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RECREATIVE NATURAL HISTORY. animals were introduced to Britain.' The Romans, probably, SHEEP.

brought them to our island, and seem to have even established

manufactories for making and dyeing woollen cloths. Venta It is, perhaps, unnecessary to inform any reader that the sheep Belgarum, or Winchester, is one of the places where the short family belong to the great and most useful order of ruminants, wools of ancient Britain were manufactured by Celtic or Latin having, therefore, the same complex digestive system as the

Thus, if the Romans massacred the Druids, they oxen and deer. For a description of the fourfold stomach of favoured sheep and encouraged looms. These primary British ruminating animals, we must refer to the paper on the ox sheep are thought to have resembled our present South Downs, family. * Sheep resemble the goats so closely that Baron upon whose black muzzles and legs we may now look with ad. Cuvier actually classed the two species in one tribe—the Ca- ditional interest. pridæ.t The Englishman who compares a goat with a South We must omit, in a paper of this brevity and character, all Down or a Leicester sheep, may marvel much at such a minute descriptions of the numerous varieties of sheep prozoological arrangement. But those who have observed the duced by the care of the scientific breeder, and found in both wild goat (Ægagrus) of the Caucasian highlands, and also the English and foreign folds. The hornless and long-Woolled Mouflon, or wild sheep of Southern Europe, will be fully aware Leicesters were brought from their original coarseness to their of the little difference between the two races, One means of present beauty and value by the perseverance of Bakewell certainly distinguishing the two has of late years been repeatedly and his successors. The old portrait of the South Down sheep noticed ; but

is by no means this would be

attractive, but of no

this variety has the casual ob

now become, by It is

good manage simply a struc

ment, the pets tural peculia

of our Southern rity in the foot

and Midland of the sheep,

farmers. One found in all the

hundred pounds domesticated,

of mutton from and in, at least,

a two-years' old two of the wild

South Down, varieties, but

and four pounds never detected

of good combin any of the

ing wool, may goats. This is

well make this a small canal

contented and opening at the

well-behaved pastern joint,

sheep a favour. the true use

ite. of which is

well · behaved, at present un.

for be it known known. Some

unto all that diseases of the

some of these hoof arise from

animals are by this “Bac" be

no means the cominginflamed

quiet and docile by sharp bits of

creatures which gravel entering

pastoral poets the opening.

delight to paint. Such a mark

They will break may be suffi.

bounds with cient to enable

the utmost de an anatomist to

termination and distinguish any THE MOUFLON AND THE COMMON SHEEP.

scatter them. variety of the

selves, in parsheep from every kind of goat, but is no guide at all to the tra- | ties, far over an open country, driving both dogs and shepherds to veller, who is unable to institute a minute examination.

their wits' ends. The South Down disdains such conduct, and One high honour seems to belong to the sheep: it was therefore gives little trouble when pasturing on the open downs probably the earliest animal brought under subjection to man, of Sussex or Hampshire. The Dorset white-faced and blackand thus became the first link between the human and the horned sheep is called by Mr. Bell " one of the handsomest in brute creation. Abel was “a keeper of sheep,” and the ancient any part of England.” We are bound, however, in candour to Sabæans exalted this first shepherd to the rank of a deity. The state that beauty, pure and simple, does not form the main atEgyptian divinities, Ammon and Cneph, are represented with traction of the Dorsets with the farmer, but the early period rams' heads, the statues of Jupiter Ammon have rams' horns, of the year at which the lambs are ready for the market. Lamb, and the flatterers of Alexander the Great placed the same sym- eight weeks old in December, will fetch no small price from an bols on the heads of his statues. The starry zodiac does honour epicure, and therefore is the Dorset variety prized. The " battle to this animal, for almost every one knows the rank which Aries of life" influences the fortunes of sheep and men. The once (the ram) holds among the constellations. Then we have the esteemed Ryeland breed of Herefordshire, the Morfe variety mysterious voyage of the Argonauts to recover the famous of Shropshire, and the Tedderly short-woolled sheep of Stafford. golden fleece-a story which is yet a puzzle to historian and shire have been unable to answer the calls to produce both geographer. Thus, if the sheep has not received the honours abundance of meat and wool. The Leicesters have triumphed of heathen worship paid to the ox, it has been highly exalted in the fierce competition. No nation consumes so much mutton by the reverence of early ages.

as the English, and so it has come to pass that a sheep proNo records enable us to state the period in which these ducing the finest wool, but little meat, is rejected for one yield

ing an abundant supply for the butcher, and also a fair quantity See page 273 of this volume.

of wool, though not the finest. Thus a good South Down, + From capra, a she-goat. In such names as capridæ, etc., the though the wool might only sell for two shillings the pound, termination idæ denotes relationship; thus, capridæ includes all animals would be preferred in England to the once famous Merino, the related to the goats.

wool of which might fetch four shillings the pound. The


once valued Cotswolds of Gloucestershire have gradually ap- Mountain breed (Ovis Montana), having large horns and a long proximated to the Leicesters, and even the hardy and useful hairy covering. Whether these four wild varieties have been Cheviot sheep have felt the influence of the pet breed. We unreclaimed from the beginning of time, is a question not likely must not stop to describe the former Jersey sheep, said to have to be answered in a satisfactory manner. It may even be had five and even six horns on the head; nor can we perplex questioned whether one or two of the four do not belong to the the reader by attempting to answer the question, how black goat instead of the sheep family. This may prove to be the sheep originate in a flock. We shall also resist the strong case when new Cuviers and Owens shall be able to examine more temptation to discuss the evidence for

fully the structure of the Argali, or of or against a primitive race of black

the bearded sheep. It does not, however, sheep.

appear very probable that our present But there is a question which cannot

classification will be disturbed by disco. be passed over entirely. Do we know

veries yet to be made. the origin of all our domesticated sheep ?

Curious deviations from the usual form Most naturalists now agree in tracing all

are found in some breeds of sheep. The these varieties to the Mouflon or Musmon,

Calmuck variety exhibits two large humps the wild sheep still found in the thinly.

of fat over each hind leg, giving to the peopled regions of Southern and Eastern

animal an appearance at which EuroEurope. The traveller and the hunter

peans laugh. In the Syrian sheep, we may yet meet them in the mountains of

have the mass of fat collected in a tail Corsica, Sardinia, Crete, and perhaps


eighteen inches wide. in the highlands of Murcia. This is a

Observation of sheep in their wild state bold and active, though small animal, measuring about three completely refutes the notion that these animals are a stupid and a-half feet long, and a little above two feet high. The and helpless race. They will find their way up and down presharply-curved horns are usually about two feet long, and cipices inaccessible to human foot, and manage to provide for the body is covered, according to Mr. Bell, with a close, their subsistence and safety without the care of shepherds and short, and fine hair, over which falls the long and coarse wool. dogs. We know that the domesticated Syrian sheep will answer Even upon this simple matter there is a dispute. Many to its name when called, just like a dog, running out from the naturalists assert that the wool is the short and first covering flock to the shepherd at his summons. of the skin, and the long overhanging mass is really hair. This We have already alluded to the double covering of wool and dispute can be settled by the microscope only, and—we must hair on the body of the wild sheep, and a few readers may not take Mr. Bell's side

know that the fleeces in this controversy

of our domesticated -the outer cover

breeds have hair ing of the Mouflon is

mixed with the wool. woolly. We must

The result of culture inform the reader

is a decrease of the that Colonel Hamil.

hair and increase of ton Smith seems to

the wool, and the question the Mou.

quality of the latter flon's claim to be the

itself is materially ancestor of all the

changed by the food common varieties.

and training of the He regards this wild

animal. The colder kind as really de

the climate the finer scended from indi.

and closer is the viduals of the domes.

wool, as a general ticated sheep, which

rule, while in warm have at some time

regions the hairy escaped from the

covering predomidominion of man.

nates. All this is Another wild

in exact accordance sheap, the Argali

with the require(Ovis Ammon) of

ments of the animal Central Asia, is

temperature. The sometimes five feet

hair can sometimes long, and often pos

distinguished sesses horns of an

from the wool in a extraordinary size.

fleece by the eye It appears to have

only, but the aid of an under-coat of

the microscope is

usually employed. of hair. The Argali

Under such inspec. has an exceedingly

tion the peculiar orwide range, extend

ganisation of wool. ing from the east of

len fibre and its ad. Siberia across the

mirable fitness for wild uplands of THE ARGALI OF CENTRAL ASIA (Ovis Ammon).

felting are clearly Mantchuria and

seen. Let one of our Mongolia to the shores of the Caspian Sea. Some naturalists readers examine for himself a thread of wool, under a strong look upon this as the parent of our domesticated sheep, while microscope. He will see that the fibre is not smocth, but others regard it as a variety of the Mouflon. This diversity of marked by a multitude of projections, crossing the thread in opinion proves that we are really ignorant of the primary race. zigzag or wavy lines. So numerous are these points that more

Africa also has her wild breed of sheep, which are called than 2,000 have been counted on one inch of woollen fibre. " bearded,” the long

hairs depending from each cheek having the The reader will easily understand that, when a mass of wool appearance of a double beard. The wool of this animal seems is beaten together, all these projections act like so many hooks, to be very short, while over it falls a mass of hair, fourteen holding fibre to fibre, and binding the whole into a felt. This

peculiar structure of the wool is, doubtless, of use to the sheep, America, toc, has her wild sheep, sometimes called the Rocky rendering its covering closer than it could otherwise be. But



wool and an upper

inches long.

this property is of such vast importance to man, in the manufacture of clothing, that we may be pardoned for supposing that the Creator had human happiness in view when designing the laws which govern the growth of wool. A fibre of Saxon wool was found to have in one inch about 2,700 of these points; a Merino, 2,400; South Down, about 2,000; and Leicester wool nearly 1,900 in the same space. The corresponding values of these wools for felting purposes were in the exact order of the above numbers. It follows, therefore, that a microscope may be of great use in the wool market.

The wool trade of this country has been marked by a little variety. In the fourteenth century England exported wool largely to Italy and Flanders, the sheep themselves being also sent to the Continent by thousands. A large amount of the taxes was even paid in bags of wool, which were speedily exchanged for Flemish coins. Repeated attempts were, however, made during the above period to check the exportation of the raw material. Many duties were imposed, and smugglers were punished by the loss of the right hand, which was hung up in the market places as a considerate warning to all. At length the non-exporters gained the day, and from 1660 to 1825 it was illegal to send a pound of British wool out of the country. A long fight followed; the woollen manufacturers procured a law for burying the dead in woollen cloth, and used all their influence to increase the quantity of wool in the country by the double process of bringing in foreign and keeping in all the native growth. The great sheep-farmers clamoured for precisely the opposite measures. Could the ovine creatures have comprehended the nature of the battle, they must have felt highly Aattered by their influence in English politics. The contest gradually subsided, as wiser commercial views were adopted by all parties.

Though the sheep may not rank as an intellectual animal, it nevertheless largely aided literature in old times. We need but just remind the reader, in passing, that thousands of valuable works must have perished but for the long-enduring parchment, which has preserved the records of past ages.

We ought not to forget the importance of this animal as a religious and knightly symbol. The Divine Teacher of the world employed it as a fit representative of his Church, and the mystical Lamb" still gets forth to Christendom the one Great Sacrifice. The lamb, bearing the cross, was the ancient symbol of the great order of the Knights Templars, and is still displayed in the Temple Church, London,

If, then, the sheep family be not associated with the grand events of human history, it is sufficiently connected with the civilisation and happiness of mankind to call for some degree of study and reflection.

Gotta Mulo Mullo Tropo Troppo Pena Penna Seta Setta Roso* Rosso Seco Secco Seno Senno Sera Serra Seto Sette Sono Sonno Base Basse Mese Messe Rosa Rossa Steso Stesso Abate Abatte Inseto Insetto Invito Invitto Acceso Accesso Contesa Contessa Acera Acerra Anelo Anello Ano Anno Baco Bacco Beco Becco Cacio Caccio Capello Cappello Dama Damma Ebe Ebbe Face Facce Favi Favvi Mira Mirra Tenero Tennero Vendete Vendette Aceto Accetto Acopi Accoppi Acori Accorri Adito Additato Afato Affalto Alato Allatto Aletto Alletto Aneto Annetto Anulare

més sai
ah- bú-tai
áh chairah
báhk ko
bẻ ko
aht tchet-to

Barb (a fish).
Too much,
Pain, punishment.
With himself.
Dryness, dry.
Good sense, intelligence.
Defile, hothouse.
I am.
Low, vile, base.
Red (fem.).
The same.
He batters down, he abates.
I cover with silk, graft.
Inflamed, kindled.
Admittance, access.
Dispute, contest.
Acerra, a town in Naples.
I pant, panting.
Anus (in anatomy).
Worm, silkworm.
I chase, expel.
Lady of rank.
Ebb, he grows weak, bluat.
He had.
Faces (pl.).
He does or makes there.
He looks.
They held.
You sell.
Acts of vengeance.
I accept.
Topic medicines.
Thou knockest down.
Scal, scald.
Thou runpest after, or pursues
Admittance, access.
Indicated, shown.
Withered, thin.
Entirely, quite.
Winged, bird.
I suckle.
Alecto, one of the three Faries.
I allure.
Dill (an herb).
I annex.

LESSONS IN ITALIAN.–VIII. VI.-PRONUNCIATION OF DOUBLE CONSONANTS. As the proper vibrated sound of double consonants can only be acquired by much steady practice, I have to request my pupil readers frequently to read aloud the following table, in which I have selected a series of words ehowing the difference of pronunciation, and, at the same time, of meaning, caused by the doubling of consonants in words, but for this change, identical:

Illustrating the Pronunciation of Single and Double Consonants.
Italian. Pronounced.



To the (fem.).




Canes, reeds, tubes.


Car, cart, wagon.


Chest, bos.


Done, made, fact, deed.

feeók ko


Fummo foum-mo

We were.

Cheek, side.

One of the exceptional words, where the s must be pronounce! with a sharp, hissing sound, though it is placed between two towels.

Annullare abn-nool-láh-rai To abolish, annul.

pronunciation offer any difficulty. To mark these, as is someAsilo ah.zée-lo Asylum.

times done, with a grave accent, merely because they are monoAssillo ahs-sil-lo Horse-fly.

syllables, is not only a grammatical fault, but useless, serving Atena ah-te-nai Athens.

no purpose whatever, and encumbering Italian writing with Attoie aht-tén-nai He kept his word.

superfluous signs; for example : 1e (rai), king; fu (foo), was; Cometa ko-mai-tah Comet. Commeta kom-mét-tah He may commit (a crime).

gri (groo), crane; su (soo), above ; ce (tchai), us, here; ma Faceta fah-tchè-tah Facetious, droll (fem.):

(mah), but; mo (mô), now; no (nő), not; so (80), I know ; me Faccetia fabt-tchet-tah Facet (on cut stones).

(mai), me; etc. Rosco ro-zá Rose-garden, bed of roses.

Of the monosyllable qua (kwah), here, it may be "remarked Rossetto TOs-set-to Reddish.

that it is more frequently written without than with the grave

accent, and of stè (stê), he stood (for stette), that being an abVII.-THE ACCENTS.

breviated word, it is always written with the grave accent. I shall now proceed to an explanation of the Italian accents I shall terminate these remarks on the grave accent with two as they are used in Italian writing and printing ; for I have important rules, of very frequent application in Italian grammar. already remarked on the accent of tone (an accent not marked 1. When any monosyllable, written with the grave accent or in Italian writing and printing), and its primary importance in unaccented, or when any word of more syllables than one, having the enunciation of each word. This is, properly speaking, rather the grave accent on its final vowel, is joined to another word so a part of orthography than of pronunciation ; but I speak of it as to make a compound with it, the initial consonant of the bere because it is so intimately connected with the rules of pro- latter word (unless an s with another consonant to follow) must nunciation, and, indeed, with the whole grammar, that I prefer be strongly vibrated in pronunciation, and therefore doubled in to explain it at the beginning of these grammatical instructions, writing, and the grave accent of the first word taken off. For instead of at the end of them, as grammarians generally do. example : 1. THE GRAVE ACCENT.

È (e), is, and vi (vee), there = evvi (év-vee), there is.

Più (peeoó), more, and tostò (to-sto), soon = piuttosto (peeoo-tô-sto), Strictly speaking, there is only one Italian accent, which is sooner, rather. the grave accent, marked with a stroke from the left to the

Già (jah), indeed, and mai (mahee), never = giammai (jahm-máliee), right, thus (). Its use is not left to the discretion of the writer, never. but is regulated by invariable rules; its omission is therefore Dà (dah), give, and mi (mee), to me dammi (dáhm-mee), give me. an infraction of grammatical laws. A characteristic of this Fa (fah), do, and mi (mee), to me fammi (fáhm-mee), do me. accent is, that only final letters of Italian words can be marked

Amò (ah-mô), he loved, and la (lah), her = amolls (ah-mól-lalı), he

loved her. with it. It is placed

Farò (fah-rô), I shall do, and lo (lo), it = farollo (fah-ról-lo), I shall 1st. On the last vowel of those words of more than one syl- do it. lable, the pronunciation of which requires a very emphatic stress

Fra (frah), between, and tanto (táhn-to), so much or so long a time to be laid on that vowel : as, for example, pietà (peeai-tah),* frattanto (fraht-táhn-to), in the meantime. piety, pity ; bontà (bon-tá), goodness, libertà (lee-berr-táh), Da (dah), from, and lo (lo), the = dallo (dáhl-lo), from the. liberty; carità (kah-ree-táh), charity ; 'virtù (virr-too), virtue; Su (800), upon, and lo (lo), the = sullo (soól-lo), upon the. gioventù (jo-ven-too), youth ; però (pai-rô), for that reason, still ;

2. Monosyllables, though naturally unaccented, must be marked amd (ah-mô), he loved ; credà (kra-dái), he believed ; udì (co-deé), with the grave accent when, as last syllables of a compound, he heard; amerd (ah-mai-rô), I shall love; costi (ko-steé), here; they are joined to participles or other words. For example :costà (ko-stáh), there ; cosi (ko-seé),+ thus.

Per (per), through, and che (kai), which = perchè (perr-kái), why, 2nd. On some monosyllables, where, to avoid ambiguity and

because. confusion, the grave accent is used as a means of indicating the

A (ah), to, and do (dô), I give = addò (ahd-dô), I apply myself to. difference of signification. For example :

Contra (kón-trah), against, and fo (fó), I make = contraffò (kon-trahfWith the Grave Accent.

Without the Grace Accent.

fô), I counterfeit. (ah), has (for ha).

rihà cr rid (ree-6), I have A (ah), to (preposition).

Ri (ree), a particle, and ho (hó), I have

or get again. Che (kai), to the end that, or in Che (kai), who, which, what, that order that; for (conjunction).

risò (ree-sô), I know by (conjunction).

Ri (ree), a particle, and so (so), I know

hearsay, I learn. Da (dah), gives, give. Da (dah), from, by.

Sopra (só-prah), upon, and sto (sto), I stand= soprastò (so-pra-sto), I Di (dee), day. Di (dee), of.

am above. Die (deee), he gave (for diede). Die (dée-ai), day.

Tras (trahs), a particle, and vo (vo), I go = trascò (trahs-vo), I pass È (é), is.

E (ai), and.
Pé (fai), faith (for fede).
Fe' (fai), he did (for fece).

beyond or exceed.

Qua (kwah), here, and su (s00), above = quassù (kwahs-soó), up here. Gia (jah), already, indeed. Gia (jeé-ah), he went (for giva).

Mai (mahee), Dever, and no (nô), not aino (mahee-nó), no, not Là (lah), là (lee), there). La (lah), li (lee), articles and pro- at all.

Oi (oee), ah! alas! and me (mai), me = oimè (oee-mái), alas ! unhappy Nd (ne), nor. Ne (pui), a pronoun.

me ! 0 (0), I have (for ho). O (o), or.

Vico (vée-tchai), substitute, and re (rai), king = picerẻ (see-tchai-rái), PW (peel), foot (for piedc). Pie (peé-ai), pious.

viceroy. Se (sai), a pronoun.

Se (sai), if. si (see), yes, so. Si (see), a pronoun.

And so all the numerous and similar compounds of che, the com.

pounds of su, and of the verbs do, fo, ho, so, sto, vo, etc. 3rd. It is placed on those monosyllables which have more than one fowel as termination, to indicate the necessity of pronouncing them as monosyllables ; as, for example : cið (tchô),

LESSONS IN MUSIC.-XX. that, what; può (pooô), he can; più (pecoó), more ; giù (joo),

MENTAL EFFECTS OF TE AND RAY (continued). below; qui (kwee), here; siè (seef), he is seated (for siede). Other monosyllables offer no ambiguity, and must

therefore Our pupils will diligently study the three following tunes in be considered as naturally unaccented, as they can neither be order to recognise perfectly and familiarly the mental effects confounded with other words of the same spelling, nor can their faithfully followed our course thus far, to know how much of

It will be encouraging to those who have

the journey they have yet to travel. The present lesson will For the sake of consistency of system, I shall not deviate, in these be followed by one on the varieties of the human voice, which cares, from my usual practice of marking every syllable which has the will be illustrated by four songs arranged for three voices. Next accent of tone by the acute or circumflex sign. The reader will, of will come a lesson on the deeply-interesting subject of transition course, understand that these are mere arbitrary signs used for the

modulation,” illustrated by several short pieces arranged purpose of instruction, and which must not be imitated when he may for four voices. The subject of " minor” tunes and the minor have occasion to write words requiriug the grave accent.

* This is another of those exceptional words where the s must be scale” will follow. The lessons will conclude with as full a treatpronounced with a sharp, hissing sound, though it is placed between

ment of the subject of melody and harmony as our space will two vowels. It is obvious, from its meaning, that, like cosa (kó-sah), allow. Take courage, then. You have already trodden the most thing, it is of the most frequent occurrence.

difficult part of the road.




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