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and in rural districts. This vernacular tongue would be regarded new impulses of development, and given birth to new modes by the Roman purists as a corrupted form of the Latin. Cor- of utterance conformably with the progress of our modern rupt, doubtless, it was, for it contained many words of merely civilisation; and even produced new languages, any one of local prevalence, of low origin, and of no authority. Neverthe- which would not suffer in comparison with classic Latin. less, in it were preserved both terms and forms which, being of I have already intimated that the Saxon did not receive any a very early origin, like our English dialects, belonged to the very large inheritance immediately from the confused mass of very substance of the language.

words and tongues which ensued from the social collision of the Already in the bloom of the Roman power, the Latin language North and the South. Yet do we owe to the Romance languages had received a very large infusion of foreign elements from the so much, that I am not at liberty to pass on until I have giren several nations which lay around it as a centre, and over which some particulars, the rather that without the facts that ensue, a it had established its sway—the countries which we now term knowledge of the English lacks an important element. France, Italy, Spain, and Portugal. Though the original popu- Out of an original Latin term two or more English words lation of these wide districts had, in common with the Romans, were formed, either by some change in the body of the word, or a Celtic basis for their language, yet, from locality and diverse some change in its termination. Of those newly-coined words, culture, they had each for themselves formed a different tongue; one will be found to bear a close resemblance to its original ; and these diversities, when the Roman authority became supreme, another will have departed from it in form and in meaning to a and the Roman language was introduced under the wing of that greater or less extent: the former is the older, probably the authority, readily blended themselves with the more refined more scholar-like; the latter is the more recent and the more diction of the metropolis and of the great Roman writers. popular. I subjoin a few instances, annexing contractions to Causes of diversity did not fail to appear on the establishment, show whence the terins have come to us, thus: Fr. shows that in a land, of the Roman despotism. Those causes went on in the word is derived directly from the French ; It. from the their operation. At last a new cause, a canse of tremendous Italian ; and Sp. from the Spanish. When the English word power, came into play—the invasion of the northern Barbarians. seems to come to us immediately from the Latin the contraction The blow broke the Roman empire in pieces. Out of the conse- Lat. is prefixed :quent ruins arose new forms of government-the forms of our Blasphemare, to rerile,

Fr. to blaspheme, blame. present European kingdoms. With the formation of new centres Calx, limestone,

Fr. to calcine, calcination. of political power and social influences, new languages were Calculus, a pebble,

Fr. to calculate, calculous formed-the French, the Italian, the Spanish, the Portuguese ;

Campus, a plain,

Fr. camp, champaign. at least, these are the main branches that shot forth from the

Canalis, a pipe,

Fr. canal, channel, kennel.
Cantus, a song,

Fr, chant, enchant, canticle. old trunk and grew, until in separate literatures they each pro

Fr, chap. chapter, cap, captain, duced fruit. Our English was not without an influence from Caput, a head,

capital, chief. the general shock ; but chiefly from tho Romanco languages, Causa, a cause,

Fr. cause, causation, accuse. when they had received each its individual form and character, Charta, paper,

Fr. chart, charter. did the Saxon basis of the English tongue receive additions Clamare, to shout,

Fr, claim, exclaim, reclaim. and incorporate elements. Latin came to us in the conquering Commendare, to entoust,

Sp. commend, recommend. train of William of Normandy. His Norman-French, a Romance Comparare, to get together, Sp. compare, prepare. tonguo, like his bold barons, and generally his superior culture,

Consuetudo, custom,

Fr. costume, custom. made war on the old Saxon element of our land, defeated it, took

Divinus, divine,

Fr. divine, a divine, a diviner.

Sp. don, duenna; it prisoner, and went far to make it do its own bidding. So Dominus, a master,

Fr. dominate, dominion. overpowering was the influence of the court, and so imperious

It. doubt; was the sway of fashion, that the first accents of our English Dubitare, to doubt,

Fr. dubitation. literature were compelled to take a Gallic shape and tone, Dubius, uncertain,

Lat. dubious, dubiety. retaining their mother Saxon as best they might, and uttering

Sp. donation;

Donum, a gift, the native sounds" with ’bated breath."

Fr. donative. The Italian branch of the Romance language inoculated our

a leading :

Fr. duchy;
Ducatus, {
Med. La
a du

It, duke, doge.
English through the medium of the Roman Catholic Church,
whose Latin, of universal prevalence, was a sort of medium,

Factio, a making,

Fr. faction, fashion,
Fragilis, easily broken,

Fr. fragile, frail. and as a medium, so a stepping-stone, between the classic purity

Gravis, heavy,

Fr. grave, gravity, gravitate. of the olu Latin language and the new languages of mediæval

Hospes, a host,

Fr. hospital, spital, hospitable. Europe ; and whose forms, ceremonies, officers, laws, and courts

It. implicate; combined to infuse into English a copious and pervading Latin

Implicare, to fold in,

Fr. imply, implicit. element.

Sp. ingenious;

Iugenium, genius, As the Spaniards and Portuguese made their conguests in

Fr, engine. foreign climes, and, becoming masters of the ocean, held com

Magister, master,

Sp. mister, mistress, master.
Major, greater,

Fr, major, majority, mayor. merce in their hands, so they, in conducting their maritime and

Fr. operate, operator, operation; commercial transactions, gave to all modern languages words

Opera, work, belonging to their tongue, and the names by which, with more Pietas, piety,

Fr. piety, pity. or less accuracy, they denominated the articles of foreign pro- Potio, drink,

Fr, potion, poison. duce which formed the staple of their trade.

Redimo, to buy off,

Fr, redeemed, redemption. At later periods, too, the Romance languages have exerted an Romanus, Roman,

Fr. Roman, Romance. influence over the English, and left bequests which remained

Securitas, security,

Fr, security, surety. after the source of that influence had ceased to exist.

Senior, older,

Fr, sire, sir.
Salvo, I save,

Fr. save, safe, salutary.
instance the reign of the profligate Charles II., when, with a
Portuguese princess for his queen, that monarch, dependent on

Separo, I put cpait,

Fr. separate, sever.
Servio, I serre,

Fr. serve, servant, serf.
French bounty, allowed French writers and French tailors to set

Sp. specie, species ; the fashion in England, and the language of high life, and partly

Species, a kind,

Fr. special, especially. of books, became a mongrel of bad French and worse English. Superficies, a surface,

Fr. surface, superficies, superAbbreviation is one of the forms through which languages

ficial. pass in their natural development. By abbreviation has the This list pretends to nothing more than to give instances in Latin passed into the Romance languages. The abbreviation which two or more words accrued from one Latin term. In some has not been in the structure of sentences ; for in the structure instances it is not easy to determine whether our English word of sentences expansion has taken place, and fulness ensued, so came immediately from the Latin, or through some one of the that it is difficult to render by the same number of words a Romance languages. If, however, tho facts above set forth are passage from a Latin classic into a Romance tongue. The ab. correct in the main, then we learn how much our language has breviation has been in the forms of the words : the inflexions been enriched by the Romance tongues, and that we are chiefly have been curtailed; case-endings and person-endings, even to under obligations to the French. some extent tense and mood-endings, have been diminished or Were this the place to enter into a statement and comparison

The words thus set free from bonds have followed of the words and forms in the Romance languages borrowed

uchy}

It. opera.

I may

done away.

pero

from the Latin, we should be able to do much to enforce on our press their gratitude by a faint cheer, but their voices utterly failed pupils the study of the Latin as the mother tongue, and as the them; and, overcome by weakness and a revulsion of feeling, the key to the French, the Italian, the Spanish, and the Portuguese; soldier of tho 71st sauk prostrate on the ground between the coffios.

“Memorials of th» Castle of Edinburgh," pp. 257-259. nor do we doubt that the knowledge of comparative philology which, thanks to German scholarship, is now rapidly spreading

A WHALER IN A STORM. over the civilised world, will ere long lead to what may be termed the genealogical study of languages. Instead of spending many

About eleven o'clock, I ventured on deck, and for the first tine in

my life saw what the ocean looks like in a storm. I could see nothing all years in learning some little Latin and less Greek, after the round but heaving mountains of water; each succeeding wave seemed as tedious and almost futile plan of our ancient grammar-schools, if it would swallow up the labouring vessel, but it always appeared to the young will be led to study languages in their natural groups: melt away gently uuder us, except when one more rapid, or “cross,” the Indo-European group; tho Shemitic group; the Celtic group; would send water and spray washing over her decks and high up into and in subordinate classes, the Greek, tho Latin, and the Ger- the rigging. The motion of the ship was not uncomfortable, being man group. With a good knowledge of Latin, which ought not very differeut from the short cross-pitching we had experienced in the to cost a boy above three years, a student, if rightly directed, about me in silent wonder and admiration, little thinking that the

North Sea. I remained on deck about a quarter of an hour, gazing could acqnire the French, the Italian, the Spanish, and the hitherto harmless waves were upon the very eve of proving their Portuguese within two years, and at the same time receive great might over man's puny bolts and beams. Feeling it chilly, I went aid toward a minute and accurate knowledge of the English, below. I had just enter3d the cabin and taken my seat, when the especially if at the same time he was studying German together ship became motionless, as it were, and seemed to tremble in every with its cognato tongues.

beam. A report, like thunder, mingled with the rending and crashEXERCISES IN COMPOSITION.

ing of timber; sudden and complete darkness, with a rush of

water through the skylight, and the ship thrown on her beam-ends, Form each of the ensuing words into a sentencc.

showed me what one has to expect occasionally at sen. I scrambled Words with their proper Prepositions.

on deck after the captain, as I best could, scarcely knowing what had

happened. Here nothing was to be seen but wreck and destruction. FOREIGN REPRESENTATIVES, To call on, at, fox, on a per

The quarter-deck was literally swept of everything---rails and bulwarks, Lat. cal, to call. son ; at a house,

almost all the stanchions, the binnacle, the compasses, dog's couchCapable of, Lat, cap, to receive.

and nothing could be seen of the wheel but the nave. But the worst Care for,

was still to come; two poor fellows were missing. One had perished Careful of, for, Sax. car, solicitude.

unnoticed; he must have been killed amongst the wreck, washed over Careless of,

board, and sunk like a stone. The other had been seen by the mate Carp at, Lat. carp, to pluck,

—for an instant only-floating on the biunacle and just sinking. No Catch at, up, Dut. ketz, to catch.

human assistance could have been rendered to them with such a sea Caution against,

Lat. caut, to guard against. running. Two other poor fellows were rather seriously injured, and Certify of, Lat. certus, certain.

took up my attention for some time. The captain, cool and collected, Change for, with, Fr. change, to change.

soon restored confidence to his men, and, in a short time, had the Charge on, or against a fer

wreck cleared away, a long tiller shipped, and the vessel again hove son ; with a thing, Fr, charge, to load.

to. Spare spars were lashed to the stanchions that remained, so Report the following anecdotes to another person, or write out that we had again something like bulwarks, but for many a day afteryour own version of them after having read them through care

wards the ship had a sadly damaged and wrecky appearance.-Goodsir's

Arctic Voyage. fally:

A PARDON AT THE RIGHT MOMENT.
On the 29th of May, the whole garrison was paraded on the Castle

HISTORIC SKETCHES.—XXVII.
Hill at Edinburgh, and formed in three sides of a hollow square, facing
inwards. With drums muffled and rolling, while the band played a

THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR. solemn dead march, three of the Highland recruits, each stepping THIRTY years of war! Thirty years of battle, murder, and sudslowly behind his open coffin, were brought by an armed escort down den death; thirty years of anarchy and bad-blood-making; thirty the winding pathway from the citadel, and placed in the vacant space of the square, opposite a numerous firing party under the orders of years in which two strenuously opposed hosts did their utmost to the propost-marshal. It was a bright and beautiful summer morning,

mar so much of God's image in one another as thirty such bat there was a dark cloud on every face, for no ceremony is more inn.

years had left remaining in them. Why all this bloodshed ? pressive and terrible than a military execution--and on that morning The conquerors and the conquered called themselves Christians, three soldiers were to die. They were desired to kneel down beside professed to be guided by the teaching of Him who bade his their open coffins, while the following paper was read by the adjutant- follower put up his sword into its sheath, and ordered the smitgeneral :

ten on one cheek to turn the other cheek also to the smiter. It is Garrison Orders.

true that he said so, true also that he warned his followers “ HeadQuarters, 6th May, 1779. At a general court-martial, held in Edinburgh Castle, on Thursday, sword—that is to say, that though he himself taught his dis

that he was come not to bring peace upon the earth but a the 6th May, and two following days, whereof Lieut.-Colonel Dundas, of the 11th Dragoons, was president, for the trial of Charles William ciples, by his own precept and example, not to resist evil, he 800 and Archibald Mac-Ivor, soldiers of the 42nd Regiment, and Robert knew that what he taught would so divide men az for a time, Budge, soldier of the 71st Regiment, accused of mutiny, at Leith, on and even, perhaps, at recurring times, to put the sword of strife the 20th April, and instigating others to do the same, the court unani- between them. The parents were to be divided against their mously found the prisoners guilty of mutiny, being a breach of the children, the wife against her husband; and a man's foes were 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th articles of war; and having duly considered to be they of his own household. the evil tendency of mutiny and sedition, especially when carried to

This state of things had been seen in Christendom on more such enormous lengths as in the present case, do adjudge you, the aforesaid Charles Williamson, Archibald Mac-Ivor, and Robert Budge, sion. It had been rather local than general, showing itself in

than one occasion, but not accompanied by any great convulto be shot to death!"

the form of heresies with their attendant persecutions, rather The poor prisoners remained on their knces while a Highland officer than in any universal outbreak. translated the foregoing into Gaelic. They were all pale and composed stances of the Christian Church were such, that union amongst

In early days the circumbut the last, who was suffering from severe wounds received at Leith; his countenance was emaciated and ghastly, and he was sinking from its members was indispensable to its existence, surrounded as excessive debility. Their eyes were bound up; the officer retired; tho it was on all sides with implacable foes, and overlooked from its propost-marshal approached, and ordered his party to load. They midst by an irresistible pagan master, who looked conwere in the act of taking aim at the prisoners, who were praying temptuously on its practices, and derided its principles as inteatly in Gaelic, when Sir Adolphus Oughton stepped forward, and, unmanly. When, the course of time, the Christian Gospel displaying three pardons, commanded them to

arms." made its splendid but bloodless victories, and the master who, * Soldiers," said he, “in consequence of the distinguished valour erewhile oppressed, became its champion and supporter, while of the Royal Highlanders, to which two of these unfortunate men belong. His Majesty has been graciously pleased to forgive them

all the nations of Europe heard its message gladly, the Church all. Prisoners ! rise, resume your arms, and re-join your companies."

was too much occupied in consolidating its power, the people An officer repeated these words in Gaelic. The scene and the whole were too ignorant in the newness of their conversion, for any proceedings were so solemn and affecting that the prisoners were

serious disturbances to take place. Occasionally, indeed, as incapable of speech. Raising their bonnets, they endeavoured to ex. time grew older, and corruptions which had crept in began to

"recover

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be seen and spoken about, there was agitation and trouble, as Bohemia, when the emperor died (1619), and to the distress when John Huss raised his voice in Bohemia against spiritual of the whole Protestant party, Ferdinand was chosen to succeed wrongdoing, and having brought down the wrath of ignorant him. The Bohemians elected Count Frederick, Elector Palatine rulers upon him, perished a witness for truth ; as when John of the Rhine, to be their king, as he was also head of the Wycliffe, in our own country, undertook to withstand the tra- " Evangelical Union," and in an evil hour for him he accepted ditions of tho elders, where those conflicted with the revela- the dignity. The Thirty Years' War now began in earnest. tions writton for man's instruction in God's Bible; as when Frederick's dominions were quickly invaded by a host of Savonarola, in 1197, preached to the people of Florence, and Imperialists, whom he was quite unable to withstand; and, unwas, for their sins or his own, put to death in the market-place. assisted by those from whom he had every natural right to

But it was not till the year 1517, when Martin Luther trod expect help, the unfortunate elector had to put up not only with under foot and burnod the Pope's Ball of Indulgences at Wit- the loss of Bohemia, but of the Rhenish palatinate also, a protenberg, that Christendom saw the fulfilment, on a large scale, vince which was his by hereditary descent. of the words which the Redeemer had addressed to his Shocked, but not stunned, by this blow, the Protestants of apostles. In tho flame that burned the Papal Bull to ashes Germany saw that they must at once make a stand, or be for was kindled the scorching fire of a so-called religious war, which over kept under the yoke. A new union was formed, and King rged furiously for the space of thirty years, involved nearly Christian of Denmark was placed at the head of it. Under evory European nation in its toils, and at its finish left Europe him were the Dukes of Mecklenburg, Count Mansfeldt, an able purified, though exhausted; purged from many sins and many commander though an adventurer, the Marquis of Brandenburg, follies which perhaps actually required so great a remedy for and some of the losser princes on the western side of the their removal.

empire. War burst forth instantly. The Danish king was all The Thirty Ycars' War was in effect the war between Roman unready to embark in such a war, and those who relied upon Catholicism and Protestantism, between the old ordor which him for leadership and for material help as well, were unable Eis changing, and the new which forced change upon it. It to bring much to the advancement of the cause, except them. sprang from a number of causes, but the immediate outburst selves, their swords, and enormous appetites. On the Imperial was on this wise.

side were wealth, the best soldiers in Europe, leaders of Since the Reformation till the year 1612, the German Pro-consummate ability, and with a belief in the righteousness testants hal enjoyed the free exercise of their religion. Their of their cause, which was worth half an army to them. numbers and tho importance of their leaders, including as they Counts Tilly and Wallenstein—the latter was in the course did some of the more powerful among tho lesser princes, had of this campaign made Duke of Friedland-commanded for won this for them, and they lived peaceably enough with their the emperor, and against their skill and the discipline of the Roman Catholic countrymen. The rights of the Protestants troops all Mansfeldt's bravery was in vain. The Protestant were under tho protection of the emperor, as head of the empire. provinces were overrun, fire and sword laid waste the whole All went smoothly enough, in spito of the efforts of the men of of that part of the empire, King Christian was beaten again the older Church, till the advent of Rudolph II. to the throne. and again, and finally made peace with the emperor on condiHo neglected many of his duties for pleasures harmless enough tion of renouncing for ever all right to interfere in the affairs of m themselves, such as clock-making, chemistry, and mechanics, Germany, and of leaving his allies in the war to their fate. The but not only useless but pernicious in a king. Whatever Dukes of Mecklenburg were dispossessed, Wallenstein obtained statesmanship he had in him lod him to join the princes of tho a grant of the duchies for himself, and the Protestant cause in empire in a leaguo against the Turks, who were at that time 1629 looked blank indeed. Hureatening seriously the western nations of Europe. The Help came from a very unexpected quarter. Louis XIII. of Josuits, who abounded at his court, managed to work the France came to the throne a minor, and Cardinal Richelieu was eraperor's organisation to their own ends, and the Protestants appointed to govern in his name. The cardinal had two grand getting wind of this, banded themselves together into what they ideas of State policy: one was to humble the nobility of France called The Evangelical Union,” at the head of which they to a minimum of power, so that the king might be all in all in placed the Elector Palatine of the Rhine, son-in-law to James I. his kingdom ; the other was not to allow any foreign State to of England. When Rudolph died, in 1612, the clection fell, to become so powerful as to make it impossible or even dangerous the great horror of the Protestants, upon Matthias, the ap- for France to cope with it. With his home policy, which he proved pupil and close ally of the Jesuits and extremists in carried out bloodily and mercilessly, we have not now any conthe Roman Church.

cern, but his foreign policy led him to see, in what was going Matthias wilfully failed to protect his Protestant subjects in on in Germany, the certainty of Austria bocoming, if not the enjoyment of their simplo right to worship God according to checkod, an overmatch for any other European nation whatthe dictates of their own consciences; the Romanists understood ever. The cardinal disliked heretics, not so much as such, but that a nod was as good as a wink from an emperor whose eyes because they were necessarily troublesome people to the Govern. were intentionally fast shut, and the result was that the ment. In France, he crushed the Huguenots with a relentless Protestants of Germany were evil intreated in many places. hand, but he did not object to Huguenots in other people's doChurches in which the Protestants worshipped were pulled down, minions, especially if, as in the present case, they helped on his and a large amount of social persecution went on, though, as policy. If he hated Protestants at all, he hated the Imperial yet, the law professed to protect equally all who were under it. power still more, and he did not scruplo to employ and to support Then the League arose, a combination of Roman Catholic princes the former when they promised to come in conflict with the throughout Europe, not in Germany only, of which the avowed latter. object was to root out the hated Protestant faith wherever it A decree of the Emperor Ferdinand published in 1630, and might be. The League had the special blessing of the Pope, requiring the Protestants to give up all church property of any and included among its members many of the most powerful kind in their use or possession, was entrusted to Wallenstein to persons in Christendom, lay princes as well as ecclesiastical dig- carry out, and that despot did his work so cruelly and shamenitaries; it was rich in wealth and influence, and in bitter fully, that even the Roman Catholics cried out. The deadly rage hatred for all who were opposed to it.

of the Protestants was once more excited, and, fed by the agents When the Bohemian nobles complained to the Imperial Coun- of Richelieu, looked for the “still strong man with "heart, cil at Prague that their churches had been pulled down, and head, hand," who should concentrate their anger, and then distheir ritos and those who administered them had been in charge it like a shell upon the Imperialists. sulted, their complaints were received with so much contempt Such a man was Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, the and so little consideration, that the heady Bohemians treated most important, both for position and resources, among all the the matter as a personal affront to themselves, hot words fol. Protestant princes of Europe. When asked to take the place lowed, and some of the contemptuous councillors got thrown to which Christian of Denmark had shown himself unequal, and out of window for their pains. To make the situation more from which many a bold man might have shrunk, he hesitated; difficult, Matthias procured that his cousin Ferdinand, a bigot but having accepted the post, he knew no shirking or shrinking of bigots on the Roman side, should be King of Bohemia, from the work. He devoted himself and all his resources to and his acts and government speedily drove his subjects into the undertaking, and having captured the important island of royolt. Anarchy was prevailing, civil war was going on in Rugen, landed in Pomerania, June 24th, 1630.

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Jealousy kept asunder those who should have hurried to meet | III., weary of continuous defeat, exhausted as to his resources, him. The Saxon princes even refused him permission to march and unable to cope with the powers against him, sued for peace, his army throu;h their territories--a foolish, even criminal act, and the Peace of Westphalia, whick securod civil and religious which caused the strong city of Magdeburg to fall into the liberty to the Protestant subjects of the empire, was signed hands of Count Tilly, who knew not the meaning of the word at Munster, and brought the long succession of years of war mercy, but caused 30,000 of the inhabitants to perish mise. to a close. rably, and the entire city, excepting the cathedral, to be cazed to the ground. This awful cruelty of the Imperialists

LESSONS IN DRAWING.-XXIII. taught German Protestants what they had to expect, and the immediate result was to bind the wavering Protestant princes The second use of the oval is when the axis is horizontal ; and in a firm bond with Gustavus. The rulers of Pomerania, Bran- here we cannot do better than quote the observations of Prodenburg (now the kingdom of Prussia), Hesse, and after some fessor Camper, who, after saying he had attentively examined delay, Saxony, united to support the King of Sweden, who the structure of the skulls of both adults and infants, proceeds brought men and ability to fight their battles. At Wittenberg thus :-“ An idea suggested itself that in drawing the head, they joined their armies with his, and at Leipsic, on the 7th of the best method would be to imitate the process of nature: first September, 1631, battle was joined with the Imperial army under to form the cranium or skull, then mark the facial line in the Count Tilly, who was defeated with tremendous loss. The direction required, and afterwards arrange the other parts ac. ghosts of Magdeburg sat heavily on his sword, and diverted his cording to given proportions." talents from their usual successful channel. Never since the * The skull is a horizontal oval, of which the hindermost parts dreadful day when he looked on unmoved at Croats burning are the largest, and the fore part like the section of a globe. I the houses of non-combatants at Magdeburg, and taking little first draw this oval by means of two circles; the one is L VE W babies up on the points of their lances to toast them in the fire- (Fig. 140), which contains about three parts of the head ; the never since Magdeburg women were with his leave and license other, K U Z, which is in size eight-ninths of the other circle. shamefully abused and then barbarously murdered, did the Draw the horizontal line s t, which extends from the centre of soul of this man find peace. His valour and his counsel were the large circle s, to t, the centre of the smaller, and is onealike set at nought, and at length, in the early part of 1632, fourth of the larger circle. From the centre s, I let fall the perwhen trying to stop the progress of the victorious Swedes into pendicular line sq; this marks the seat of the orifice of the ear, Bavaria, he was killed by a cannon-shot, from which all the and its lobe E." Upon examining the drawing the Professor relics be carried about with him, all the saints to whom he paid gives (Fig. 140) to illustrate his remarks, we find a discrepancy his hoinago, conld not save him. The Protestant allies occupied which we think it right to notice. The diameter of the smaller the whole country between tho Elbe and the Rhine, and after circle is eight-ninths of the diameter of the larger circle; also the Tilly's death, overran Bavaria.

distance between the two centres T and 8 is one-fourth of the Wallenstein, whose boundless ambition, enormous wealth, and diameter of the larger circle ; as it is written, the areas of the intolerable insolence had fixed a great gulf between him and circles might be supposed to be intended. The Professor conthe emperor, was the only man who could save the empire. Antinues—“ I draw PG, the facial line, in the degree of the inclinaappeal was made to him, and he took command of the Imperial tion required; K marks the place of the forehead; F, the line of armies, unshackled by a single condition. At Nuremberg, the eye; 1, the nose ; y, and a third of 1 B or I G, the mouth; where he was entrenched, he had the satisfaction of beating off through the centre of L QI draw the horizontal line F; I also make the army of Gustavus, who, burning under the desire to wipe off GN equal to the nose, and from a commence the line of the throat.” the disgrace of even partial defeat, attacked him at Lutzen, on This idea of Professor Camper is worth considering ; it may be the 16th November, 1632. The battle was one of the most useful, as the principle it involves is in accordance with that of bloody on record. For nine hours it was fought with obstinate nature, and after a little practice of drawing the oval by hand, the fary on both sides, Gustavus Adolphus fell mortally wounded features and other parts may very easily be put together. But in the middle of it, and the Swedes fought for revenge as well we must observe that this method is applicable only to profiles; as for victory. Prince Bernhard of Saxe Weimar took the where the first method so far fails in not giving the horizontal command after the king's death, and the result was that the projection of the hinder part, although in all other positions it Imperialists were totally routed, while the field was literally may be useful. Consequently, it is well to know both, so that one covered with their slain.

may be used in the one case, and the other in the remainder. Happily, there remained, in spite of the grievous loss sustained After all, the great advantage connected with these two methods in the death of Gustavus, good men and true among the Swedes, of employing the oval is the certainty of securing the general who resolved to carry out the policy of their beloved king. Chan- form of the head, the proportions of the parts, and the positions cellor Oxenstiern, Gustavus' friend and counsellor, was chosen of the features in connection with each other. Beyond these, to manage the war, and he gathered up in his strong hand the as regards the details, we cannot venture; the draughtsman reins which threatened to float loosely and disordered. H9 must not be controlled by them; he must make them subservient linked the German Protestants in a new union, gave Prince to his purpose according to the character of the head he is Bernhard, and Gustavus' trusted generals, Banier, Horn, and drawing. Tortensohn, the chief commands of the armies, and with The next portion of our subject will be the method of shading. Richelieu's help prosecuted the war vigorously. At the end of A very great deal is included in this. In the first place, the 1634 another event conspired to help him. The Emperor Fer- pupil must have acquired confidence in drawing an outline, as dinand, jealous of his mighty subject, the Duke of Friedland, he will soon find that the difficulties of shading do not exist so and suspicious of his intentions to snatch the crown for him. much in the manipulation—that is, in the manner of doing it-as self, procured his assassination, and the loss of Gustavus was in the application of the work. In the second place, nothing conmore than counterbalanced. But the King of Hungary, son to tributes more effectively in describing the form of an object the emperor, took Wallenstein's place, and at Nordlingen de than the proper treatment of the shades and the semitones; and feated the confederates with so severe a loss, that all but the especially with respect to the human figure, where on the French and Swedes and the Landgraf of Hesse were fain to surface, between the extreme boundary lines, is always found an make peace with the emperor. This was done by the Treaty amount of form which it would be impossible to represent faithof Prague, in 1635.

fully by outline only. For example, the form of the nose in a During the whole of Richelien's life the war went on, bring. side face is very easily given by the outline; but when the same ing out generals like the Great Condé, Turenne, and Torsten. face is turned to a front view, then we have to depend upon our solin, and winning, on the whole, fresh la els for the French capability of representing the form by light and shade. The and Swedish arms; and when Richelieu and his master died in same remarks are applicable to the treatment of the surfaces of 1643, it was found that Cardinal Mazarin, who governed for the the body and limbs; for as they are constantly subject to minor Louis XIV., was prepared to carry out their plan for change, in consequence of the variety of motion of which they hambling the House of Austria.

are capable, there will always be a considerable demand upon Under the conduct of Condé and Turenne, and the Swedish our anatomical knowledge, if we hope to deal faithfully with generals, the Thirty Years' War continued to ruin and deso- , the ever-varying surface as it approaches the eye, or recedes to late the face of Germany, till in 1648, the Emperor Ferdinand the boundary represented by line only. Therefore the know.

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