of potassium mixture of a chromic salt, sodium chloride, and sulphuric acid arsenite, the yellow silver arsenite (3Ag, As0z) falls. When a is heated. It comes off as a red vapour, and may be considered solution of arsenious acid is acidulated with hydrochloric as chromic acid, where one atom of the oxygen has been replaced acid, and sulphuretted hydrogen passed through it, the yellow by its equivalent two atoms of chlorine. Hence its formula arsenious sulphide is precipitated. is Cro,Cl,, and its name chloro-chromic acid.
The best antidote for this violent poison is magnesia, which There are two known chlorides—chromous chloride (CrCl.), and forms with it an insoluble arsenite, and thus the poison passes chromic chloride (Cr, Cl.). The latter is obtained as violet. as a foreign substance through the body. Ferric oxide has the coloured scales, when a current of dry chlorine is passed over an same effect. intimate mixture of chromic oxide and charcoal heated to red- Arsenic Acid (As,0z) is obtained by oxidising arsenions acid
This variety is insoluble; but it becomes green and loses by an excess of nitric acid, and evaporating to dryness in a its insolubility when a very small quantity of the chromous chlo platinum vessel. It is more soluble than arsenious acid, but ride is added to it suspended in water, or the soluble chloride does not volatilise when heated, being decomposed into the is more readily obtained by boiling the solution of a chromate lower oxide and oxygen. This acid, in forming arsenates, bewith hydrochloric acid and alcohol.
haves as phosphoric acid, being tri-basic (H,A80.), and one or The chromous chloride is a white powder procured by heating two or all the atoms of the hydrogen may be replaced. Arsenic the chromic chloride in a current of hydrogen. The other salts may be readily distinguished from arsenious acid by the redof this metal do not present any great interest.
brown precipitate it affords with silver nitrate. Its poisonous Chromic oxide imparts to glass or a borax bead a good green properties are even more decided than those of arsenic. The colour. The salts of chromium give insoluble precipitates with sulphides of arsenic have been mentioned. Realgar is made lead and silver compounds, of a yello colour. All the chro- artificially by heating together 198 parts of arsenious acid and mates, when treated with dilute sulphuric acid and a little 112 of sulphur. It is one of the ingredients in " white Indian alcohol or sugar (organic matter), become reduced to the green fire,” which is a mixture of seven parts of sulphur, two of oxide of chromium.
realgar, and twenty-four of saltpetre. Orpiment is the chief inURANIUM
gredient in King's yellow. There is a penta-sulphide also known. SYMBOL, U - COMBINING WEIGHT, 120.
Arsenic combines with chlorine, bromine, and sodium, forming The chief ore of this rare metal is pitch-blende. The metal is compounds of but little interest. of a whitish colour, and does not oxidise when exposed to the air ; The Tests for Arsenic.—If a slip of clean copper-foil bo im. but if heated in air, it burns vividly. Two oxides are known, mersed in a solution of arsenious acid in hydrochloric acid, & and both are used in glass-staining.
grey film of metallic arsenic is deposited on the copper. Uranous Oxide (UO), or the protoxide of this compound, ap. Marsh's Test is :-Introduce the liquid suspected of contain. pears analogous to choomous oxide. When heated in a current ing the poison into a bottle in which hydrogen is being generated of hydrogen, it refuses to give up its oxygen. If this oxide be in the usual way. Set fire to the escaping gas, and if the flame heated to bright redness, and then suddenly cooled, the intense burn blue, arsenic is present. When a cold surface is depressed black is furnished with which porcelain is coloured and glass into the same, a film of metallie arsenic is found upon it, stained black.
The gas which thus burns is Arseniuretted Hydrogen (AsH,), Uranic Oride (U,0,) is a yellow powder which is soluble in which corresponds to NH, and PH, It is capable of condensa mineral acids and ammonium carbonate. This peroxide imparts ticn, and at —40° Cent. becomes a'liqnid. The gas is absorbed to glass that peculiar yellow-greenish tint which characterises by copper sulphate, copper arsenide being precipitated. It is a uranium glass, which is also remarkable for its fluorescence. deadly poison. The inhaling of a bubble has been attended
with fatal results. The metallic ring of arsenic, most conclusive je pensais peut-être pouvoir vous être utile dans cette douof all tests, may be shown by using a tube of the shape of loureuse circonstance. Veuillez (1) je vous prie, me laisser faire ; 12 Fig. 52, which may be made out of an ordinary test-tube. Into j'ai l'espoir que nous saurons (k) bientôt ce qu'est devenu
Auguste et Fanny étaient là ; le marchand frappe dans ses Fig. 52.
mains, 13 et aussitôt on entendit l'aboiement" joyeux d'un beau
chien de Terre-Neuve qui bondit à ce signal. C'était Moustache, the bulb introduce the arsenic mixed with powdered charcoal qui s'en alla tout d'abord caressers les deux enfants qu'il reand a little sodium carbonate. Upon heating this, the metal connut (1), en tournant autour d'eux et ayant l'air de se rappeler will deposit itself on the cool part of the tube.
qu'il y en avait (m) un troisième.
“ Voilà qui va (n) bien," dit le marchand; “Moustache reSTYBOL, Sb - COMBINING WEIGHT, 122 - SPECIFIC GRAVITY, 6:71.
connaît les enfants; à son air inquiet, je vois qu'il s'étonne de This metal is invariably procured from grey antimony ore, derniers vêtements que le petit Alfred a portés.”';
ne point voir celui qui est absent.16 Veuillez me donner les which is a native sulphide and tolerably abundant. To extract the metal, the ore is purified and reduced to coarse powder. It fit fairer ; puis, prenant la maison pour contre d'un rayon, il
Quand ces objets furent là, il les montra à son chien, 18 les lui is then raised to a dull red-heat on the hearth of a reverbe- décrivit (6) autour d'elle un cercle d'un quart de mille," en ratory furnace, by which most of the sulphur is driven off, ordonnant à Moustache de quêter partout où il le menait. Le and a red mixture of tersulphide and antimonic oxide remains. cercle n'était pas entièrement parcouru lorsque le chien se mit (p) This is mixed with one-sixth of its weight of powdered char
à aboyer.20 coal, and made into a paste with a strong solution of sodium carbonate.
Le son de sa voix rendit une lueur d'espérance au père et à la When submitted to heat in crucibles, the reduced mère, 21 qui étaient inconsolables. metal collects at the bottom. Its colour is bluish-white, and it émanations du corps de l'enfant, aboya de nouveau ; chacun
Le chien, en suivant le is very brittle. Like arsenic, if heated strongly, it takes fire s'empressa de le suivre, mais on le perdit bientôt dans les bois." in air, and readily ignites in chlorine. Hydrochloric acid has no effect on it ; nitric acid converts it into a white insoluble oxide ; heure environ, l'on n'entendit plus rien.
Ce fut un moment de terrible anxiété, car pendant une demiwhilst strong sulphuric acid, with the aid of heat, makes it a sulphate, sulphurous acid coming off. Type metal is an alloy
COLLOQUIAL EXERCISB. formed of four parts of lead and one of antimony.
1. Ne faisait-il pas très-obscur ? 12. Que demanda-t-il au père ? Antimonic Oxide (Sb,07) may be prepared in a hydrated state 2. Que firent-ils au point du jour? 13. Que fit ensuite le marchand ? by pouring a solution of the terchloride of antimony into one
3. Qu'entendirent-ils tout à coup? 14. Qu'entendit-on aussitôt ? of sodium carbonate. Carbonic acid is given off, sodium chlo
4. Que dit M. Dórambert ? 15. Où s'en alla d'abord le chien?
5. Qu'entendit-on encore ? 16. Que dit le marchand de l'air ride is formed, and antimonic oxide falls as a white powder.
6. Qu'ajouta M. Dérambert ? inquiet du chien ? When this oxide is dissolved in cream of tartar, and the solution
7. Que fit alors la troupe ? 17. Que demanda-t-il? concentrated, crystals of tartar emetic are procured.
8. Qu'aperçurent-ils en arrivant ? | 18. Que fit-il de ces objets ? Antimonic Acid (Sb,0,) is the white powder formed by the 9. Que se passa-t-il alors dans le 19. Quelles préparations fit-il en. action of nitric acid on metallic antimony before alluded to. coeur du pauvre père ? It combined with the alkalies, forming antimoniates. When 10. Que dit le père en reconnais- 20. Que fit alors le chien ? heated to redness, antimonic acid parts with some of its oxygen,
sant le marchand ?
21. Quel fut l'effet de la voix du
chien ? and thus the only other oxide of antimony is produced, which 11. Quelle excuse offrit le mar
[bois ? chand ?
22. Put-on suivre le chien dans le may be considered as a compound of the other two (Sb,03,Sb,0z). Antimoniuretted Hydrogen (SbH,) is produced exactly as
NOTES. arseniuretted hydrogen, and burns with a blue flame into anti- (a) From devenir.
(i) From interrompre. monic oxide. If this gas be passed through a small glass tube (b) From contraindre.
(j) Veuillez, have the goodness to. heated to redness like arseniuretted hydrogen, it is decomposed, (c) From paraitre.
(k) From savoir. metallic antimony being deposited. This, however, can be dis. (a) Se fit entendre, was heard.
(1) Reconnut, saw, from reconnaître. tinguished from arsenic by heating it he air ; and the oxide
(m) Il y en avait, there was.
(e) À peive, scarcely. thos formed will not dissolve in water as arsenious oxide will.
(f) Dont, of whom.
(n) From aller. (9) Fit place, gave way.
(0) From décrire. Terchloride of Antimony (SbC1) may be obtained by the (n) From croire.
(P) Se mit, began. action of chlorine or an excess of the metal. Water decom
SECTION V. poses it into hydrochloric acid and a basic chloride which was known as the powder of algaroth.
Le front du marchand était soucieux ;' renfermé dans un Perchloride or Pentachloride (SbCl.) is produced by the action silence que personne ne songeait (a) à interrompre, il s'était of chlorine on the terchloride. It is a fuming liquid. There mis (b) le visage contre terre et recueillait (c) les moindres are also two sulphides, Sb,S, and Sb, Ss. The salts of antimony bruits que la brise apportait. Tout à coup on le vit(a) tressaillir. in acid solutions give a characteristic orange precipitate with
“Lo chien revient,” s'écria-t-il ;3 “ dans un instant il sera près enlphuretted hydrogen.
de nous et nous saurons le résultat de sa course."
Quand le chien reparat, (e) sa contenance était visiblement READINGS IN FRENCH.-VIII.
changée," un air de gaieté et de satisfaction semblait l'animer;
ses yeux brillaient, ses oreilles étaient droites ; il frémissait, tous UN BIENFAIT N'EST JAMAIS PERDU.
ses gestes indiquaient que ses recherchess n'avaient pas été SECTION IV.
infructueuses. La nuit était devenue (a) si épaisse,' qu'ils furent contraints (6) “Je suis sûr qu'il a retrouvé l'enfant," fit (/) son maître. de s'arrêter. Dès que le jour parut (c), ils renouvelèrent leurs “Mais vit-il (9) encore ?", s'écria la mère. recherches,? hélas ! avec aussi peu de succès que la veille, quand Le marchand remua la tête et s'élança sur les traces de son tout à coup le son d'un cor se fit (d) entendre.3
chien, qui avait repris sa course à travers la forêt, en s'ar. "D'où vient ce signal p” s'écria aussitôt M. Dérambert en rêtant de temps à (h) autre pour donner à son maître le temps prêtant une oreille attentive.
de le rejoindre. Enfin l'animal s'arrêta au pied d'un gros Une seconde fois le son du cor retentit.5
arbre,to et poussa (i) un long aboiement. Le marchand redoubla "Ce bruit vient de l'habitation; courons tous, mes amis.”6 de vitesse, et bientôt il fut à côté de lui. Il aperçut (j) alors À
ces mots la troupe se dirige en toute hâte vers la maison.: l'enfant couché sur un tas de feuillagell et ne donnant aucun À peine (e) y furent-ils arrivés, qu'ils aperçurent le marchand signe de vie. Il le prit (k) dans ses bras et reconnut (l) qu'il ambulant dont () il est parlé an commencement de cette his n'était pas (m) mort, i? mais seulement dans un état de faiblesse toire. À cette vue, l'espoir qui s'était élevé dans le cœur du tel, que quelques instants plus tard, il aurait sans aucun doute pauvre père fit place (9) à un amer désappointement.”
expiré. Le marchand le souleva avec précautions dans ses bras * Hélas !" lui dit-il
, "je croyais (h) que c'était mon petit et l'apporta à ses parents. Alfredo qui nous était rendu.”
Ils étaient heureusement en quelque sorte préparés à cet " Pardonnez-moi
, Monsieur, si j'ai interrompu (i) vos recher. événement, et s'étaient munis (n) de tout ce qui était néces. ches, "*" répondit le marchand; * mais si je l'ai fait, c'est que saire't pour le restaurer. Bientôt il ouvrit les yeur15 et tous les
chagrins de cette cruelle journée furent oubliés. M. et Mme, frère est-il chez vous? 30. Non, Monsieur, il est arec un de mes Dérambert, Auguste et Fanny étaient fous de joie ;16 c'est à parents. 31. Est-il marió? 32. Il n'est pas marié.
33. Le capitaine peine si dans les premiers moment ils songèrent à remercier H. est-il mario? 34. Il s'est marié la semaine dernière. 35. II a celui qui leur avait rendu leur enfant; mais après avoir baigné épousé Mlle. H, de larmes le visage du petit malheureux, après l'avoir pressé
EXERCISE 129 (Vol. II., page 266). mille fois contre leur ceur, ils se jetèrent au cou du marchand
1. Is your house large? 2. It is fifty feet long and twenty-five
feet wide. 3. How long is your garden? 4. It is twenty-five yards en le comblant de bénédictions.
in length and twelve in breadth. 5. How large is this book? 6. It Mais, Moustache! de quelles caresses ne fut-il pas l'objet ! is eighteen inches long, thirteen wide, and three inches thick. 7. Is c'était à qui (o) le choierait,'s le flatterait, l'embrasserait. L’in your house longer than this? 8. It is longer by two feet. 9. How telligent animal paraissait (P) prendre part au bonheur géné- deep is this well? 10. How high is that steeple? 11. It is three ral ;'* il courait d'Auguste à Fanny, de Fanny à Alfred dont il hundred and fifty-three feet high. 12. How tall is that officer? 13. léchait les petites mains avec un air de contentement inexprim- He is tall
. 14. How much taller than his brother is that Scotchman! able. On aurait dit qu'il se rappelait le service20 qu'aupara
15. He is taller by the whole head. 16. Are you not much taller vant, les trois enfants lui avaient rendu, et qu'aujourd'hui il se
than I? 17. I am three inches taller than you. 18. How is that
stuff sold a yard? 19. It is sold three francs a mètre. 20. Does not trouvait heureux d'avoir pu leur témoigner sa reconnaissance, en
brown sugar sell dear? 21. It sells cheap. 22. How many letters sauvant l'un d'eux.
do you write a week? 23. I only write six a week. 24. How much COLLOQUIAL EXERCISE.
do you pay a week for your rent ? 25. I pay only ten francs a week. 1. Comment paraissait alors le 10. Où s'arrêta-t-il enfin?
EXERCISE 130 (Vol. II., page 266). marchand ? 11. Qu'aperçut alors le marchand ?
1. Quelle grandeur a le jardin de M. votre père? 2. Il a vingt-cinq 2. Où s'était-il placó? 12. L'enfant était-il mort?
mètres de longueur et dix de largeur. 3. La maison de votre cousin 3. Que dit-il tout à coup ? 13. Que fit ensuite le marchand ?
est-elle grande? 4. Elle a cinquante-six pieds de longueur et quaranta 4. Quelle était la contenance du 14. De quoi les parents s'étaient
de largeur. 5. Votre maison est-elle plus grande que la mienne chien lorsqu'il reparut ?
Elle est plus grande que la vôtre de dix pieds. 7. Savez-vous quelle 5. Qu'est-ce que ses gestes indi- | 15. Ouvrit-il bientôt les yeux ?
profondeur a ce puits? 8. Il a vingt-cinq pieds de profondeur, et six quaient ?
16. Leg parents montrèrent-ils de largeur. 9. Combien ce drap se vend-il le mètre? 10. Il se rend 6. Que dit le maitre?
beaucoup de joie ?
quarante-cinq francs le mètre, 11. Combien recevez-vous par semaine 7. Quelle fut la question de la 17. Que firent-ils après avoir em
brassé le petit garçon ?
pour votre travail ? mère ?
12. Je reçois cinquante francs par semaine pour
mon travail. 13. Combien votre ami paie-t-il par mois pour sa pension? 8. Quelle réponse fit le 18. Moustache fut-il oublié ?
14. Il paie soixante-dix francs par mois. 15. Êtes-vous plus grand chand? 19. Que faisait-il alors ?
que votre cousin ? 16. Je suis plus grand que lui de toute la tête. 9. Que faisait le chien après avoir 20. Qu'aurait-on dit en voyant le 17. Votre neveu n'est-il pas plus grand que votre fils ? 18. Il est repris sa course ?
plus grand que mon fils, de trois pouces. 19. De quelle grandeur est NOTES.
cette chambre ? 20. Elle e soixante pieds de long sur quarante de (a) Ne songeait, dared not. (i) Poussa, gave.
large. 21, De quelle taille est M. votre frère ? 22. Il est de haute (6) From mettre. (j) From apercevoir.
taille, il est plus grand que moi. 23. Combien de livres lisez-vous par (c) Recucillait, listened to; from (k) From prendre.
semaine ? 24. Je lis dix volumes par semaine. 25. Combien le beurre recueillir, (1) From reconnaitre.
se vend-il la livre? 26. Le beurre se vend deux francs la livre. 27. (d) From voir.
(m) Mort, dead; from mourir. Savez-vous combien votre fils gagne par jour ? 28. Il gagne autant (e) From reparaitre.
(n) Ils s'étaient munis, they had que le vôtre, il gagne dix francs par jour, 29. Combien cette () Fit, from faire ; is often used provided themselves.
soie vaut-elle le mètre? 30. Elle vaut six francs le mètre, 31. Notre instead of dit, said. (o) C'était à qui, they vied with one
ami est de taille moyenne. 32. Allez-vous à l'église deux fois par (g) From vivre.
jour ? 33. Je vais à l'église une fois par jour. 34. Votre fils va-t-il (h) De temps à autre, from time to (p) From paraître.
à la poste tous les jours ? 35. Il y va six fois par jour. time.
EXERCISE 131 (Vol. II., page 267).
1. Have you forbidden that man to set his foot inside KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN FRENCH. 2. I have forbidden him. 3. Have you sheltered those things from EXERCISE 127 (Vol. II., page 237).
the rain? 4. I have sheltered them from the rain and wind. 5. Have 1. Is not your niece going to be married? 2. She will be married you acquainted your brother with that affair? 6. I have not aotext year.
3. Whom will she marry? 4. She will marry General quainted him with it. 7. Have you not enabled him to study! & I M.'s eldest son. 5. Do you know who has married that couple? 6.
have enabled him to instruct himself, if he wishes to do it. 9. Will The Archbishop of Paris has married them. 7. Has he not also married you put that aside ? 10. I am going to put it in the sun. 11. Would Miss L.! 8. He has married her to Mr. G. 9. Whom has your
not your friend come in? 12. He would not alight. 13. Has not young lady married ? 10. She has married Mr. L., captain in the
yonr dyer put on his apron wrong side out? 14. No, Sir, he has put 25th regiment of infantry. 11. Is not that old man wrong to marry ? | it on right side out. 15. Have you not put that giddy person out of 12. He is not wrong to be married, but he is wrong to marry that
doors ? 16. We have shut the door in his face. 17. At what hour lady, 13. When are those princesses going to be married? 14.
do you sit down to table ? 18. As soon as the cloth is laid. 19. Does They will be married next month. 15. Who will marry them?
that man dress well? 20. He always dresses after the English or the 16. The Bishop of Arras will marry them. 17. Whom are they to
Italian fashion. 21. Did not those children commence weeping? 22. marry? 18. The elder is to marry Mr. W., and the younger Mr. G. Instead of beginning to weep, they began to laugh. 23. Why do you 19. Has not Captain G. married a relation of yours ? 20. Yes, Sir, he not commence writing? 24. It is time to sit down to table. 25. Are nas married a cousin of mine. 21. Who is that young lady? 22. She
those Sicilian ladies well dressed! 26. They are exceedingly well is a sister of mine, 23. Have you not a book of mine! 24. I have a
dressed, book of yours and a pen of yours. 25. I have just spoken to one of
EXERCISE 132 (Vol. II., page 267). your sisters.
1. Le monsieur a-t-il mis pied à terre ce matin ? 2. Non, Monsieur, EXERCISE 128 (Vol. II., page 238).
il n'a pas voulu mettre pied à terre, il n'avait pas le temps. 3. Avez. 1. M, votre frère va-t-il épouser Mlle. L. ? 2. Oui, Monsieur, nous vous mis cet insolent à la porte ? 4. Non, Monsieur, mais je lui ai avons beau lui parler, il veut l'épouser. 3. M. votre père de mariera- défendu de mettre le pied chez moi. 5. Avez-vous mis ces petits t-il pas votre sour avec M. G.? 4. Non, Monsieur, il la mariera avec enfants à l'abri de la pluie ? 6. Je les ai mis à l'abri de la pluie et du M. L. 5. Le capitaine H. est-il marié? 6. Non, Monsieur, il n'est vent. 7. Avez-vous mis votre fils à même d'apprendre la médecine ? pas encore marié, mais il se mariera l'année prochaine. 7. Qui a-t-il 8. Je l'ai mis à même d'apprendre la médecine, s'il désire le faire. %. l'intention d'épouser? 8. Il a l'intention d'épouser une de mes cousines, Avez-vous mis votre habit å l'envers ? 10. Je ne l'ai pas mis à l'envers, qui est chez mon frère. 9. Qui les mariera? 10. Mon frère ainé a je l'ai mis à l'endroit. 11. Vous êtes-vous mis en colère ? 12. Non, l'intention de les marier. 11. Votre plus jeune sœur est-elle mariée ? Monsieur, je ne me suis pas mis en colère.
13. Vous êtes-vous mis à 12. Non, Monsieur, elle n'est pas mariée. 13. Va-t-elle se marier? | table, hier à quatre heures ? 14, Nous nous sommes mis à table à six 14. Elle se mariera quand elle sera assez igée. 15. Qui M. le colonel heures. 15. Avez-vous l'intention de vous mettre en pension ? 16. J'ai J. a-t-il épousé ? 16. Il a épousé une de mes saurs. 17. Combien de l'intention de me mettre en pension chez M. L. temps y a-t-il qu'ils sont mariés? 18. Il y a deux ans qu'ils sont mettez-vous en voyage ?
18. Nous nous mettons en route demain mariés. 19. Cette demoiselle n'a-t-elle pas tort de se marier ? 20. matin. 19. Votre fils s'est-il mis à rire ?
20. Non, Mousieur, il s'est Elle a tort de se marier, elle est trop jeune. 21. Qui a marié M. mis à pleurer. 21. Pourquoi ne vous mettez-vous pas à travailler ? le général S. et Mle. N.! 22. L'évêque d'Arms les a mariée. 23. 22. Parceque je vais me mettre à lire. 23. Cette dame se met-elle à L'archevêque d’York n'a-t-il pas marié ces époux! 24. L'archevêque l'anglaise ? 24. Elle se met à l'italienne. de Paris les al mariés. 25. Votre tante ne se mariera-t-elle pas ! 26. bien mises ? 26. Elles sont mises à merveille. 27. Ne voulez-vous Elle ne se mariera pas? 27. Mlle. votre seur n'est-elle pas à la maison pas vous mettre à l'ombre ? 28. Je me mettrai au soleil, j'ai très-froid. 23. Non, Monsieur, elle est
chez une de mes tantes. 29. M. votre 29. Votre habit est-il à l'envers ? 30. Non, Monsieur, il est à l'endroit.
17. Quand vous
25. Ces dames sont-elles
31. Est-ce là l'endroit de ce drap ? 32. C'est l'envers. 33. N'êtes of the rulers was at the same time excited by the prospect of rons pas mis à l'anglaise ? 34. Je suis mis à l'italienne. 35. Vous wealth to be gained by confiscations; and the two influences cométes bien mis.
bining, the poor Israelites had a good many bad quarters of an EXERCISE 133 (Vol. II.,
hour. It began to be rumoured that the Jews, in their ritos, 1. Send for the physician, your little boy is ill. 2. We have already openly derided the Christian religion; that they had mock imitagent for him. 3. You do not want your pencil, lend it to me. 4. I tions of the sufferings of our Lord; and that they even insticannot lend it to you, I am using it. 5. Give it to me, or lend it to tuted a grim ceremonial of crucifixion, in which a Christian child 6. I have promised it to your teacher. 7. If you have not said
was crucified in double mockery of the great sacrifice on Calvary. it to him, tell him of it as soon as possible. 8. Do not tell him of it yet. 9. Speak to him about it the next time you see him.
Towards the close of the fourteenth century the popular igno
10. Have patience, my friend, your father will not be long coming. 11. Obey rance and fanaticism found expression in attacks on the houses your instructor. 12. I always obey him. Give him a good part of it. and property of the Jews, and in assaults on their persons; and 13. I have already given him more than two-thirds of it. 14. Have so great was the persecution, which was unchecked, even en. you carried that key to the locksınith ? 15. I have forgotten to give couraged, by the authorities, that the only way the Jews had by it to him. 16. Take it to him, without fail, this afternoon.
17. Have which to escape destruction was to pretend to be converted to the goodness to tell me where Mr. G. lives.
18. Take the first street Christianity. on the left; he lives in the second house on the right. 419. Come,
But these conversions were of course insincere, and the young ladies, let us make haste. 20. Take them thither as soon as possible. , 21. Do not bring them back to me, 22. Send them back to
Catholic bigots watched for the time when they might catch the me to-morrow. 23. Let us carry them thither. 24. Let us not carry proselytes tripping. The numbers of the Jews, and the widethem thither, 25. Lend them to him, but do not give them to him. spread influence they possessed, rendered it next to impossible
for the old Inquisition to do the work of religious watch-dog
and extirpator of heresy, and the clergy were clamorous for HISTORIC SKETCHES.—XXXIII.
some more efficient machinery for advancing what they con
sidered to be the cause of God. In spite of repeated efforts to THE INQUISITION.
obtain this machinery, in spite of many oppressive enactments, On the 7th of November, 1781, a nun was burned alive in a the Jews managed to get along pretty well till the junction of principal town of Spain, on a charge of having made a compact the crowns of Aragon and Castile, by Ferdinand and Isabella, with the devil. She was the last victim of the Spanish In- in the year 1474. A year before Isabella ascended the throne, the quisition.
Constable of Castile had been killed by the populace while trying The Inquisition was an institution as old almost as Catholicism to save the Jews from the fury of the people, who were hounded in Spain, but its operations were not confined to the Spanish on by the priests to acts of violence against the race from which kingdom only. Indeed, originally it was called into existence | the Redeemer himself sprang. A priest who did not set up for because of people who were not Spaniards at all. After the break- being a zealot, wrote thus of the Jews :-" This accursed raco ing out of religious differences in Provence among the Albigeois were either unwilling to bring their children to be baptised, or, or Albigenges, in A.D. 1160, and after the bloody crusade of the if they did, they washed away the stain on returning home. Count de Montfort-father to the Simon de Montfort, Earl of They dressed their stews and other dishes with oil instead of Leicester, who founded the English House of Commons—had lard; abstained from pork ; kept the passover; ate meat in crushed, not the spirit of difference, but the people who differed, Lent; and sent oil to replenish the lamps of their synagogues, it was considered a necessary thing that the people should be with many other abominable ceremonies of their religion. They watched by special watches, in order to prevent the re-entry of entertained no respect for monastic life, and frequently profaned the heresy which had so divided the church. An Inquisition was the sanctity of religious houses by the violation or seduction of therefore established, which took cognisance of heresy of all their inmates. They were an exceedingly politic and ambitious kinds, and punished, according to its own discretion, those whom people, engrossing the most lucrative municipal offices, and prein secret court it pronounced to be guilty. The operations of ferred to gain their livelihood by traffic, in which they made this organisation were not confined to one place, though they exorbitant gains, rather than by manual labour or mechanical were of course chiefly directed against the Albigenses. These arts. They considered themselves in the hands of the Egyptians, unfortunate people, or such of them as escaped the fury of De whom it was a merit to deceive and pilfer. By their wicked Montfort, fled into Aragon, where they allied themselves with a contrivances they amassed great wealth, and thus were often race, the Jews, equally inimical to the Holy Office.
able to ally themselves by marriage with noble Christian The Jews, who had early experienced the hatred of all sects of families.” Christians, even of those who were most bitterly opposed the one Superstition, ignorance, greed, and fanaticism had their way. to the other, had materially aided the Saracens when Gebal They clamoured for the destruction of the Jews in Andalusia, and Tarik-from whom Gibraltar was called-landed on the south. declared that the machinery of the old Inquisition was quite west coast of Spain, and led his conquering hosts against the unable to cope with the difficulty. Chief among the clamourers Christians of the Peninsula. The Arabs had admitted them to was Alphonso de Ojeda, a Dominican friar of Seville. Ho terms of equality, in accordance with the tolerant spirit which devoted himself to the work of procuring the means for crushing led them to allow freedom of conscience to everybody, after out Judaism and heresy from Spain, and he so worked upon the they had recovered from the fever inspired by the cry of“ Death weak head of Ferdinand of Castile, as to make him listen with or the Koran!” The Jews appreciated this treatment, under satisfaction to his proposals for establishing a new and more which they increased and multiplied, and grow rich, and rose to thorough-going Inquisition than existed elsewhere in Europe. many high offices of state ; and they were looked upon with When Isabella heard of the plan she was much opposed to proportionate jealousy and dislike by Christians of the Roman it, intensely Catholic though she undoubtedly was. She could Church, who regarded the union of Jew and Saracen as a two. | not bear to think of the persecution to which the new instituheaded form of the worst infidelity, and bided the time when tion must inevitably give rise, and she failed to be convinced by they might burst the union asunder. Meantime, the Jews flou. the arguments addressed to her on the score of necessity. Overrished exceedingly in Spain; they travelled, accumulated know-powered, however, by those to whose judgment she thought she ledge as well as money, and were foremost in the ranks of the was bound to defer, and recognising, it is said, the obligation of learned in the science and arts of those days. Medicine, a promise extorted from her when a girl by her confessor, astronomy, political economy, finance, were their special studies, Thomas de Torquemada, that "should she ever come to the and in these they so greatly excelled that oven Christian princes throne she would devote herself to the extirpation of heresy, for sought their help in governing, and gave them posts of trust the glory of God, and the exaltation of the Catholic faith,” sho about their person. The wealth of the Jews was also so great joined with her husband Ferdinand in a petition to the as to overcome the repugnance of the Spanish Christian Pope that the Holy Office might be introduced into Castile. grandees, who were poor, to commingling the blood of the two Sixtus IV. was only too glad to comply with the request, and on races ; and many marriages were made between wealthy Jews the 1st of November, 1478, he issued a bull authorising the and noble but unmoneyed Christian maidens. By the time, how- Spanish sovereigns to appoint ecclesiastical commissioners for ever, that the Albigenses fled into Aragon, the bigotry of the the detection and punishment of heresy throughout their Catholics was ready to exalt itself against all men, and every- dominions. thing that opposed it, whether actively or passively. The cupidity Averse as the queen originally was to the introduction of harsh measures, she resolved to suspend the exercise of the prepared for each victim; and on a scaffold which commanded 3 powers committed to her until after an effort had been made to view of the place, a select company assembled to witness the bring the people to a sense of their supposed error. She caused tragedy. Around, but at a distance, the common throng looked the Cardinal Mendoza, Archbishop of Seville, to draw up a sort on, while men played "such fantastic tricks before high heaven of catechism, in which the chief points of the Catholic creed as made the angels weep.” A sermon, generally of an uncomwere set forth ; and this catechism the clergy were exhorted to promising and uncharitable kind, was preached by a monk, and bring to the notice of the people. Few conversions, if any, then the auto de fé (act of faith) was commenced by reading over were effected by this process; and those Jews, Turks, infidels, to each convict, in the hearing of the people, the sentence against and heretics who saw the tempest coming, made use of the him. Thereafter a flame-coloured smock, with devils painted all breathing time allowed them, and escaped from Spain to other over it, was flung over the victim, who was forthwith bound to countries. Many remained, and at the end of two years the the stake; and when similar steps had been taken with regard Queen being informed that the faith of Judaism and heresy was to the others, flame was applied to the fagots, and the poor as strong as before, issued a commission, under the Papal bull, wretches, for whom also Christ died, perished miserably at the to two monks of the Dominican order, who were to aot as hands of the so-called ministers of God. This was what the inquisitors, and two other ecclesiastics, who were to assist them Dominicans called delivering the body to Satan, that the soul in their office.
might be saved in the day of the Lord; or, if that might not be, On the 2nd of January, 1481, the court commenced its opera- then the execution was a warning to others; and it was lawful tions at the Dominican Convent of St. Paul, in the city of to do that amount of evil that good might come of it. Horrible Seville, Alphonso de Ojeda being prior of the convent, by pub-casuistry! lishing an edict, requiring all who knew or suspected any to be Notwithstanding the plague which in this year visited guilty of heresy to accuse them of the same, secretly or openly, Seville, sweeping off 15,000 of the inhabitants, the Inquisition to the tribunal. To those who should confess their errors and still continued its fiendish work; $0 that by the end of become reconciled to the Church, the Inquisition held out the the year, in the province of Andalusia, 2,000 persons, many hope of pardon, if confession were made before a given date. of them the most learned and respectable of the day, had
There was thus ample employment for the new court, which perished at the stake. Twice that number having managed to soon had to move its sittings from the Convent of St. Paul to escape, were burned in effigy, and 17,000 were condemned the Castle of Friana, in the suburbs of Seville. There it enter to lesser punishments; of which the least, however, must have tained accusations against high and low, upon pretexts the most been a terrible infliction. Two years after the first insti. frivolous as well as the most grave; and condemned to punish- tution of the office, Sixtus IV., who was at one time disposed ments, varying from death by fire to simple penance, delin. to moderate the zeal of the inquisitors, appointed Torquemada, quents who could not say they believed what to their minds who had been Queen Isabella's confessor, to be Inquisitor. was a lie. The Inquisition received evidence which, even in General of Castile and Arragon, with power to frame a new con: those days, would not have been listened to in a civil court of stitution for the office. From this time dates the rise of the law, and the pretexts upon which condemnation frequently pro- Spanish Inquisition as it got to be known and cursed. Its cruel ceeded were such as to make them marvellous even in a barbaric hand reached everywhere ; no one was too high in office, too era. Tortures of the most exquisite and excruciating kind were learned, too brave, too true to his profession, to be exempt from practised on the accused to make them confess, or to induce it; and to be suspected was in nearly every instance to fall. them to accuse other people; and the hateful system of espion. Torquemada's reign was a reign of terror, but he was succeeded age and secret prison-houses was adopted by the Inquisition at by one Deza, who, in the eight years he presided at Seville, caused Seville, and at all its branches. For hard as the inquisitors 2,592 persons to be burned alive, to say nothing of some 35,000 worked at Seville, they could not get through the long lists of condemned to various other punishments short of death, but illus. persons in all parts of Spain who were accused to them as short-trating how that the tender mercies of the wicked are cruel. comers in the faith; and branch courts were formed at other When the Reformation began to be preached, the work of the places, under the superintendence of the Dominican friars. Inquisition increased; and several hundreds of persons, in
On the 2nd of January, 1481, the chief .bureau at Seville various parts of Spain, were annually burned alive in conseopened its commission, and by the 8th of the same month six quence. But not in Spain only did the Inquisition work for persons had suffered death at the stake for conscience' sake. The the devil. In her colonies, especially in South America and testimony on which Jews were condemned would be simply ludi- Mexico, the hateful ensign was set up, and the Indians who crous, had it not been so terrible in its effect. An author, to escaped the cruelty of the colonists as governors, experienced whom the writer is indebted for many of the facts here men- the rigorous punishments of them as religionists, and destroyed tioned, says :-" It was considered good evidence of the fact (i.e. themselves in large numbers rather than fall into their hands. Judaism) if the prisoner wore better clothes or cleaner linen on It is wonderful that there was not any actual rebellion against the Jewish Sabbath than on the other days of the week; if he the Spanish Inquisition, which continued, on the basis settled had no fire in his house the preceding evening; if he sat at by Torquemada, till 1781. During the three centuries of its table with Jews, or ate the meat of certain animals, or drank a existence it is computed to have burned 31,912 persons; to have certain beverage held much in estimation by them; if he washed burned in effigy 17,659; and to have punished in other ways a corpse in warm water, or when dying turned his face to the 291,450 more. Yet there was not any uprising against it. wall; or, finally, if he gave Hebrew names to his children, a Men hated but feared a tribunal of which the spies were all provision most whimsically cruel, since by a law of Henry II. around, even in the bosom of the family, and which dealt its he was prevented under severe penaltios from giving them blows so secretly and suddenly, and with such destructive effect. Christian names.” Of course, such testimony being accepted, Though after 1781 human sacrifices ceased to be offered, the the number of the condemned was legion; and by the beginning | Inquisition itself continued to exist till 1813, when it was form. of November, in the first year of the Spanish Inquisition's exist- ally abolished by the Cortes, and it has not been revived on any ence, there had perished by fire in Seville no less than 298 permanent basis since. persons.
Imperfect as this sketch of so great a subject must necessarily The executions, which took place at a permanent stake-yard be, enough perhaps has been shown to explain the reason why of stone, were attended with all the circumstances which could the Netherlanders resolved to shed their last drop of blood lend horror to tho scene, and heighten, for sake of the example, rather than suffer the Spanish Inquisition to be established the sufferings of the condemned. On a given day appointed by among them; and why the English, under Elizabeth, were stung the Inquisition, usually one on which there was an edifying into a frenzy of courage at mere sight of the Armada, which was number of sinners to be roasted, a solemn procession was formed intended not only to effect the conquest of their country in in the court-yard of the prison whence the prisoners set out to behalf of the worst bigot of his day (Philip II.), but to implant their doom. Priests went before and after, singing dirges, and what was inseparable from the power of that evil king—the in the midst walked the prisoners; those who were to die being authority of the devilish tribunal which sat at Seville and dressed in distinctive and fantastic robes; those who were to Valladolid, and performed in open day, and in the sight of God witness the sufferings of their friends, and after supping full of and man, aots at which one must think even a fallen angel would horrors to be led back again to prison, in different coloured have blushed with shame, and from which the devil himself robes. On arriving at the execution-ground they foand the wood might have shrunk.