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It would be found very inconvenient, however, to open and ( valves at the top and bottom are fixed to opposite ends of a rod close the taps continually; in practics, therefore, they are re- which passes through a hole in the piston. As the piston rises placed by valves, which are constructed of a small piece of oiled it closes that at the top, and forces the air above it out by : silk covering a hole bored in a metal plate. These only allow of separate valve, while at the same time it opens the lower exhanstthe passage of the air in one direction, and that at F is made to valve, and thus draws a further supply of air from the receiver. open outwards, while B opens upwards.

Similarly, in descending it forces out the air below it, and erThis syringe will answer well for exhausting a globe, but the hausts above. It thus has the advantage of the double-barrel mouth of this must necessarily be small, and so but few things pump without its complications. It is also constructed so that could be introduced and operated upon, The pipe

the cylinder oscillates, and the piston is worked by a from the bottom of the syringe is therefore pro

crank; thus, instead of the usual alternate motion, longed, and made to pass through the centre of a fixed

Ċ which is very awkward, a fly-wheel turned by a winch metal disc, the surface of which is ground so as to be

gives motion to the pump. perfectly true. Glass receivers are also ground true on

We can now pass on to give other illustrations of their open ends, so that when a little tallow is smeared

the weight of the air. If we take a ball of cork, and on to fill the small irregularities of the surfaces no air

suspend it from one end of a scale-beam, placing 2 can pass between them and the pump-plate. Any sub.

piece of metal at the other end so as just to balance stance can then be placed on the plate, and have the

it, and then transfer the whole to the receiver of the air removed from it.

pump, and remove the air, we shall find that the cork In the better class of air-pumps two syringes are

will overbalance the weight, and descend. The reason placed side by side, so as to work alternately; the

of this is that the cork displaces a larger bulk of air construction of the whole arrangement is then similar

than the piece of metal, and therefore is supported to to that shown in Fig. 2. AA is a pipe which opens

that extent by the air; but as soon as this support is through the pump-plate, and also communicates with

removed it sinks. If, therefore, we would know the each of the barrels, B B', valves, C, C, opening upwards,

true weight of any substance, we must weigh it in being placed at the bottom of the barrels. The

A piston-rods are cut into notches which work in the

The ascent of a balloon furnishes another illus. teeth of the wheel D, so that as the handle E is

tration of this. A body floats in water because it worked alternately backwards and forwards they rise Fig. 1.

has less weight than in equal bulk of water, and and fall, and while the piston in B is rising that

in the same way a body will float in air if it has less in B' is being depressed. The great advantage of this is that weight than an equal bulk of air. Now a balloon is so con. the pressure on the handle remains almost constant. When the structed as thus to be lighter, and therefore the weight of the receiver becomes nearly exhausted, the external air presses very surrounding air buoys it up. If it were possible to construct & heavily on the top of the piston, which therefore requires a con- hollow vessel strong enough to bear the pressure of the air, and siderable force to raise it; but when there are two arranged yet weighing less than the air it displaces, it would ascend; thus, the pressure on the one nearly balances that on the other, this, however, has not been accomplished, nor does it seem at and thus much less labour is required. As the air in the receiver all likely to be done. The simplest balloon is a common soap F becomes rarefied, the external air presses on it with consider bubble, the breath used in blowing it is warm, and sufficiently able force, fixing it firmly on the plate, so firmly, indeed, as to lighter than the air to carry up with it the delicate film of Tender it almost impossible to stir it. An opening, closed by a soapy water which envelopes it. If bubbles be blown with screw, is therefore provided, by which the air can be allowed to hydrogen gas instead of air, they will ascend more rapidly: A enter the receiver when it is desired to remove it from the plate. peculiar soap solution is now to be obtained, bubbles blown A gauge to indicate the degree of rarefaction produced is affixed with which may be attached to a small paper disc, and made to the machine at G. Since at each stroke the air in the receiver to take up with them a miniature car. expands and fills the cylinder, it is obvious that the larger the The Montgolfier, or fire-balloon, was the first used, being in. cylinder is in comparison with the re

vented towards the end of the last cenceiver, the less the number of strokes re

tury. It consists of a large, hollow vessel, quired to produce any given degree of

made of varnished silk or thin canvas, and exhaustion.

surrounded by a network of ropes suffiIf the capacity of the cylinder be that

ciently strong to support a furnace just of the receiver, of the air will be re.


under the open mouth of the balloon, and moved by the first stroke, and conse

also the car, in which the aëronaut can sit. quently only will remain ; } of this will

A large fire being kindled in the furnace be removed by the next stroke, leaving in

the air inside becomes highly rarefied, and the receiver -73, of the original

thus weighs so much less than an equal quantity. In this way we see that after

bulk of the external air that it will raise five strokes, upwards of j of the air will

the balloon with its furnace and car. Fresh have been removed, while if the cylinder

supplies of the fuel, which is of a highly have only to of the capacity of the re

combustible nature, are laid on when it is ceiver twelve strokes will be required to

desired that the balloon should rise to a produce the same degree of exhaustion.

greater height, while damping the fire soon It is important, then, to have the cylinder

causes it to fall. The use of these bal. as large as practicable; still, since the

loons is, however, attended with great pressure of the air on it may become

danger, as the flames may catch the car thirteen or fourteen pounds to the square

Fig. 2.

or the balloon itself. Several accidents of inch, there is a limit soon imposed by the

this kind have occurred, and only recently power which would be required to work the machine. The ! some attempts made at the Crystal Palace to send up a firevacuum produced by an afr-pump constructed in this way balloon ended in this way. is not absolutely perfect, for the pressure of the air in the re- Another objection to their use is that a large supply of fuel ceiver has to open the valves, and

when a certain amount has must be taken up with the balloon, and this adds considerably been removed, that which is left ceases to have sufficient expan to the weight to be raised. Hence these are rarely used, except sive force to do this, and then no further exhaustion can be pro- for curiosity; the gas balloon—which we shall describe in our duced. To obviate this the valves in the best machines, instead next lesson, and which is much more manageable — having of being made of oiled silk, are conical plugs fitting into settings. almost superseded them. Frequent attempts have been made and are worked by the piston instead of opening

by the force of to produce a machine acting on the principle of the screw, which the air. In this way a much more perfect vacuum may be shall be able to rise in the air, but at present they have been obtained. A still further improvement has been effected by M. unavailing, the weight

of the driving machinery being too great. Bianchi. mis machine has only one barrel, but this is so con. Aëronauts are, however, still at work on the subject, though tho structed as to be double-acting. The conical plugs closing the solution of the problem seems far distant.

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LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.-XXXIII. we have yet all to learn—by the indefatigable and adventurous


The surface of the whole continent is reckoned to contain AFRICA, the mystery of ancient and the problem of modern just about 12,000,000 square miles, and about 130,000,000 in. times, is the south-western part of the Old World. This con. habitants; which gives on an average nearly eleven to every tinent is situated chiefly in the torrid zone, the exceptions square mile. being Egypt, Barbary, and the British colonies at the Cape of Boundaries.-Africa is bounded on the north by the MediGood Hope. The central regions and the coast on the eastern terranean Sea ; on the south by the great Southern Ocean, or and western sides were considered as almost wholly uninhabit rather the waste of waters in which the South Atlantic Ocean able by the ancients, as far as they chanced to be acquainted and Indian Ocean meet, lying to the north of the Antarctic with them, and with regard to Europeans these districts have Ocean; on the east by the South Atlantic Ocean; and on the not greatly improved in character in this respect at the present west by the Indian Ocean. day; although, judging by the accounts of all the recent explor. Oceans, Seas, Gulfs, etc.—The Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden ing expeditions into its interior, there is a bright future yet in lie to the north-east of this continent; and the Mozambique store for the negro races of Africa, who are fitted to endure the Channel, 250 miles in width at its narrowest part, to the east, intense heat, the heavy periodical rains, and the fever-fraught between the south-east coast and Madagascar. The South exhalations of the marshy

Atlantic and the Indian districts of the land in

Oceans commingle their which an all-wise Creator

waters south of the Capo has placed them, when

of Good Hope; the At. intercourse with English



lantic washes the shores of traders shall have awe sandria

Guinea and Lower Guinea, kened them to the bene

El Arisha

in the Gulf of Guinea, and fits that civilisation and LOWER SEGYPT

the Bights or Bays of the arts of peace, agricul.

Beniu and Biafra. The ture, and commerce bring


Strait of Gibraltar sepa to every land that uses


rates the rooky coast of them aright. Time of Memphis\Helouan

Marocco and Spain. In Extent.--Africa extends


the Mediterranean are the

Almbah from north to south about Bredine

Galfs of Sidra and Cabos, 5,000 miles; the most nor.



on the north of Tripoli thern point being a head. Feshn Bibaba

and Tunis ; and in the land of Tunis, called Ras. Abu Girgeh

south, on the shores of al.Kran, in lat. 37° 20' N.,


Cape Colony, are St. Helena and long. 9° 48 E.; and ENTRAL

Bay, Table Bay, False Bay, the most southern point,

Algoa Bay, etc.; while on Cape Agulhas, in lat. 34° EGYPT

the east coast are Delagoa 50'S. and long. 19° 57' E.

Bay, Sofala Bay, and many It extends also from west

others of less extent and to east about 4,600 miles ; by Boomlich Saatel

importance. the most western point


Islands. The principal being Cape Verd, in lat. Girgch Sạiad

of the African islands, Ma. 14° 45' N. and long. 170

Denderitze Cheneh Cosseir

dagascar of course being ex32 W.; and the most



cepted, lie in small groups eastern point, Cape Guar


and clusters. The Azores, dafui, in lat. 11° 41' N.,


which are usually reckoned

such and long. 51° 22' E. The UPPER EGYPT

as African islands, though equator, passing over the


they lie above the latitude Gulf of Guinea, crosses

of the most northerly point this continent over Lower

EL Aenich

of Africa, and in the lati. Guinea on the west, near


tude of Portugal, to which the island of St. Thomas

Caturais Darand-C.Benass

they belong, are about 800 and mouth of the Gaboon


Ruins of

miles to the west of the River, and over Zangue

last-named part of the bar on the east, near the

mainland of Europe. Mamouth of the river Juba ;

deira, which also belongs Lon. E it thus cuts off about one

to Portugal, and Porto third of this continent to

Santo, lie off the west coast the south in the form of a peninsula ; the Tropic of Capricorn of Marocco. · The Canaries, belonging to Spain, of which the cuts off from this peninsula, in like manner, a smaller one, con- chief are Teneriffe and Grand Canary—the former remarkable taining Cape Colony and Kaffraria. The Tropic of Cancer for its high mountain, called the Peak of Teneriffe, which cuts off Northern Africa, crossing Sahara, or the Great Desert, rises to the altitude of 12,180 feet above the level of the and the Libyan Desert, and dividing Egypt from Nubia. Be- sea, or rather more than 2] miles of perpendicular heighttween the two tropics, and between the meridians of 10° and lie off the north-western corner of that part of the Sahara that 30° E.—that is, nearly those of Tunis and Alexandria—there abuts on the Atlantic. Of the Cape Verd Islands, the chief is a vast tract of unexplored country, especially south of are Santiago and St. Vincent; the chief town of the former the equator, which is little less than one-half of the con being Porto Praya, formerly the seat of government, which has tinent; the only parts of this vast region which have been been transferred to Porto Grande, the chief town in the latter. partially explored being, firstly, the countries that lie around Among the tropical islands should be reckoned Fernando Po, Lake Tchad; secondly, the regions in which lie the great equa- Prince Island, St. Thomas Island, and Annabon, all in the Gulf torial lakes of Africa — namely, Lake Victoria Nyanza, dis- of Guinea. Ascension Island and St. Helena—the spot on which covered by Captain Speke ; Lake Albert Nyanza, discovered the Emperor Napoleon fretted through the last few years of his by Sir Samuel Baker; and Lake Tanganyika, discovered by existence -lie out in the midst of the South Atlantic Ocean. Captains Burton and Speke; and thirdly, the countries between Madagascar, in the Indian Ocean, is about 1,050 miles long, and the parallels of 50 and 25° S. latitude, which have been about 300 miles broad in its widest part ; it is reckoned to contraversed in their breadth from the Indian Ocean to the tain about 200,000 square miles. The population is reckoned to Atlantic Ocean, and in their length from the Kalahari Desert be between 4,000,000 and 5,000,000. The Isle of Bourbon or to the equatorial districts

west of the great lakes-about which Réunion, belonging to France, lies about 400 miles eastward of VOL. III.


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Madagascar, contains about 900 square miles, and has a popu- to the hills which border the valley of the Nile on the west. lation of upwards of 100,000. Mauritius, belonging to Great Eastward of that river, and stretching to the shores of the Red Britain, is about 115 miles north-east of Bourbon, contains Sea, are the deserts of Egypt and Nubia, high plateaus traversed about 708 square miles, and has a population of 310,050. At- by ranges of mountains, in which are formed the torrent beds tached to it in government are the Seychelles or Mahé Islands, which create the annual inundations, and fertilise the valleys of the Amirante Islands to the north of Madagascar, and Rodri. those countries. In the south of Africa, between the parallels gues, about 300 miles east of the Mauritius. The Comoro 22° and 27° S. lat., is the Kalahari Desert, a vast elevated Islands are situated in the Mozambique Channel, Pemba Island plateau 3,500 feet above the level of the sea, from which the and Zanzibar Island off the coast of Zanguebar, and the island of ground slopes on either side towards the sea. Socotra about 130 miles east of Cape Guardafui, being about 80 Lakes.-In Central Africa lies the great basin of Lake Tchad, miles long, and having a surface of nearly 1,200 square miles. several thousand square miles in surface, varying with the

Capes, Headlands, and Promontories. The capes, headlands, seasons, and receiving some small tributary streams. This lake and promontories of Africa form some of its most remarkable is surrounded by the kingdoms—if kingdoms they may be called features. On the north is Cape Ceuta (the ancient Abyla), a! --of Kanem, Bornou, Baghirmi or Begharmi, and Waday. It is high promontory jutting out into the sea, and terminating in the centre of a rich, fertile, and prosperous country. To the perpendicular rocks; this promontory lies diroctly opposite the cast of Lake Tchad is Lake Fittre; and near Timbuctoo, on the rock of Gibraltar (the ancient Calpe), in the Strait of Gibraltar; west, is a small sheet of water through which the main stream and these two rocky headlands, flanking the water-way from the of the Niger runs, called Lake Debo or Dibbie. In Dahomey land-encircled Mediterranean Sea into the open expanse of the are the small lakes Avon and Denham. In the southern part Atlantic Ocean, were denominated by the ancients the Pillars of of the continent are Lake Ngami, Lake Dilolo, Lake Nyassa, Hercules. In the Mediterranoan, eastward from these, are Ras- Lake Shirwa, and Lake Shuia—all discovered or explored by al-Krun, Cape Blanco, and Cape Bon; and westward and south. Livingstone. On the equator, and to the south of it on the ward, in the Atlantic, are Cape Spartel, Cape Cantin, Cape Nun, eastern side, are Lakes Victoria Nyanza, Albert Nyanza, and Cape Bojador, Cape Blanco, Cape Verd, Cape Roxo, Cape Sierra Tanganyika, the first discovered by Captain Speke, Tanganyika Leone, Cape Palmas, Cape Three Points, Cape Formosa, all by Captains Speke and Burton, and Albert Nyanza by Sir north of the equator; south of this line are Cape Lopez, Cape Samuel Baker. In Abyssinia is Lake Dembea. Negro, Cape Frio, and Cape Voltas ; while doubling the Cape of Rivers. The principal river in Africa is the celebrated Nile ; Good Hope, are to be seen False Cape, Cape Agulhas, Cape it consists at first of two great arms called the Bahr-el-Azrek, or Natal, and others on the south coast of Africa. Ascending the Blue Nile, fed by head-streams that rise in Abyssinia, and the east coast, towards the equator, occur Cape Corrientes, Cape St. Bahr-el-Abiad, or White Nile, which derives its waters from Sebastian, Cape Delgado, and a variety of other capes called by Central Africa. It was thought when the Victoria Nyanza was the common name of Ras, which signifies head (originally from discovered by Speke that the great reservoir that supplied the the Hebrew), just as cape signifies head, from the Latin caput. Nile had been discovered. It was, however, found by Sir Samuel In the Red Sea, the entrance to which is by the strait of Bab-el. Baker, a few months after, that the Nile issued from Lake Albert mandeb, there are a variety of capes known by the same appel. Nyanza, the Victoria Nyanza emptying itself into this sheet of lation, Ras, but they are too minute for a general view ; and of water by a short broad stream called the Somerset. We must the Isthmus of Suez, common to Africa and Asia, we have await the return of Livingstone from his voluntary exile in the formerly had occasion to speak.

| heart of Africa to learn whether the Albert Nyanza is the The mountains of Africa, as far as the interior is concerned, fountain-head of the great river of Egypt, or whether, as able 1re scarcely known. In the northern part of this continent are and skilful geographers have surmised, its ultimate source is to the celebrated mountains, long known by the name of Atlas,' be found in Lake Tanganyika and the streams that run to swell and as having originated the name Atlantic, still applied to the its volume from the highlands that divide its basin from the surrounding ocean. These mountains run through the Barbary basins of the Congo and Zambesi. The course of the Nile may states, and separate them from the Great Desert; they vary in be estimated at from 2,500 to 3,000 miles in length. The chief elevation from 3,000 or 4,000 to 11,400 feet, the latter being rivers of Eastern and Southern Africa, following the coast from among the highest points, and situated near the city of Marocco. Cape Gaardafui, are the Juba, Pangany, Zambesi, Limpopo, EleThrough Abyssinia runs another range, separated by deep phant River, Great Orange River, Coanza, Congo, and Gaboon. valleys and gorges into ranges, groups, and sometimes isolated on the west coast of Africa are the following rivers of considerable peaks, of which the most elevated rise to the height of 15,000 note, and no small value in this part of the continent:- The feet above the level of the sea.

Senegal of 1,000 miles, and the Gambia of the same length, In Western Africa are to be found the Kong Mountains; both watering the district Senegambia, whose appellation is and in Eastern Africa, the mountains Kilimanjaro, Mfumbiro, formed by their united names; and the Quorra, Joliba, or and Kenia, each of which is from 10,000 to 20,000 feet high, Niger, about 2,300 miles in length, rising in Nigritia or Soudan, and connected with vast interior mountain ranges, called by and falling into the Bight of Benin. some the Mountains of the Moon, and by others the Blue Moun- With this lesson we give our readers a map of Egypt, : tains, the whole forming a rampart round the outer edge of the country to which the attention of the public has been lately inland basin which contains the great equatorial lakes. Within directed by the visit of the Prince and Princess of Wales to the the limits of Cape Colony there are ranges of mountains rising Viceroy of Egypt in 1869. Our next lesson will be accomfrom the coast towards the interior in a series of precipitous panied by a map of Africa, showing all the latest discoveries on steeps and plateaus, that' form a succession of what may be record in that continent to the present time. termed gigantic steps. These terraces, with the mountain slopes that edge them towards the south, are three in number, namely, North : The Mediterranenn.

SUMMARY OF BOUNDARIES. Table Bay, Cape Town. the Swellendam Mountains, near the coast, of which Table Moun- South : South Atlantic Ocean and Algoa Bay, Cape Colony.

False Bay, Cape of Good Hope. tain, 3,582 feet high, forms a part; the Swarte, or Black Moun

Delagoa Bay, N. of Natal. tains, further inland; and a third range in the interior, which is East: Red Sea, Indian Ocean. Sofula Bay, Sofala. known by different names in different parts of the chain, being West: The Atlantic Ocean. Mozambique Channel, E. of Sofala. called the Nieuwveld Mountains in the west, Sneewbergen in SUMMARY OF OCEANS, SEAS,

Gulf of Aden, S.E. of Red Sen. he centre, and Drakensberg in the east. Some peaks of the


SUMMARY OF STRAITS. Drakensberg attain a height of 10,000 feet, and form the Atlantic, W. and S. of Africa, Gibraltar, Mediterranean. culminating points of Southern Africa.

Indian Ocean, E. of Africa, Bab-el-Mandeb, Red Sea. Table-lands, Plains, Deserts.—The table-lands, plains, and Red Sea, E. of Africa.

SUMMARY OF ISTHMUSES. desorts in this continent are immense and unexplored, perhaps Mediterranean Sea, N. of Africa.

Suez, between Mediterranean Sea unexplorable! Sahara, or the Great Desert, is a vast plateau, Gulf of Sidra, Mediterranean.

Gull of Cabes, Mediterranean.

and Red Sea, connecting Asia varying in elevation from 1,000 to 5,000 feet in height, with

Gulf of Guinea, S. of Guinea.

and Africa, and crossed by rail. valleys and oases, or fertile tracts of land, intervening at distant Bight of Benin, Gulf of Guinea.

way and the great Suez Canal. intervals, to relieve the general monotony and sterility. Its Bight of Biafra, Gulf of Guinea. SUMMARY OF ISLANDS, length is about 3,000 miles, and its breadth in some places ex- St. Helena Bay, Cape Colony. The Azores, W. of Portugal. ceeds 1,000 miles ; it stretches from the shores of the Atlantic Saldanha Bay, Cape Colony. Madeira, W. of Marocco.

Indian Ocean.


Porto Santo, N.E. of Madeira.


Lit. Trans. :-“I am afraid lest bad deeds my may be discovered all." The Canaries, S. of Madeira, Atlas Mountains, Marocco.

Id. Trans. :-"I am afraid that all my bad deeds are discovered.” The Cape Verd Is., W.of Cape Verd. Mountains of the Moon, or Blue With ut: Ascension I., S. of Sierra Leone. Mountains, Central Africa. St. Helena, S.E. of Ascension. Kong Mountains, S. of Soudan.

“Omnes labores te excipere video; timeo ut sustineas.”—Cicero. Fernando Po, Bight of Biafra. Swellendam Mountains, C. Colony.

Lit. Trans. :-“All labours thee to undertake I see ; I fear that thou Prince Island, S. of Fernando Po. Swarte Mountains, Cape Colony.

may support." St. Thomas, S. of Prince Island. Nieuwveld, Sneewbergen, and Dra

Id. Trans. :-"I see that you undertake all labours; I fear you will Annabon, S. of St. Thomas. kensberg Mountains, C. Colony. not be able to support them.” Madagascar, E. of Sofala and Mo


With dative :zambique. Sahara or Great Desert.

“Nostræ causæ nihil nos timere."-Quintilian.
Bourbon, E. of Madagascar.
Libyan Desert.

Lit. Trans. :-" For onr cause nothing we fear."
Mauritius, N.E. of Bourbon.
Kalahari Desert,

Id. Trans. :-"We (say that we) fear not at all on our account.”
Rodrigues, E. of Mauritius.
The Comoro Is., N.W. of Mada.

VOCABULARY. gascar. Tchad, Bornou, Nigritia or Soudan.

Angustiæ, -arum, f., Conor, dep. 1, I endea. pertus sum (dep. 1), I The Amirante Is., N.E. of Mada. Fittre, Waday, Nigritia.


make trial of (E. R.exgascar, Dembea, Abyssinia.

Angustiæ itineris, the De suo ac legionis pe- periment, experience). The Seychelle Is., N. E. of Amirante. Albert Nyanza, Equatorial Africa.

narrow road,

riculo, concerning (on Osjicio, 3, I cast in the Socotra, E. of Cape Guardafui. Victoria Nyanza, Equatorial Africa.

Circumvenio (circum account of his own ecay of, I oppose to. Tanganyika, Equatorial Africa. SUMMARY OF CAPES.

and venio), 4, I sur. peril and tho poril of Ros fruinentaria, corn Nyassa, South Africa.

round (E. R. circum.
the legion.

for horses and men. Ras al-Krun, Tunis. Shirwa, South Africa.


Experior, experiri, ex- | Supporto, 1, I carry. Bon, Tunis.

Ngami, South Africa.
Spartel, Marocco.

Bojador, W. of Africa.

Nile, Equatorial Africa, Abyssinia, 1. Cæsar timebat tantæ magnitudinis flumini exercitum objicere. 2. Blanco, W. of Africa.

and Egypt.

Cæsar conandum atque experiendum judicat. 3. Cæsar, etsi timebat Verd, Senegambia. Zambesi, Eastern Africa.

tantæ magnitudinis Alumini exercitum objicere, conandum tamen atque Palmas, Guinea. Limpopo, Eastern Africa.

experiendum judicat. 4. Neque timerent ne circumvenirentur. 5. Three Points, Guinea.

Great Orange River, Southern Non se hostem vereri dicebant, 6. Angustias itineris timere se diceNegro, Benguela.


bant. 7. Ut satis commode supportari res frumentaria timere dice. Good Hope, False Bay,

Coanza River, Western Africa (S.). bant. 8. Non se bostem timere, sed angustiis itinoris, et ut satis Agulhas, E. of Cape of Good Hope. Congo River, Western Africa (S.). commode posset supportari res frumentaria timere dicebant. 9. Salva Natal, Caffraria.

Gaboon River, Western Africa (S.). est navis, ne time. 10. De Republicà valde timeo. 11. De suo ao Corrientes, Sofala.

Niger, Western Africa (N.). legionibus periculo nihil timebat. 12. Non times ne locum perdas. Delgado, Zanguebar.

Gambia, Western Africa (N.). 13. Timuit ne non succederet.
Guardafui, Ajan.
Senegal, Western Africa (N.).

1. I fear that thou hast lost thy labour. 2. I am afraid the house


3. I fear corn will not be brought into the city. 4. The

general feared that his army would not come. 5. They fear for their DEPONENT VERBS (continued)-CONSTRUCTION OF TIMEO. beautiful little girl. 6. Concerning thy fortune, I am not at all afraid.

7. The king and his generals are afraid of being surrounded. 8. I HAVE spoken of vercor and metuo: I will say a few words Cicero judges that he must make a trial. 9. I fear he will not be able on time. Timeo (timēre, timui, 2) is given in the dictionaries to make a trial. as signifying I fear. Is it, then, of the same meaning with

DEPONENT VERBS.-FOURTH CONJUGATION. tereor and metuo ? Not exactly. Timere represents a state

EXAMPLE.-- Blandior, I flatter. of mind, an habitual state of mind, a state of mind habitual because natural, the state of mind which is designated timid;

Chief Parts : Blandior, blandiri, blanditus sum. hence timere has for its primitive import to be timid or afraid.

PRESENT TENSE. Accordingly timere denotes mental solicitude, to be anxious, to Indicative. Subjunctive. Imperativo. Infinitive. Participles. be afraid, to be apprehensive. Metučre points out a

more Sing. Blandior, I Blandiar, I

Blandiri, Blandiens, active, more decided, and more formidable sentiment. There

flatter, etc. may flatter.

to flatter, flattering. is between metuěre and timere the difference that there is

Blandiris. Blandiáris. Blandire,or blanbetween the English to be afraid and to fear-we are afraid

ditor, hatter

thou, etc. harm has come to our friends, and we fear the lightning.

Blanditur. Blandiatur. Blanditor. Hence we may understand these words, metui cupiunt, metuique Plu. Blandimur. Blandiamur. [diminor. timent, they wish to be feared, and they are afraid to be feared. Blandimini. Blandiamini. Blandimini,blanWhen I add that the words are used of tyrants, you will see Blandiuntur, Blandiantur, Blandiuntor. that they are very descriptive.



Sing. Blandiebar,I was Blandirer,

flattering, etc. might flatter. Accusative of object. Instead of an accusative, timco, like

Blandiebăris. Blandirēris. many other verbs, may have as its object a member of a sen. Blandiebatur. Blandiretur. tence, or a dependent and imperfect sentence ; ne and ut; with Plu. Blandiebamur. Blandiremur. dative of object for which or whom you are afraid.

Blandiebamini. Blandiremini.

Blandiebantar. Blandirentur. Accusative :

FIEST FUTURE TENSE. "Si coactus esset respicere ac timere oppidanos.”—The Gallic War.

Sing. Blandiar, I shall

Blanditū. Blanditů. Lit. Trans. :-"If he had been compelled to regard and fear the

rum esse,

flatter, etc. towu's people."


to be on Id. Trans. :-"If he were compelled to regard and fear the town's Blandietur.

the point of flatterpeople."

Plu. Blandiemur.

of flatter. ing. Here you see the literal translation and the idiomatic are Blandiemini.


Blandientur. very nearly the same showing you that the Latin and the

English may exactly correspond in both word and order.

Sing. Blanditus sum,
Blanditus sim, I

Blanditus, With a dependent member :

I have flat- may have flattered,

having "Hæc quo sint eruptura timeo."--Cicero.

tored, etc. etc.

flattered, Lit. Trans. :-" These things where they may break out I am afraid."

Blanditus es. Blanditns sis.
Id. Trans. :-"I fear what may be the issue of these things."

Blanditus est. Blanditus sit.
Plu. Blanditi sumus, Blanditi simus.

Blanditi estis. Blanditi sitis. " Timeo ne malefacta mea sint inventa omnia."-Plautus,

Blanditi sunt. Blanditi sint.



the point

With ne:





Indicative. Subjunctive.

Advolo, 1, I fly to. Emetior, emetiri, e Molior, 4, to atteapt, Sing. Blanditus eram. Blanditus essem.

Commoditas, -ātis, f., mensus sum, 4, to undertake.
Blanditus eras.
Blanditus esses.


out, pass Proficiscor, proficisci, Blanditus erat. Blanditus esset.

Conservo, 1, I preserve. through.

profectus sum, 3, I Plu. Blanditi eramus. Blanditi essemus.

Consulto, advisedly. Expergiscor, experrec- set out. Blanditi eratis. Blanditi essetis.

Effugio, 3, I fly tus, 3, I awake, arise. Specto, 1, I behold. Blanditi erant. Blanditi essent,


Fortuito, by chance. Tenebræ, -arum, Ementior, 4, to lie Gigno, 3, I beget.

darkness. Sing. Blanditus ero, I shall have flattored, etc.

openly, invent. Id agit, aims at, makes Ubertas, -ātis, 1., rickBlanditus eris.

it its object.

ness, productiveness, Blanditus erit.

Plu. Blanditi erimus.
Blanditi eritis.

1. Ridiculi sunt qui, quod ipsi experti non sunt, id docent cæteros. Blanditi erunt,

2. Omne animal se ipsum diligit ac, simulatque ortum est, id agit at

se conservet. 3. Ad hominum commoditates et usus tantam rerum GERUNDS.

ubertatem natura largita est, ut, ea quæ gignuntur, donata consulto Gen. Blandiendi, of flattering.

nobis, non fortuito nata videantur. 4. Herodotus multas terras Dat. Blandiendo, to flattering. 1. Blanditum, to flatter.

emensus, multas quidem res prodigiosas narravit, sed eas non ipse Acc. Blandiendum, flattering. 2. Blanditu, to be flattered.

ementitus est, sed alii ex quibus audivit. 5. Jam per tres nenses Ab. Blandiendo, by flattering.

opperti eramus amicum, quum nobis ejus mors nuntiata est. 6. Re. Like blandior, conjugate these deponents of the fourth con- pente Romanis Sulla exortus, et atrocissimum bellam civile exorsus jugation :--Largior, largiri, largitus sum, to make largesses or est. 7. Sapiens nunquam malis hominibus blandietur, nunquam aliquid liberal gifts, bestow; montior, mentiri, mentitus sum, to lie; falsi ementietur, nunquam aliis calamitatem molietur. 8. Si celeriter experior, experiri, expertus sum, to try by experience; partior, hostem adoriēmur, non est dubium quin brevi tempore urbe potituri partiri, partitus sum, to divide.

simus. 9. Simulatque sol ortus est, proficiscemur. 10. Cave ne blan

diare malis hominibus. 11. Hostes adrolaverunt urbe potītum. 12. VOCABULARY.

Numerus æqualis facilis est partītu. 13. Sole oriente, profecti sumus. Abutor, abuti, abusus Medicus, -i, m., a phy. jugation oreris, orf. 14. Coortå sævå tempestate, omnes nautas ingens pavor occupavit. sum, 3, to misuse sician.

tur, orymur; also 15. Solem oriturum maximâ cum voluptate spectamus. (with abl.).

Mæror, oris, m., sad- the compounds, ex- Observe that sole oriente is in the ablative case. You see Accedo, 3, I approach.

ness, grief.

copt adorior, I seize, the words are not, in construction, connected with any other Ægrotus, -2, -um, sick. Necesse est (with inf. attempt, which fol. Aliquando, some time. or subj.), it is neces- lows the4th through words. Words thus disconnected are said to be in the absolato Animadverto, -ere, -ti, sary.


(absolutus, free, disconnected) case; and the absolute case in sum, 3, I remark, at Opporior, opperiri, op. Persepe, rory often. Latin is the ablative. This case is commonly called "the tond to.

peritus, and op. Potior, potiri, potitus ablative absolute." The ablative absolute construction comCalor, oris, m., warmth. pertus sum, 4, to sum, 4 (with abl.), prises a noun and a participle, as in the instance sole oriente. Coorior, 4, I arise, break wait for.

to get master (or pose Coortà tempestate offers another ablative absolute. To this out. Oppleo, ere,-evi,.etum, sossion) of.

kind of construction the Roman writers were partial. Demolior, 4, I break 2, to fill.

Præloquor, præloqui, down, demolish. Ordior or exordior, or. prælocutus sum, 3,

EXERCISE 122.-ENGLISH-LATIN. Eblandior, 4, to obtain diri, orsus sum, 4, I speak before.

1. The sun rising, darkness flies away. 2. With grent pleasure do by flattery.

to begin.
Tandem, at length.

I behold the sun when about to rise (fut. part.). 3. A tempest having Exorior, 4, I appear, Orior, oriri, ortus sum, Tergum, -i, n., a back.

arisen, our ships were scattered. 4. I will devise (molior) evil to 10 come forth,

4, to arise (part. ori. Vero (after the first one, not even to the bad. 5. Has the sun risen 6. The sun will Frons, frontis, f., fore- turus; the indicative word of a sentence), rise at eight o'clock. 7. He fell on the enemy suddenly. 8. I will head. presentis conjugated


begin my oration. 9. The orator was beginning his oration when the Lætitia, -æ, f., gladness. after the third con

judge entered. 10. There is no doubt but you will obtain possession

of your own. 11. As soon as we are born, we move. EXERCISE 119.—LATIN-ENGLISH.

12. All human

beings love themselves, and as soon as they have obtained geods, 1. Frons, oculi, vultus persæpo mentiuntur, oratio vero sæpissime. ought to divide them among each other. 13. He divided his goods 2. Quicquid oritur causam habet a naturâ. 3. Sol universis eandem

among the needy. 14. Many having passed over Britain, are ignorant lucem, eundemque calorem largitur. 4. Quam multi indigni luce how happy and powerful it is. 15. I hope that thou wilt nerer lie. sunt: et tamen dies orftur. 5. Unde tandem tam repento nobis 16. A storm will arise. 17. All think that a storm is about to arise. exorēris ? 6. O milites, si feroci impetu in hostem coorfmur, victoria in manibus nostris est ! 7. Dum urbem oppugnare adorimur, hostes


DEPONENT VERBS. a tergo nos aggressi sunt. 8. Suo quisque metu pericula metitur. 9. Sapiens et præterịta grate recordatur, et presentibus ita potitur,

EXERCISE 123.--LATIN-ENGLISH. at animadvertat quanta sint ea, quamque jucunda.

10. Cave ne

Artes se ipsa tuentur. 2. Semper miserorum hominum miserehonores eblandiare, 11. Oratores prius quam exordiantur, quædam bymur. 3. Quum ægrotus es, obsequi debes præceptis medici. 4: præloquuntur. 12. In omnibus negotiis, prius quam ordiamur, ad. Stulti aliorum vitia cernunt, obliviscuntur suorum. 5. Prima pueri hibenda nobis est præparatio diligens. 13. Omnes cives domos suas

commendatio proficiscitur a modestiả. 6. Veremini, O pueri, senecfloribus et coronis ornaverant et vestiverant, quia regem opperiebantur. tutem. 7. Fateor, O puer, verum. 8. Miseremini inopum. 9. Cis14. Dum exercitus hostilis urbis domos privatas publicasque demo- cipuli verentor præceptores. 10. Non dubito quin tuum præsidium liebatur, cives maximo mærore opplebantur. 15. Quum hostes prædam mihi polliciturus sis. 11. Cum magnâ voluptate intuemur præclara inter se partiebantur, nos vehementissimo impetu eos adoriebamur.

virtutis exempla, quæ in historiâ consignata sunt.

12. Quis rescit 16. Dux milites cohortatus est, ut omnia experirentur, quibus urbem

quam multi eloquentiâ abutantur ? 13. Per multos annos par, fruiti obsidione liberarent.

sumus. 14. Omnes cives metuunt ne hostes urbem aggrediantur. 15. EXERCISE 120.- ENGLISH-LATIN.

Simulatque experrecti sumus, ad negotia nostra accedimus. 16. Cives,

17. Succurre lapsis. 18. 1. A fierce tempest has arisen,

libertatem adepti, summå lætitiâ fruentur.
2. A fierce tempest will arise. 3.
Tam audacter cum amico loquere quam tecum.

19. Ne irascimini A fierce tempest is arising. 4. Fierce tempests were rising. 5. A fierce tempest was arising. 6. The cailors have experienced many

iis quos amare debetis.

20. Si virtutis viam semper sequimur, aditus labours.

in coelum aliquando nobis patebit. 21. Munere tuo bene fungère ! 7. The enemies will demolish thy house. 8. I will wait for my sister. 9. My mother waited for me yesterday. 10. They ob

22. Concordià res parvæ crescunt, discordiâ maximæ dilabuntur. 23. tained honours by flattery. 11. Wilt thou obtain honours by flattery ?

Gloria virtutem tanquam umbra sequitur. 12. I do not wish to obtain honours by flattery.

EXERCISE 124.-ENGLISH-LATIN. begin, you should apply industry. 14. He obtains possession of the 1. My friend died yesterday. 2. I fear thy friend is about to die. land. 15. He has obtained possession of all the city. 16. I sball 3. Do not bestow favours on bad boys. 4. God will bestow favours obtain possession of my father's books. 17. Never lie, my child. 18. on the pious. 5. Access to heaven always lies open to good men. 6. Only the bad lie. 19. To lie is wicked. 20. Never will I lie, O father. I fear access to heaven will not lie open to Alexander. 7. How long 21. They lied and were punished. 22. It is disgraceful to lie. 23. did thy country enjoy peace? 8. We shall enjoy peace as long as the The sun rises on (dat.) the good and on the bad : so great is God's king's army is in our country. 9. Hast thou discharged thy duty ? goodness. 21. The king bestows honours on his brave soldiers. 25. 10. Do not abuse thy father's favour. 11. I will speak with thee, but He divided his goods between his two sons. 26. Whatever rises from I will not flatter thee. 12. He flattered the king and obtained praise. the earth (tellus, -ūris, f.) comes from God's hand.

13. Before you

13. Will thy son obtain glory? 14. My son has obtained very great

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