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Decessary for its production. Hence it may be easily understood

STANDARD SCALE.

COMPASS OF VOICES.

Alolgla'd'c'BA GT BDC B4, how the voice will flatten when, from inattention or weariness, the singer does not give prompt and firm tension to the proper muscles of the larynx or chest. The loud singer is especially liable to this, because, as noticed above, his notes are made to depend less upon the easily-governed tension of the vocal chords,

@,", BgAgg : and more upon the regulated force of air from the chest—the muscles of which are less easily commanded with accuracy. Hence the importance of cultivating a medium force of voice, The statement of the extreme compass of voices, and the such as is consistent with the easy action of the lungs.

remarks included between inverted commas, are either condensed The VOICES OF WOMEN AND CHILDREN are, on an average, or extracted from the "Art of Singing,” by D. Crevelli, a work about eight notes higher than those of men. They are very which is “the result of study and experience for nearly thirty various in character, but may be conveniently classified accord years" of a gentleman, who was spoken of by the Athenpum as ing to their “ compass,” or the extent of notes which they can “the most successful vocal teacher in England.” reach on the standard scale.

It should be noticed that boys' voices, especially for some a. The First Soprano Voice has its extremest time before they begin to break, are of a different timbre from compass from E (above the staff) down to B, those of girls—they are heavier and less flexible.

(below the staff). Its easy compass is from The term REGISTER is used to denote “a certain number of B

Al down to c. “ It is weak in the lower sounds in a voice, which differ in quality or timbre from another

sounds, but light and brilliant (if well de number of sounds in the same voice." We follow Dr. Bennati, A:

veloped) in the higher ones above B. The as kindly quoted to us by Mr. Graham. “This change of G'

organ has not much muscular strength, and register is probably occasioned by some difference in the manner

cannot easily give effect to sustained sounds,” in which the notes are produced. It may be that the lower notes F but is very flexible.

are successively produced by somewhat relaxed membranes, 6. The Second Soprano Voice reaches, in its which are shortened as the notes rise, and that notes of the E

extreme compass, from ca down to G,. Its higher register are produced mainly by the tension of the memD?

easy compass is from fl down to Az. * It is branes without any shortening of the chords. If so, there will

generally full and round in its quality, and be a note or two, at the junction of the registers, which may be C

flexible. The organ is of a stronger muscular produced on either principle, and an uncultivated voice may not construction.”

decide with sufficient promptitude which principle is to be used, c. The Contra-Alto Voice sometimes reaches or on which note the new register should begin. This would from bl flat down to E,. Its easy compass account for the great difficulty, which many have, in making the is from Dl to F,. “Its organ is " large, and notes of one register follow smoothly with those of the other. “of a very strong muscular construction. It Such persons require considerable practice and care to 'blend' is not very flexible. The upper sounds are the registers. They should be instructed to keep the notes of harsh or weak. It is, however, sometimes the lower register down in strength or force, while they seek to full from di down to G. It is most powerful strengthen those of the higher one." from G to G,"

All the tones of the voice are really produced in the larynx, The voicES OF MEN are classified as fol. or “Adam's apple," but in producing the strong vibrating lower lows :

tones of the voice, the singer feels as though his chest were called 1

a. The Tenor Voice is of two sorts. * The to a special effort. In producing other more weak and soft tones, B

first is that very delicate, light, and rare he feels that the back part of the throat is exerting its muscles;

voice for which the “alto' part is written in and in producing certain clear, ringing tones, beyond the range A, some of our tune-books. Like the first soprano of his ordinary voice, he is conscious of vibration in the head.

voice, among females, it is not adapted to Hence the names of the three registers—the chest register, the G

sustained sounds. Its compass is about a throat (sometimes called the medium, sometimes the falsetto) Fi

tone higher than that of the common tenor register, and the head (also sometimes called the falsetto)

voice.” The stronger tenor voice has for its register. Each register has its peculiar quality of tone, and is E

extreme compass from B flat down to B, flat produced by a peculiar management of the vocal organs. On (in the bass cleff). Its easy compass is from this last point, recent discoveries have confirmed the conjectures

A down to C, " It is full, round, and capable of the Italian, Bennati. Müller shows that the throat register C,

of sustaining and expanding sounds with of tones is produced by the vibration of the thin borders only of firmness. Great care should be taken not to the vocal membranes, while for the chest register those mem.

force the higher sounds. They should be branes vibrate in their whole breadth. For the head tones it is a,

sustained firmly though lightly, and without believed that the membranes fall down unused, and the larynx

making use of falsetto or head-voice-a quality becomes an instrument of the flute kind. More recently still, G,

of voice dissonant and unpleasant, and which the invention of the laryngoscope, and its skilful use by the ought never to exist in a well-cultivated younger Garcia, and others, have given us many details of the voice."

manner in which tones are produced. From these it appears b. The Baritone Voice has its extreme com that above a certain place in absolute pitch, the capabilities of pass from G to F, sharp (below the bass tension in the material called flesh and muscle require that tones

cleff). Its easy compass is from F down to should be most easily produced in the manner above ascribed to Ag, "It partakes in some degree of the quality of both bass the throat register, and below that pitch in the manner of the and tenor. It is more soft and flexible than the former. chest register. The place in pitch thus referred to lies between From the ease with which it takes the notes D E F (treble D below the treble staff, and G on its second line—a point only cleff), it may sometimes taken for the tenor. But from the just reached by the basses, and very little exceeded by the different position of the organ in the throat, these sounds, baritones ; having above it one-third of the tenor voice, half the instead of being full, will be of a hollow quality-being the ex. contralto, two-thirds of the second soprano, and nearly all the treme sounds of the baritone, whilst they are in the middle and first soprano. fullest part of the tenor. If the voice is at all strained on this Many of the tones of the chest register could also be produced part, instead of gaining the soft and full baritone quality, it will in the throat register, and vice versa. But the head register of become an imperfect mixture of the baritone and tenor.” tones never coincides—is never changeable-with the tones of

C. The Bass Voice reaches its extreme sounds in E (on the the other registers. Where the throat tones cease, the head lowest line of the treble cleff') and E, (below the bass cleff). Its tones begin. The chest tones are naturally preferred by the easy, compass is from p down to F,." It is naturally of a hard lower voices (bass and contralto), and fill nearly the whole of and inflexible quality, but very fui and powerful in sustaining the bass compass. They are less used by tenors and baritones, sounds." Those who understand the old notation will like and still less by the first and second sopranos. The throat tones to see the following diagram :

are preferred by the sopranos, and form the chief part of their

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voices. The tenors and baritones use them in the higher parts soprano, contra-alto, tenor, and bass, etc. (like most psalm tunes); of their voices. A baritone wishing to sing a tenor “part,” also music in five, six, and eight parts. must necessarily have recourse to his softer throat voice, else he There is no harmony more perfect than the “concord of steet will produce hard, wiry tones, very unpleasant when contrasted voices.” “All musicians knew,” says General Thompson, that with the soft, round chest tones of the tenor voice. The same by practising together, and, as it were, mutually rubbing down remark applies to second sopranos singing the air or soprano each other's asperities and defects, a quartett of performers on “ part."

Conductors of choirs should be exceedingly careful in instruments of the viol kind arrived at a perfection of execution this matter, if they would secure a good blending of the vocal in point of harmony, or what is popularly called being in tune,

which nothing could excel, and no known thing, except a quartett The head tones are exclusively used by the sopranos. In men of singers, equal. In short, there was no doubt that by follow-all authorities agree—these head tones are effeminate and ing the directions of the ear as to what was most harmonious, disagreeable. Garcia says that the head register is not improved and each labouring to accommodate the other with this common by much exercise. Nearly all men and some women speak in the object in view, they did practically break in upon the thing so chest voice. Nearly all women, including the contraltos, speak much sought for under the title of correct harmony. in the throat voice ; and the cries of women and children are But nobody could tell what it was they did.” The General then in the head voice. Teachers should be warned against allowing shows that the thing they did was—to sing or play notes which boys' voices to be forced upwards in the chest register. Garcia were mathematically correct according to the scale which the says that this often occasions the loss of voice in chorus children. human ear requires--to free themselves from the temperament of At "the change of voice” in boys, their voices should have keyed instruments--and to observe the double form of RAY entire rest, often for a full year. Many voices, says Bassini, which he calls its “ duplicity.” Let the singer make fuil use

irretrievably ruined” by the neglect of this precaution. of the advantage he thus possesses. Bassini recommends the following test exercise to tenors, bari- The “ balancing" of parts is important. For a congregation tones, and contraltos, for the discovery of the throat register. containing every kind of voice, music in four parts-soprano, The third tone, sung piano, is almost sure to be delivered with contra-alto, tenor, and bass-is most appropriate. The second the throat voice. Then, having once found that register, it is soprano and the baritone voices, in such music, would have to join easy to keep it in the desconding phrase.

with the parts above or below according to convenience. Bat mp.

in the Sabbath-school, where the immense preponderance of voice is that of females and children, to divide the voice of the male teachers into bass and tenor would make them out of all

proportion weak. A far better distribution and more equal KEY C. THROAT

CHEST.

volume of voice is obtained by using music written in three

parts-two for the voices of females and children, and one of PP:

A similar

Il , Use of the Registers.--As the registers produce different parts should be so written that the two upper melodies may be qualities of tone, it is better, when you have commenced a musical harmonious when the bass is absent. In girls' schools music in phrase in one register, to conclude it in the same. If this is not two parts is desirable. If, for Sabbath-schools, the two men's possible, then care should be taken, in passing from one register parts are retained, they should be very simple and "steady," to the other, to maintain regularity in volume of tone. Bassini's sounding rather like an accompaniment than like “parts." rule is : in ascending phrases, when you have begun with the After these explanations, it is scarcely necessary to warn the chost register, keep it; in descending phrases, keep the throat pupil against the too common but absurd practice of females register.

attempting to sing the tenor, or that of males sullying, with The voices of women and children are commonly called their tenor or baritone voices, the purity and brightness of the “ treble voices.” The highest female voice is often called simply "air.” If men are obliged to pitch the air of a tune, let them

soprano,” and the second voice is then called the “mezzo do so; but let them leave the females “ to sing it, while they soprano.” The “part” adapted to the second soprano or return to the part which is proper to their own voices." contra-alto is sometimes called the “seconds, but that term is In “ leading a tune, it is advisable first to let all the school occasionally used in reference to the tenor. The “alto" is a or congregation distinctly hear the key-note. If necessary, the very high man's voice, reaching very nearly to the lowest of first note or two (not more) may be sung by the leader in the women's voices, which is called, on that account, the contra-alto. “air.” The leader should then take his own part. He will find But the two voices differ greatly in character—the one being himself able to keep up the pitch or the rate of movement much light and flexible, the other not so.

better by means of a firm bass or a clear tenor, both well accented, Every pupil should mark the extent of his own voice on the than by singing the air, however loudly or however angrily. scale above given at the side of the page.

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precentor" will sing the "air,” it takes The pupils need scarcely be warned against the common fool the spirit from the female voices; but if, perchance, for a line, ishness of boasting “how high they can sing." Let them he leaves them to themselves, they seem to rise with new vigour, remember that God has made their voices differently; that it is sweetness, and brilliancy. the honour of some to sing the lower parts for which their A good enunciation of words is most important to the singer. voices were made, as it is of others to sing the higher parts ; He cannot use that accent and inflection on each word which so .and that the medium sounds of every voice are not only its much help us to distinguish the words of the speaker, however easiest, but its very best.

badly uttered. It is therefore the more necessary for the singer, Vocal music is commonly so written that several melodies if he would be “intelligible and edifying," to use an articulation may be sung together-each melody being adapted, in its com- strong, distinct, and correct. Care should be taken to make pass, to one particular voice. The leading (or most striking) the vowel sounds most clear and accurate, and to deliver the melody is almost invariably, and very properly, that which is consonants both quickly and forcibly. sung by the highest voice. Each of these concurring melodies For this purpose, the words should be read aloud by the is called a "part;" the highest is commonly called the “air.” teacher, so as to show the feeling and proper expression belong.

Those who sing in parts should seek to attune their voices ing to them, and to exhibit a “pattern” of good utterance. one to the other, and to maintain the several parts with an equal This the class should imitate, in one voice, taking the teacher's itolume of voice, so that one part may not overpower the others. pattern line by line. The practice of reading together in a loud Each singer should also take care to sing the part proper to his whisper will be found very conducive to the end sought. own voice.

It will sometimes be convenient to shorten a note when it We have music "in two parts," written for soprano and falls on an ill-sounding syllable, and sometimes to throw the contra-alto voices, or for tenor and bass (like the exercises in sound of a final consonant on to the following word. this work), or for soprano and bass; music " in three parts," If we were to pursue this important subject further, we should written "for three oqual voices” (that is, for three female or be tempted into a course of lessons on elocution, which would be three male voices), or for soprano, contra-alto, and baritone, or beyond our province here. for soprano, tenor, and bass, oto.; music " in four parts," for (The Exercises attached to this Lesson will be givon in our next.)

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men.

RECREATIVE NATURAL HISTORY. up its head when running, so as to throw the heavy mass back

wards over the neck. The great length of the legs, the height THE DEER FAMILY.

of the shoulders, the heavy, shambling trot, huge size of the A HISTORY of field sports would be as instructivo as amusing. animal, sometimes seven feet high, and the odd snapping sound It inust inevitably develop both the evil and the good of human of the joints, give to the motions of this deer a peculiar awk. nature, showing much courage and daring associated with no wardness. The moose spreads far over the northern regions little selfishness and cruelty. Hunting would, beyond doubt, of America, pushing its journeys, at some points, within the take up the greater portion of such a work, from the chase of Arctic circle, and offering, in the depth of winter, a splendid the lion or tiger to the rather inglorious pursuit of a hare. The prize to the Indian hunter. The elks of Norway and Sweden chapter devoted to the various field sports of the United King. differ but little, if at all, from the moose ; but they are rapidly dom would first treat of the stag-hunt before condescending to diminishing in number before the rifles of enterprising sportsnotice the bold fox-hunter or the skilful managor of harriers.

Even deer-stalking in the Scottish Highlands must yield Our present object

to stalking the elk in is not, however, to

the grand solitudes of write a treatise on

the Norwegian moun. hunting, but to give

tains. some account of an

It may be supposed important family of

that fable has left animals which have

these deer alone. Not in all ages been the

so: the men of old special objects of the

times were too fond hunter's craft.

of the marvellous for This being our third

that. It was believed paper on the Rumi.

that the legs of the elk nants, no special re

were without joints; marks on this order

that antlers grew from of mammalia are re

the eyelids; and that quired. It may be

the animal was forced sufficient to call at

to walk baokwards as tention to the fact

it fed. The very pethat all the Cervida,

digree of the creaor deer family, have

ture was involved in solid horns, a marked

mystery. It was said distinction between

to be desconded from them and the ox,

the camel and the sheep, and antelopes.

deer; thus being, in The deer alone, of all

fact, a most wonderthe Ruminants, shed

ful mule. Such an their horns yearly, a

animal could not be physiological change

allowed to live a very of sufficient import

happy life; it was ance to give the ani

therefore made submals a prominence in

ject to severe epileptic natural history.

fits, which were conSome brief descrip

stantly bringing its tions of the more re

tall form to the markable species are

ground. No wonder, necessary before we

then, that the old examine into the

Germans named the growth and structure

animal “Elend," or of the horns and other

the wretched one! peculiar organs.

Amidst all these calaThe species of the

mities, one comfort 80-called Irish elk is

remained; the elk now extinct, though

always had its medisome writers assert

cine at hand. When that individuals ex

prostrated by a fit, isted up to the middle

the patient had only of the sixteenth cen

to smell or lick its tury. The bones of

hoofs to ensure this gigantic deer are

speedy recovery. frequently found in THE RED DEER, OR TRUE STAG (Cervus Elaphus).

The Rein-deer canthe bogs of Ireland

not be entirely passed and in the Isle of Man. A perfect skeleton is in the Museum over by us, though it has been so often described that we shall of the Royal Dublin Society, and the spread of the vast antlers, be pardoned for not entering largely into minute details. We no less than six feet, may give some notion of the magnificent must

also be excused for declining to discuss

the much-disputed power of this stag when living. Mr. Mantell possessed a pair mode of spelling this deer's name, whether Rhen-deer, Rainof horns which extended “ thirteen feet from tip to tip.” Can deer, or Rein-deer, leaving that important matter to the taste the reader picture to himself a deer, six feet high and nine feet of each reader. The various Indian and Esquimaux names are in length, carrying aloft such a forest of spreading antlers ? too many for enumeration, amounting to a dozen at least. It The animal is improperly called an elk, the form of the horns is also a question whether the rein-deer, or Caribou, of North proving it to be closely allied to our elegant fallow-deer. America is not a different species from that of the Laplanders.

The best living example of the true elks is the moose-deer The two are, probably, only varieties of the same species. No (Alces Americanus) of North America. The noble horns of inference can be justly drawn from the diversities in the horns, this species expand towards the

summit in a manner somewhat for in no animals are these variations so numerous as among resembling those of the fallow-deer, but without antlers at the the rein-deer ; indeed, it has been said tħat it is difficult to find base or in the middle of the stem. The great weight of these two individuals with horns exactly alike. The American reinhead-weapons, often about fifty pounds, compels the elk to hold deer was probably called Caribou (Carré-bæuf) by tho carly

78

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VOL. III.

French settlers in Canada, from the resemblance which tho Let us now give a little attention to our native specice, tho massive body bears to that of the ox.

Red Deer, the Roebuck, and the Fallow Deer of our parks. The size of the animal varies much; the Norwegian are the The Red Deer, or true stags (Cervus elaphus), are still wild smallest, and those of Lapland are far inferior to the deer which in Scotland, where they give the “stalker” many an opporfrequent the polar regions of America and Asia. This quadru. tunity for testing the strength of his muscles and the steadiness ped is indeed well fitted to flourish in the lands of snow and of his nerves. The horns of this species are conical, with tempests. The thick hair defends the body from the most antlers springing from the bottom and middle of the “beam." piercing cold, while the hard end of the muzzle and the iron. They have none of those expanded surfaces which characteriss like hoofs are admirably adapted for removing the frozen snow the elks, rein-deer, and fallow-deer. Every part of these forwhich covers the white lichens, the favourite food of the animal. midable weapons has its appropriate name : the main stem is These cryptogamous vegetables, which in England rank with the beam ; the great branches springing from this are the the smallest forms of botanical life, and only serve to give a antlers ; the projections near the top are the branches; and rich tinting to old walls and the trunks of ancient trees, grow those at the tip of the beam are called the sub-royal, or crown. luxuriantly on the mountains of Lapland, and cover the The antlers themselves have distinct names : the first being barren.ground regions of North America. Among them is the called the brow antler, the second the bez-antler, and the third well-known, though wrongly named, Iceland moss, so frequently the royal. The bony ring at the bottom of the beam is known used by consumptive invalids in England. This is really a as the burr, of which we shall have something to say. The lichen, the Citraria Icelandica. The rein-deer sometimes perish whole of this horn-system is not produced in the first, second, from inability to obtain a supply of this food, and terrible or even third year of the red deer's life. In the first year the then is the condition of the Esquimaux and Laplander. These horns are but small bumps on the head; in the second they famines occur when, instead of snow, an impenetrable pavement assume a pointed shape, and are then called dags; the third of thick ice covers the lichen districts, defying all the attempts year developes the brow antler ; in the next the bez-antler is of the deer to remove the fatal covering.

produced; and the fifth year sees the royal antler bnd forth, and In the American regions where these animals abound, they then the animal becomes a stag. But the horns are not perfect form the chief support of the Indians and Esquimaux, who piti. until the sixth and following years form the successive branches lessly and recklessly slaughter vast multitudes in autumn, when of the crown. The number of antlers increases with the age of the fat herds are migrating from their summer homes. Many the stag; ten or twelve is, in general, the extreme, but some readers may know what pemmican is, others may never have heads have borne horns of thirty antlers. even heard the word. It is simply deer's flesh cut small, packed These stags, in the wild state, are almost extinct in the south tightly into a skin, and an abundance of melted fat poured into of England; for those turned out to be hunted by the Royal and over the whole, to keep the food from the air, and to give a hounds at Windsor are really half-domesticated. A hundred due richness and flavour to the preserved meat.

years ago they were numerous in the southern forests; but These destructive huntings of the rein-deer only happen these were only the relics of the stately herds for which Wilamong the wild and wandering Indian tribes of America. The liam I. made the New Forest, and for whose protection the Laplander knows too well the value of the animals, and pre- ferocious forest laws were enacted. For them, chiefly, nearly serves the providers of his food and clothing with all care. With seventy forests, and about seven hundred royal parks, were two or three hundred deer, and a well-situated lichen tract, he jealously kept, until the irritated baronage, gentry, and concares little for the rise and fall of the foreign food markets, and moners of England insisted upon having their share also in the still less, if that be possible, for the rise and fall of kingdoms. hunting of the deer. This animal must, indeed, have a place He wants neither railways nor thorough-bred horses; his in the national records, if only for his former importance. Partrained deer can bear him, if necessary, over the glistening liament no longer passes acts for his protection; rebellions snow-tracts at a rate equal to the speed of the swiftest horse. are not organised under colour of a stag-hunt; noblemen hare His daughters' marriage portions and the estates of his sons ceased to glory in the privilege of killing a deer on their way are to be found in his antlered flock. If he wants a winter coat, to and from Parliament. But we cannot even yet forget that the rein-deer skin will defy a frost capable of freezing the • Chevy Chase was fought in the stag's honour, and that the mercury in the barometer. Is the Laplander an epicure, he has “stark” William of Normandy “ loved the red deer as if he but to order a dish of deer's tongue, properly cooked by his had been their father." wife or eldest daughter, when he will have a dinner which is The Roebuck (Cervus capreolus), the smallest of our native both savoury and nutritious.

deer, has but two antlers on the short horns, lives in small herds The horns are five or six feet long, flattened at the upper of five or six, frequents mountain districts, and must not be parts, and having antlers projecting from tho base of each horn sought in Scotland, where their watchfulness will tax all the in front, and also antlers springing from the middle of the hunter's skill.

beam or horn-shaft, and directed backwards. Thus the The Fallow Deer (Cervus dama) is the best known English whole mass may be divided into four parts : the beam, the base species, being that usually kept in parks, where their beauty or lower antlers, the middle antlers, and the wide-spreading and gentleness are in harmony with the quietude of sylvan palmated summit. We must not forget that the female of this scenery. The horns have two antlers directed forwards; bat species is horned.

the upper parts expand into what is called the “palmated" The Musk-deer demands a few words, before proceeding to form, which is not fully developed till the animal is six years notice our native species. We admit that this animal can old. scarcely be ranked with the deer family; but as popular The spotted variety is said to have been brought from the zoology places them here, and scientific naturalists are unable South of Europe or North Africa ; but the brown kind were to class the Moschidæ (musk animals) satisfactorily, we shall introduced by James I. from Denmark. The name follow is here regard them as a peculiar species of hornless, but tusked, descriptive of the light reddish brown colour of the most ancient deer. The true musk animal is found in the high and bleak variety, and is derived from a Saxon word signifying a light red. regions of Thibet; it is about three feet high, and of a pale A few words on the growth and shedding of the horns are yellow tint. The musk is a thick brownish fluid, contained in now requisite, as the production of such masses of bony matter a fleshy bag about the size of a hen's egg, situated on the ab- every year must have a great influence on the vital functions domen of the animal. The dried musk in each bag averages of tho animal. The new horn is at first but a soft and highlyabout one-third of an ounce, and is worth a sovereign in sensitive knob, protected by a fine skin covered with hair

, the market. As 5,000 are sometimes imported in a single called the “velvet." If the " knob" be gently touched with year, this involves the destruction of 15,000 animals. The the finger, it will be found to possess all the heat of inflammaodour of the new musk is so powerful that the dealers are tory action. As the horn grows, the skin or "velvet" dries forced to cover their nostrils with thick cloths while inspecting up, and is gradually rubbed off by friction against trees. The the bags or

pods." This extraordinary perfume is said to whole system of blood-vessels, which nourished the tenderretain all its energetic pungency after exposure to the air for growing horn, cease to act, and, finally, leave nothing but tho a hundred years.

It has proved a puzzle to the analytical faint marks of their presence on the solid horn. The inrr, or chemists, who, after detecting ten elements in its composition, bony ring at the base of the horn, has been the last formed

, are unable to explain the nature of the perfume.

and we must now consider the influence of this on the shedding

66

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of the horns. The continued pressure of the burr on the blood

VOCABULARY. ressels tends to obliterate these, and therefore to stop the flow Accubo, 1, to lie up to, Et-et, both.

Perdomo, 1, to tame of blood to the antlers. In time this failure of nourishment to lie (sit) at table. Evolvo, evolvi, evolu. thoroughly. leads to the weakening of the horns at the frontal joint, and Aduro, adussi, adurere, tum, 3, to roll out, Ploratus, -us, a com. ultimately to their falling off. A few blood-vessels are even adustum, 3, to set on unjold.

plaint, a weeping. then torn asunder, as the part where the horn separates from

fire, burn.

Excubo, 1, to keep Reperio, 4, to find.

watch. the skull generally bleeds for a short time.

Age, come.

Replico, i, to w..jou,

to lean Gemitus, -us, m., тeply. . The lachrymal sinus (tear-channel) is an opening under each Applico, 1,

groan.

Scaturigo,-inis,a spring eye in most species of deer, the use of which is yet unknown. Complicatus, compli- Increpo, 1, to scold. Se applicare, to bring They are not " tear-channels,” notwithstanding the namo; nor

cated, dark.

Nutus, -us, m., a nod, neur, approach, apply are they “ breathing places,” as Gilbert White supposed, for Complico, 1, to fold to. command.

to some one, to tuin Hunter has shown they have no connection with the nostrils or gether.

Passian, hither and to some thing. langs. These organs are, therefore, at present a mystery. Cremo, 1, to burn.

thither, everywhere. Verecundia, -æ, f.,

mbThose of our readers who wish to know something of the Discedo, 3, to depart, go. Percrepo, 1, to resound. desty. numerous deer parks still kept up in England, and the modes

EXERCISE 129.--LATIN-ENGLISH. of managing the animals in such enclosures, will do well to

1. Quis venit ? 2. Fores crepuerunt. 3. Dux milites vehementer read Mr. Shirley's book on the deer parks of England.

increpuit. 4. Tota urbs vocibus civium de victorià ex hostibus reThe necessary limits of this paper have prevented us from portata exsultantium percrepuit. 5. Age, cubitum discedamus. 6. referring to several foreign species, from entering into the Romani multas gentes ac nationes armis perdomuerunt. 7. Docemur details of "hunting science,” and from describing the various auctoritate nutuque legum, domitas habere libidines, coercere omues modes in which the horns and skin of the deer are made cupiditates. 8. Ex hoc fonte ingentes scaturigines aquæ emicuernut. - usefal” to men.

9. Indorum sapientes ad flammam se applicant. 10. Indorum sapientes If deer have had little direct influence on human civilisation, applicarerunt, sine gemitu aduruntur.

sine gemitu aduruntur. 11, Indorum sapientes, quum ad flammam se

12. Cicero ad Molonem philothoy, nevertheless, have contributed in all ages to the support såphum se applicavit. 13. Sapiens studet animi sui complicatini of numerous rude tribes, and have offered, in feudal times, the notionem erolvere. 14. Quum memoriam temporum replicaveris, et temptations of the chase as a more innocent amusement than virtutum et vitiorum multa exempla reperies. 15. Quum urbs expng. the battle-field. Does the man of the nineteenth century ask nata esset, omnia passim muliérum puerorumque ploratibus sonuerunt. which is better, the hunting-field or the music-hall ? An English. 16. Terremur quum serena tempestate (weather) tonuit. 17. Nitimur nan has but one answer.

in vetitum. 18. Augustus carmina Virgilii creinari vetuit. 19. Augustus
carmina Virgilii creinari contra testamenti ejus verecundiam vetuit.

EXERCISE 130,-ENGLISH-LATIN.
LESSONS IN LATIN.—XXXV.

1. The hinges of the door creaked. 2. The mother scolded her DEVIATIONS IN THE FIRST CONJUGATION. iunocent son. 3. The soldiers kept watch all night. 4. The sailors

will subdue the enemy's fleet. 2. Perfect, -UI; Supine, ITUM.

5. I shall apply myself to Cicero (study

under him). 6. I forbid you to study under Aristotle. 7. We shall i. Crepo, crepui, crepare, crepitum, 1, to croak.

strive for what is forbidden (vetitum). 8. The whole house sounded ü. Cubo, cubui, cubare, cubitum, 1, to lie down.

with the groaning of the sick men, 9. The city sounds with arms. iii. Domo, domui, domare, domitum, 1, to tame, subdue.

10. Jupiter subdues the other gods by his nod. 11. Everywhere groan

12. I have thoroughly tamed the lion. iv. Mico, micui, micare (no supine), to glitter; so emico, ings and weepings sound. emicni, emicare, emicatum, to dart forth; but dimico, I fight,

DEVIATIONS IN THE FIRST CONJUGATION. has dimicavi, dimicare, dimicatum.

3. Perfect -UI; Supine, -TUM. v. Plico, plicui, plicare, plicatum, and plicitum, to fold; i. Frico, fricui, fricare, fricatum, to rub; refrico, refricui, implico has implicui, implicatus (Cicero), and implicitus ; ex. refricare, refrictum, to rub up, revive (p. f. refricaturus). plico and applico, in Cicero, have always -avi, -atum; replico, ü. Neco, necui, necare, necatum, to kill; eněco, enecui, enealso, is regular.

care, enectum, to torture in killing. vi. Sono, sonui, sonare, sonitum, to sound; part. fut. sona- üü. Seco, secui, secare, sectum, to cut, flog (p. f. secaturus). turus. vii. Tono, tonui, tonare (no supine), to thunder.

4. Perfect, -I; Supine, •TUM. viü. Veto, vetui, vetare, vetitum, to forbid.

i. Juvo, juvi, juvare, jutum (juvaturus), to help; adjŭro, Let me impress on the student the necessity of committing

adjūvi, adjuvare, adjutum, adjuturus. these forms to memory. Only by committing them to memory

ü. Lavo, lāvi, lavare, lautum, to wash. -only by retaining them in your memory-can you become

VOCABULARY. thoroughly master of them, and so have them in your possession Adjuvare (acc.), to sup. | Frustra, in vain (E. R. petitum,3, to ask, seek, for all necessary purposes. Be not deluded by any representa

port, assist.
frustrate).

fetch. tions which may aim to make you think that you can become Alligare, 1, to bind to, Garrio, 4, í chatter. Priucipio, at the first, familiar with the Latin or any other language, unless at the

Garrulitas, -ātis, talk- Principium, -i, n., expense of very considerable and very close labour.

ativeness,
Attingo, attingere, at.
Again

beginning. and again, twice or thrice over, must you acquire and repeat to

tigi, attactum, 3, to Garrulus, -a, -um, chat. Quantopere, how much. touch,

tering.

Refricare, to rub buck, yourself or to a friend all the forms I give; nor be satisfied

Cano, 1, to sup,

dine. Horreum,-i, n., a barn, rub again. that they are yours until, by repeated examinations and trials, Congero, 3, I carry. Oleum, i, n., oil. Reporto, 1, I bring back, you learn that you have them in your mind. You will act Desecare, to cut down. Perfricare, to rub gain. wisely to call in to your aid the principle of mutual stimulus Desiderium, -i, n., sonse greatly.

Resecare, to cut off. and mutual instruction. Go over these forms aloud, several of loss, regret for. Peto, petěre, petivi, | Solutus, -a, -um, free. persons reciting them at once. For this purpose, it would be

EXERCISE 131.-LATIN-ENGLISH. well to have a leader or drill-sergeant, to give the word, and keep the recital correct.

1. Vereor ne literis meis refricuerim desiderium ac dolorem tuum. When you have repeated a form or a vocabulary sufficiently, then proceed to examine each other.

2. Tuis sceleribus reipublicæ præterita fata refricaturus es. 3. Du

bium non est quin tuis sceleribus reipublicæ præterita fata refricaturus You would do well to call into play the same impulse and aid sis. 4. Tantilus summain aquam attingens, enectus siti fingitur a in writing and correcting the examples and exercises. If you poetis.” 5. Nescisne quantopere garrulus iste homo me garriendo are unable to get several to join you in the task, undertake to enecuerit ? 6. Caius Marius, quum secaretur, principio vetuit se alliteach Latin to some poor boy who cannot afford to purchase gari, nec quisquam ante Marium solutus dicitur esse sectus, 7. Agrithe Popular EDUCATOR, or who may be neglected by his colæ frumenta desecta in horrea congěrunt. 8. Nisi libidines resocueris, proper guardians. If two persons, with equal time and equal talents, began together to study Latin, the one teaching juverit? 10. Non solum fortuna, sed etiam industria tua te in negotio another, the other confining all his attention to himself, the bitamus quin splendidam de hostibus reportaturi simus victoriam.

or on.

a

tuo adjâvit. 11. Si quid fortuna milites nostros adjuverit, non duformer would ontstrip the latter very easily, and make such Exercitus maximis itineribus profectus est cives obsidione cinctos progress as in a few months to defy competition. Docendo adjutum. 13. Ne prius cæna quam manus lavoris. 14. Corpus lau.

turus aquam puram e vivo (running) flumine pete !

12.

disce.

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