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double tongued; αποκαλυπτω (απο, from, and καλυπτω, I hide), | emotion, anger; δικαιοσυνη, ης, ή, justice, just designs ; κατερI onceal; συνεδριον, -ου, το, αν assembly, hence our word γαζομαι (κατα, down, thoroughly, and εργον, α work), I accomsanheirim, the name of the Jewish Parliament; avon, -ns, ń, a plish. breathing, breath; TIOTOS here would in classical Greek be 6. Γινομαι (the old form of γιγνομαι, compare γενος, α race, TUTTOS.

α kind), I become ; ποιητης, -ου, και, α doer, o maker, hence our 8. Steparos, -ov, d, a crown, hence our proper name, Stephen. poet, the great maker, that is, inventor; akpoarns, -ov, d, a hearer,

9. Αισχύνομαι, I am ashamed of, from αισχος, -ούς, hatefulness, 7. Θρησκεια, ας, ή, service, God's service, religion; καθαρος, -α, shame.

-ον, pure ; αμιαντος (μιαινω, I spot), unspotted; και, ευon, that is, 10. Σιδηρος, -ου, και, εποη ; οξυνω, I sharpen ; in παροξυνει, the oύτoς, αυτη, τουτο, this ; επισκεπτομαι (επι, over, and σκεπτομαι, preposition tapa strengthens the force of the verb; étaipos, I survey) I go to see, or visit; from the same root is our bishop, -ov, d, a companion, friend.

that is, an overlooker, a superintendent ; oppavos, -ou, d, our word 11. Αμητος (from αμαω, I bind in bundles), harvest time; orphan ; χηρα, ας, ή, α υίdow; θλιψις, εως, ή, affliction ; αυτων, υετος (from υειν, Eat. pluere, to rain), rain; θερος, -ους, τo, of then, their ; ασπιλος, -ον, unstained (σπιλοs, α stain), τηρεω,

I keep, preserve. 12. Ακανθα, -ης, ή, α thorn; φυω, I produce (Lat. fui, I was), 8. Αγνος, , -ον, chaste, holy και πρωτον, in the first place, επειτα, quoual, I am produced, I am born, I spring up; we ovo uos (from then, in the second place; elpriviros (Elpnun, peace), peaceful; μεθυ, wine, strong drink), drunken ; αφρων, -ονος (from α, and επιεικής, υild; ευπειθης (πειθω, I persuale), easy to be entreated; φνην), senseless, fools.

μεστος, -η, -ον, full και αδιακριτος , not, δια, througla, κρινω, I dis13. Evvola, -as, , sense (from ev, in, and vous, the mind); tinguish), without partiality; avutorpitos (a, not, the v is interτιλη, -ης, ή, α gate ; εκκλινω (εκ, fronm, and κλινω, I bend), I posed between the two vowels for the sake of euphony και υπο,

under, and kpiva, hence our word hypocrite), without hypocrisy; 14. Αποθνησκω (απο, from, and θνησκω, I die), I die ; αμαρτια, σπειρω, I sοιο; τοις ποιουσιν, for those doing, that is, those who -25, 61, sin ; consult ápapravw, already explained.

do or pursule. 15. Χαιρω, I rejoice ; κακοποιος, -ου, ο (κακος, euil, and 9. Ποθεν, υhence; εντευθεν, thence; υμων, of you, your ; τοιεω, I do), αη ευil-doer; ζηλοω, I desire, enυυς αμαρτωλος στρατευομαι, Ισαι; των στρατ ευομενων, which make war; (αμαρτανα), α sinner.

μελος, -ους, το, α lim, member ; υμιν, η μου. 16. Φοβεομαι, I fear, reference.

10. Μοιχος, -ου, ο, αη αdulterer ; μοιχαλις, -ίδος, ή, αη αdul17. Παραβαλλω (παρα, near, βαλλω, I throo), I apply to; teress; ουκ οίδατε, know ye not ? εχθρα, ας, ή, hatred. ros, thy, here the personal pronoun is used for the article, 11. “Υπερηφανος (υπερ, above, high, too much, and φαινω, ordinary Greek giving το ούς; εμος, my.

show), haughty; αντιτασσομαι (αντι, αφαίnst, and τασσω, I set), 18. Ελεημοσυνη (from ελεος, pity), mercy ; hence our word I array myself in opposition to και ταπεινος, , -ον, low, lowly, eleemosynary, which, through the old English almesse, is con- humble; dlowon, he gives. tracted into alms.

12. Νομοθετης (νομος, α Ια, αnd τιθημι, I place), α ίαυgiver; 19. Πρεσβυτηρ (our presbyter, whence our pricst), αη old man; δυναμαι, I am able ; και δυναμ ενος, who is able; σωζω, I save ; τoλιος, -α, -ον, bald, grey και πολιαι, grey hairs (understand τριχες, απολλυμι, I destroy; σωσαι and απολεσαι are infinitives governed hair).

by και δυναμενος. 20. Φαινομαι, I appear ; εαυτω, to himself; κατευθυνω, I direct, guide.

KEY TO EXERCISES FROM THE BOOK OF PROVERBS. 21. Aκολαστος, -ον (α, not, and κολαζω, I punish, restrict), uurestrainable, riotous ; UBIOTIKOS, -ov, insulting; ueon, -ys, ń, his mother.

1. A wise son maketh a glad father, but a foolish son is a grief to drunkenness; τοιουτος, such; τοιουτοις, such things και συμπλεκω | diligent make rich.

2. Poverty bringeth a man low, but the hands of the

The blessing of the Lord is on the head of the συν, trith, and πλεκω, I fold), I bind together; συμπλεκεται, is just. 4. The memory of the just is preserved with praise, but the Otangled in, is chained to.

name of the impious is extinguished. 5. Hatred begetteth strife. 6. EXERCISES FROM THE NEW TESTAMENT.

He who applieth the wisdom of his lips striketh the senseless man (as)

with a staff. 1. Μακαριος (understand εστιν) ανηρ ος υπομενει πειρασμον.

7. The double-tongued man concealeth his thoughts in

the assembly, but the faithful man concealeth only his deeds by speech. 2. Εκαστος πειραζεται υπο της ιδιας επιθυμιας. 3. Η επιθυμία | 8. A virtuous woman is a crown to her husband. 9. The just man τιιτει αμαρτιαν, η δε αμαρτια αποκυει θανατον. 4. Πασα δοσις αγαθη | hateth an unjust speech, and even the uugodly man is ashamed of it. και παν δαρημα τελειον ανωθεν εστι καταβαινον απο του Πατρος | 10. As iron sharpeneth iron, s0 a man sharpeneth the face of his των φωτων. 5. Οργη ανδρος δικαιοσυνην Θεου ου κατεργαζεται. | friend. 11. As dew in harvest time, and as rain in summer, so is 6. Γινεσθε ποιηται λογου, και μη μονον ακροαται. 7. Θρησκεια | honour to one who is not indiscreet. . 12. Thorns grow up in the καθαρα και αμιαντος παρα τω Θεώ και Πατρι αυτη εστιν, επισκεπτεσθαι hand of a drunkard, and slavery in the hand of the foolish. ορφανους και χηρας εν τη θλιψει αυτων, ασπιλoν εαυτον τηρειν

Wisdom and good sense are in the gates (i.e., dwellings) of the wise, απο του κοσμου. 8. Η ανωθεν σοφια πρωτον μεν αγνη εστιν,

and the wise turn not away from the mouth of the Lord. 14. The επειτα ειρηνική,

fool perishes in his follies. 15. Rejoice not with them that do evil, επιεικής, ευπειθης, μεστη ελεου και καρπων

nor emulate sinners. 16. Fear God, my son, and the king. 17. Turn αγαθων, αδιακριτος, ανυποκριτος, καρπος δε δικαιοσυνης εν ειρηνη thine ear to the words of the wise, and hear my word. 18. Mercy and σπειρεται τοις ποιουσιν ειρηνην. 9. Ποθεν πολεμοι και ποθεν truth are a king's defence. 19. Wisdom is an ornament to young men, μαχαι εν υμιν ; ουκ εντευθεν, εκ των ηδονων υμων, των στρατευο- | and honry hairs are the glory of old men. 20. Every man appears to himμενων εν τοις μελεσιν υμων, 10. Μοιχοι και μοιχαλιδες, ουκ self just, but the Lord directeth the heart. 21. Wine is a thing that οιδατε οτι η φιλια του κοσμου εχθρα του Θεου εστιν; 11. Ο Θεος is ungovernable; drunkenness is that which begetteth insolence, and υπερηφανοις αντιτασσεται, ταπεινοις δε διδωσι χαριν.

12. Els every foolish person is entangled in such things. εστιν ο νομοθέτης και κριτης, ο δυναμενος σωσαι και απολεσαι.- KEY TO EXERCISES FROM THE NEW TESTAMENT. The General Epistle of St. James.

1. Blessed is the man who endureth temptation. 2. Each man is VOCABULARY TO THE EXTRACTS FROM THE NEW TESTAMENT. tempted by his own lust. 3. Lust produceth sin, and sin bringeth

forth death. 4. Every good gift and every perfect gift cometh down 1. Μακαριος, -α, -ον, happy, blessed; υπομενω (υπο, under, and from above, the Father of lights. 5. The anger of man worketh not the μενα, I remain), I endure ; πειρασμος, -ου, ο (πειραζω, I try, righteousness of God. 6. Become doers of the word, and not hearers lempt), trial.

only. 7. Pure and undefiled religion before God and the Father is 2. Εκαστος, -η, -ον, εαch, every ; ιδιος, -α, -ον, one's own. this, to visit the orphans and widows in their affliction, and to keep 3. ATOKEW (ano, from, and xvw, I conceive, am pregnant), I himself unspotted from the world. 8. The wisdom that is from above εκατ, Iring forth; θανατος, -ου, o, death.

is first pure, then peaceful, just, easily persuaded, full of pity and good 4. Δοσις, εως, ή, α giving ; δωρημα, -ατος, το, α gift και τελειος, fruits, without partiality, without hypocrisy, and the fruit of righteous-α, -ον, perfect ; ανωθεν (ανα), from above, the termination θεν

ness is sown in peace in those that pursue peace. 9. Whence are wars

and whence are fightings among you, are they not thence even from gives the idea of from, compare in Sentence 9, nodev and

your pleasures, which war in your limbs ? 10. Ye adulterers and adulεπευθεν; καταβαινω (κατα, down, and βαινω, I go), I come teresses, know ye not that the friendship of the world is enmity doorn, EOTI KAT, literally, is coming down, is constantly coming against God? 11. God sets himself against the proud, and giveth down-a beautiful description of the constancy of the heavenly grace to the lowly. 12. There is one lawgiver and judge, who is able Father's goodness ; φως, φωτος, τo, light.

to save and destroy. 5. Οργη, -ης, ή (the root of oρεγομαι), desire, efort, a strong Compare the above with the translation of the Bible now in use.

3.

13. MODES OF DETERMINING SPECIFIC

HYDROMETERS---TABLE OF SPECIFIC GRAVITIES.

286

112

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HYDROSTATICS.-IV.

| have then merely to divide the weight in B by that in A. The

result is exactly the same whichever way we adopt. The follow. GRAVITY (continued) - ing, then, is the general rule :-Divide the weight in air by the

loss of weight in water, the quotient will be the specific gravity In our last lesson we examined the mode of ascertaining the of the substance. spocific gravity of a liquid, we must now see what is the mode

Grains.

Thus, a stone weighed in air of procedure in the case of solids. Happily we are not limited

Immersed in water it weighed

174 to one method, there being several from which we can choose that which seems the most convenient for the special case in

Loss of weight in water hand. We will begin with the simplest. Suppose we have a

Its specific gravity, therefore, is 11! = 2.553. powder, or some small fragments of a solid substance insoluble in water, we should use the small flask shown at Fig. 13 in the liquid by weighing a substance in it, and then in water. Since

We can, on this principle, ascertain the specific gravity of a last lesson.

Fill the flask with water, taking care to avoid bubbles, insert it displaces an equal bulk of each, the loss of weight in the the stopper, and, by a piece of rag or blotting-paper, adjust the liquid divided by the loss in water will give the required specific level of the liquid to the mark on the neck; then carefully wipe

gravity.

The two plans we have mentioned are used when the suboff all moisture adhering to the sides. Having put the flask

Many crystals and chemical sub. into one scale, put the counterpoise into the other, and add stance is insoluble in water. weights till they balance ; you will thus obtain the weight of stances, whose specific gravity it is important to know, are, water which the flask holds. If the amount is already known, however, soluble, and therefore some other means must be

resorted to. this weighing may be dispensed with. Next, carefully weigh the substance whose specific gravity you want to ascertain. insoluble. Oil of turpentine will frequently be found to answer,

We have first to find some liquid in which the substance is The stopper must now be removed from the flask, and the powder or small fragments dropped in. They will, of course,

or, for many substances, alcohol may be used. displace some of the water, which will flow over.

Having chosen the liquid, we proceed, as before, to find the

The stopper must then be carefully replaced, the superfluous liquid wiped by weighing the

solid in it and ascertaining the loss of weight

,

weight of a volume of it equal in bulk to the substance, either away, and the flask again weighed. The difference between this weight and the weight of the solid and water together will vity of the liquid, and from this, by the following equation, we

or by means of the flask. We then ascertain the specific grashow how much water is displaced—that is, the weight of a quantity of water equal in bulk to the solid. Divide the weight As the specific gravity of the liquid is to that of water (which

can ascertain the weight of a bulk of water equal to the solid. of the solid by this and we shall have the specific gravity re

is 1') so the weight of the equal bulk of liquid is to that of the quired. Here is an example which will explain it better than a

same bulk of water. mere description can do.

Grains.

We will illustrate this by an example recently set at an

examination. Some pieces of brass wire were taken, the weight of which was found to be

A piece of blue vitriol weighs 3 ounces in vacuo and 1.86 in The bottle filled with water weighed

502-0

oil of turpentine. What is its specific gravity, that of the turpentine being 0.88 ?

Ounces. After an equal bulk of water was displaced by the brass, the

Sinoe it weighs in vacuo flask weighed .

And in oil of turpentine only Therefore the water displaced weighed

101 And the specific gravity of the brass is

This, then, is what an equal bulk of turpentine weighs. Now Brass being a compound metal, composed of copper and zinc, if any bulk of it weighs 88 ounces, an equal bulk of water will

the specific gravity of the turpentine is 0.88; or, in other words, its specific gravity varies slightly according to the proportion weigh 100 ounces. in which they are mixed, the drawing of it into wire also makes to 1:14 ounces, weigh? The following equation tells us :

How much, then, will water, equal in volume a difference, as the particles are forced different distances apart. In ascertaining specific gravities, great care has to be taken

As 88 : 1.14 : : 100 : 1'295. to avoid air-bubbles. Some substances are full of pores, into This, therefore, is the weight of a volume of water equal in bulk which the air penetrates, and bubbles cling to the surface of to the vitriol, and hence the specific gravity is 20

2.316. others, and materially interfere with the accuracy of the results. You will have noticed in the above example, that the weight When great exactness is required, the substance is dipped into of the blue vitriol is stated to be 3 ounces in vacuo.

All bodies the water when boiling, and ought strictly to be weighed in the absence of the air, as other. thus the air is expelled. It is wise we do not ascertain their true weight, but that amount then set by to cool down to less the weight of the air they displace. In practice, however, 60°, and weighed as before. the difference is so slight, that it is disregarded, and a body is

Another mode of ascertain always weighed in air, and this taken as its true weight. A ing the specific gravity of any proof, however, that it does make a difference is seen in the body is based on the principle fact that if we fill a small balloon with gas, and add weights

, of Archimedes, that a body im. so that it can only just ascend, it will apparently have no weight mersed in liquid loses a portion at all. The real fact being, as we shall see when we come to of its weight equal to that of treat of Pneumatics, that its weight is then just equal to that an equal bulk of the liquid. of the air it displaces. It is very simple, but requires There is still one class of substances whose specific gravity care ; a special arrangement of we cannot ascertain by any of the ways hitherto described ; it the scales is also a great ad. is those which are lighter than water. vantage.

These, when immersed in water, seem to lose more than all Fig. 14.

The body is first weighed in their weight, for they have a tendency to rise. We have, there

the ordinary way, a fine hair or fore, to proceed in a different way. A piece of metal is pro thread having been fastened round it. It is then by this hair cured heavy enough to cause the substance, which we will suspended from a hook underneath the scalo-pan, and allowed suppose to be a piece of wood, to sink when attached to it

. to dip into a vessel of water, and the weight again ascertained. This sinker is weighed in air and then in water, so as to ascer The difference between the two is the weight it loses in water tain the weight of water it displaces. —that is, the weight of an equal bulk of water, and if we divide the wood, and the two together weighed in air and in water; we its weight in air by this, we obtain the specific gravity. Some thus ascertain the weight of water they together displace. times the weights are left unaltered in B, and others added to From this we deduct the amount which is displaced by the A after the solid is immersed, till the scales aguin balance ; we metal, and thus find out the amount displaced by the wood

590.6

3.0 1.86

12:4

It loses

1.14

= 8:115.

12:4

B

It is then fastened to

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alone. Dividing the weight of the wood by this, we ascertain weighted so as to keep the instrument vertical, and the tube, its specific gravity.

by a wire stem, carrying another tray, CD. A small mark is Grains.

made on the stem at o. For example, a large cork was found to weigh in air

The instrument is first carefully weighed in air ; this weight The brass sinker weighed in air

853:1 being constant, should be marked on it. The weight which

must be placed on c d to sink the instrument to the mark o should Weight of the compound body

9274

also be carefully noted. To ascertain the In water it weighed

446.0

specific gravity of a solid by it, the sub. Therefore a body of water equal to it in bulk weighed

stance is first laid on the upper tray, and

4814 Now the sinker weighed in air

853.1

weights added till the instrument sinks
in water
7570

to the mark 0, The difference between

this and the former weight will give that Weight of water equal to it in bulk

96.1

of the solid in air. Now remove the solid

from CD, and place it in the lower pan, Therefore the weight of water equal in bulk to the

EF. Some water will be displaced, and cork is

385-3

the instrument will rise. We accordingly
74.3
Its specific gravity, then, is = 0.192.

add more weights till it again rests with
385.3

o at the surface. The weights added are The piece of cork in this case was porous and contained air, equal to that of the water displaced, and

B and therefore its gravity appears much less than that of cork if we divide the weight of the substance really is, it being usually set down in the table as 240. A by this we ascertain specific gravity. rough estimate of the specific gravity of such a sub

Thus 450 grains had to be placed on CD stance may be formed by observing to how great a

to sink the instrument to the mark; when, 930

depth it sinks in water. If three-fourths of it is im- however, a piece granite was laid on
mersed, its specific gravity is 0.75.

the scale, 237 grains only were required. In the manufactures it is frequently required to The granite, therefore, weighed 213 grains. Fig. 15. know the strength of some solution, and this may be On being transferred to the lower tray, Fig. 17.

found by ascertaining its specific gravity. The strength 79 grains had to be added to cd. The of spirit is thus taken by the excise; milk is also sometimes specific gravity of the granite was therefore 23, or 2:696. tested this way to find whether or not it is adulterated. In

When we want to use the instrument to find the specific such cases no very great degree of accuracy is required; the gravity of a liquid, wo merely observe what weight is required process, however, must be simple, so that it may be carried out to sink it in the liquid to the mark on the stem. To this we by a man without much special knowledge. Several pieces of add the weight of the instrument, and thus find the weight of apparatus have accordingly been devised, which are known by liquid equal to it in bulk. But we know the weight of an equal different names according to the special purposes for which bulk of water, for we found before the weight required to sink they are intended. Hollow glass beads are prepared, and the instrument to the same depth in water; we have, therefore, weighted so as to have different specific gravities, which are to divide the weight of the liquid by that of the equal bulk of plainly marked upon them. If we take a series of these, and water, and the quotient is its specific gravity. drop them successively into the liquid to be examined, we For instance, an hydrometer weighed 600 grains, and, as shall find that some will sink, but we shall come at last to above, 450 grains had to be added to sink it in water to the one that just floats on the surface, and this shows the density. mark. When dipped into the liquid to be tested, 310 grains For instance, if that marked •930 sinks, and .920 floats, we only were required : what was its specific gravity ? know that the specific gravity of the liquid is between these The weight of water equal in bulk to the hydrometer is 600+ two,

450 or 1050 grains, that of an equal bulk of the liquid, 600+310, More usually, however, an instrument, called an hydrometer, or 910. The specific gravity, therefore, is

is employed. It consists of a hollow Now, though it is found that water answers well as a standard bulb of glass, a, carrying above it a for the comparison of the specific gravities of solids and liquids, thin tube, with a scale marked on it, gases are so very much lighter than it, that it is much moro or on a paper enclosed in it. A smaller convenient to take some other substance as a standard to com. bulb is also blown beneath a, into pare them with. A cubic foot of air at a temperature of 60°, which mercury or shot are put, so as

and when the barometer stands at 30, weighs about 536 grains, to adjust the weight, and at the same or nearly 14 ounces, while a cubic foot of water weighs 1,000 time cause the instrument to float in ounces; the specifio gravity of air, taking water as the standard. a vertical position. The liquid to be would, therefore, be 0.00122, and that of hydrogen gas less examined is poured into a tall glass than ii of this. Such numbers would be very difficult to re. jar, D, and the hydrometer immersed; member, and awkward to work with ; air, therefore, is fixed on the specific gravity may then be read as the standard for the specific gravity of all gases and vapours. off from the stem.

The temperature and pressure, however, very greatly alter the Fig. 16.

It is manifest that the denser the bulk of any gas. It is, therefore, necessary to fix on some given

liquid, the higher the instrument will temperature for the standard. Now, as in the case of water, float in it, the weight of the liquid displaced being always equal 60° is found to be very convenient temperature, the pressure to that of the hydrometer. If we want great delicacy, the indicated by the barometer standing at 30 is also fixed on. bulb must be made large and the tube small; sometimes the It is not, however, always convenient to bring the gas to this latter is removed and replaced by a graduated wire, and thus temperature ; we therefore ascertain the bulk at any temperature. great accuracy is obtained; but the greater the accuracy, the and from that calculate what its bulk would be at 60°. It is

These instruments are usually supplied in found that a gas expands about io of its volume at 0° Fahrensete. Sometimes two are used, one for liquids lighter than water, heit for each degree it rises in temperature ; that is, 460 cubic the other for those heavier; but it is better to have more, each inches at 0° will measure 470 at 10°, 5200 at 60°, and so on. one having a range of about .200; say, for instance, one from Now the weight of 100 cubic inches of air at 60° is 31.0117 600 to 800, another from .800 to 1.000, and so on. This in. grains, or that of a cubic foot, 536 grains. If, then, we know strament, when manufactured for testing milk, is called a lac- the weight of any bulk of gas, and the temperature at which it tometer—when for ascertaining the strength of spirit, an

is weighed, we can tell its specific gravity. Thus 80 cnbic alcoholmeter, and by other names when made for other purposes. inches of a gas at a temperature of 40° weigh 35 grains : what The only difference, however, is in the gradaation and the is its specific gravity ? We first find what volume the 80 cubic range.

inches will occupy at 60o. By the role just given the volume A modification, called Nicholson's Hydrometer, is represented at 40° is to that at 60° as 500 is to 520. in the annexed figure. It is constructed of metal instead of glass, and the lower bulb is replaced by a small tray, E F,

As 500 : 520 : : 80 : 83.2.

1050, or 0-866.

less the range.

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83.2 cubic inches then at 600 weigh 35 grains. We can now, sie. Dann ging sie hinaus zweimal am Tage auf den Hof by taking a second proportion, readily find the weight of 100 Dan ghink zee hĩn-ouss tswi-mahl am tah-gai ouf dain hoof cubic inches.

und streuete die Krümchen hin, und die Vöglein flogen herbei As 83-2 : 100 :: 35 : 42.067.

ošnt shtroi'-ai-tai dee krü'm'-yen hin, dont dee fö'g'-line flo'-ghen herr-bi Now the same volume of air weighs 31.0117 grains. The spe

und picten sie auf. Dem Mädchen aber zitterten die Sande

40.067 cific gravity of the gas is, therefore,

31.0117
or 1:35.
Đồnt pick'-ten zee ouf. Daim meyt-yen ah'-ber tsit'-ter-ten dee hen-dai

Kälte.
vor Frost in ter bittern

Da We will now append a table of the specific gravities of common

belauschten sie die Aeltern

Dah bai-loush'-ten zee dee eltern substances. More extensive lists can be found in chemical and fore frðst in dair bit'-tern keľ-tai. other books. It may be well just to mention that sometimes 1000 und freuten sich des lieblichen Anblids und sprachen: Warum instead of 1 is taken as the specific gravity of water or air, the ošnt froi-ten ziy dess loop'-li-yen an'-blicks ðšnt shprah'-chen: Vah'-rððm only difference, however, is that the number is then a whole thust du das, Minna ? number, instead of a decimal.

toost doo dass, min'-na ? SPECIFIC GRAVITIES OF SOLIDS.

Es ist ja Alles mit Schnee und Eis bepedt, antiportete Gold 19.250 Glass, crown 2.520 Mahogany,

Ess ist yah al-less mit shney dont ice bai-deckt, ant'-Fòr-tai-tai Silver

10-470
flint 2 900* Spanish 1.063 Minna, daß die Thierchen nichts finden

nun sind fie Copper 8.900 Coal 1.300 Cork

min'-na, dass dee teer'-yen nỉyts fin'-den kön'-nen; noon zint zee Iron, cast 7.218 Diamond

3:521 Ivory

1.917 wrought. 7.780 Beeswax 0.960

barum
Chalk

2.660*
arın,

füttere ich sie, so wie die reichen Menschen die armen Stoel 7.820 Oak, seasoned 0-743 Granite

2.700* arm, dal roõm fit -tai-rai ly zee, zo vee dee ri-yen men-shen dee ar-men Zinc 7.191 Elm

0 671 Sandstone 2: 400* unterstüßen und ernäbren. Brass 8.390 Beech

0.852 Limestone 2.650* Còn'-ter-shtüt"sen ošnt err-ney'-ren, Tin 7.291 Fir 0 550 Marble

2.700*

Da fagte der Vater : Aber bu fannst sie toch nicht alle Platinum 21-470 Ebony, American l-331 Brick

2.000*

Dah zahch'-tai dair fah'-ter: ah'-ber doo kanst zee doch niýt al-lai Lead 11:350 Pine, white 0.550 Portland stone 2-500*

versorgen! SPECIFIC GRAVITIES OF LIQUIDS.

ferr-zör'-ghen! Water 1.000 Nitric acid,

Spirits of wine 0.835

Die Fleine Minna antwortete: Thun benn nicht alle Kinder Sea-water 1:028 commercial. 1.500 Blool

1.053

Dee kli'-nai min'-na ant-võr-tai-tai: Toon den nỉyt al-lai kin'-der Mercury 13:590 Sulphuric acid,

Turpentine 0.880 Muriatic acid, commercial. 1.85 Milk

1.032 in der

ganzen Welt wie ich, so wie ja auch alle reichen Leute commercial. 1.2001 Alcohol, absolute 0790 Olive oil

0915 in dair gan-tsen velt vee iý, zo vee yah ouch al'-lai ri-yen loi’-tai SPECIFIC GRAVITIES OF GASES.

die armen verpflegen ? Der Vater aber blidte die Air 1.000, Nitrogen 0-972 Marsh gas

0.559

dee ar-men ferr-pfley'-ghen? Dair fah'-ter ah'-ber blick-tai des Oxygen 1.106 Chlorine 2: 170 Coal gas

0.46* Mutter bc8 Mägdleing an und sagte: bu heilige Gint. Hydrogen 0.069 I Carbonic acid. 1.529

mobt-ter dess meyyt-lines an oont zahá'-tai: o doo hi’-li-gai ine'EXAMPLES

Falt! 1. A piece of silver wire weighs 95-2 grains. The flask filled with falt!

VOCABULARY. distilled water weighs 251-2 grains; but when the wire is put in, it weighs 33721 grains. What is the specific gravity of the silver?

bene- | Dem, dative m.and n. | Arm, poor.

Wohlthäterin, 2. A body weighs 871 grains in air and 357 in water: what is its

factress. (Wobl, to the.

Darum, therefore specific gravity ?

n. good; adverb, Mädchen, n. girl, maid. (tar-, instead of da., 3. Required the weights of blocks of elm, limestone, and lead, each well, perhaps. Zittern, to tremble. there). measuring 10 inches x 6 x 3.

That, f. deed; Tha Bor, with, before. Ich, I. 4. An hydrometer, weighing 180 grains, requires 60 grains to sink it ter, m. doer, actor; Kälte, f. cold.

Füttern, to feed. in water to the mark, when immersed in oil it only takes 40 grains. -in, affix, to form Belauschen, to watch, So, so. What is the specific gravity of the oil ?

feminine nouns; listen (be-, prefix, Reich, rich. 5. The same instrument requires 34 grains to be added when a stone is laid on the upper tray; but when removed to the lower, 44-5

thätig, doing, ac- as be in besmear, Mensch, m. man, hiare needed.

makes a verb tran. Find the specific gravity of the stone.

tive. sein, to be.)

man being. 6. A piece of metal weighed 15 ounces in air and 13-08 ounces in War, was.

sitive).

Unterstüßen, to aswater. It was then attached to a piece of wood, and the two together Ralt, cold.

Lieblich, lovely (-lich, sist (unter, under; weighed 18:3 ounces in air and 11:46 in water. Required the specific Sammeln, to gather. affirmative, -ly, Stūße, f. prop). gravity of the wood.

Einzig, only.

-ous, -able, -like). Ernähren, to feed, 7. 48 pounds of copper are mixed with 27 pounds of zinc. Find the Tochter, f. daughter. Anblic, m. sight support. specific gravity of the compound.

Acltern, Gltern, pa- (Blic, m. look; an- Doch, yet, however. rents, pl.

bliden, to look Nicht, not. ANSWERS TO EXAMPLES IN LESSON III,

übrig, over.

at).

Versorgen, to supply, 1. Its specific gravity is 2.656.

Bleiben, to remain, Sprechen, to speak. provide (Sorgen, 2. The specific gravity of the liquid is or 1.3125.

stay.

Warum, wherefore to care ; ver., pre8 3. The water in the flask weighs 165 grains, while the same bulk of Bewahren, to preserve, (-um, for, about). fix, for, before, aoil weighs only 140 grains. Its specific gravity is, therefore, ial, or

kеер. .
Thun, to do.

way, astray). 0.848.

Dann, then.
Du, thou.

Denn, then, for. 4. It would be immersed either way •85, or ][ of its depth. If the Gehen, to go.

Das, demonstrative Ganz, whole. 10-inch side is vertical it sinks * 10, or 8) inches. If the other Sinaus, out.

pronoun, that. Welt, f. world. side, the immersion is 17 x 14, or 11% inches.

Zwei, two; Mar, n. 3ft, is.

Leute, pl. people. 5. The rope has to sustain 23344 pounds, or 1 ton and 943 pounds. time.

Ja, indeed, yes, truly. Verpflegen, pflegen, to Tag, m. day.

(Es ist ja? is it support, to nurse. READINGS IN GERMAN.-II.

Hof, m. yard, court, not ?)

Matter, f. mother. farm.

Sonce, m. snow. Magd, f. servant, 2. Die fleine Wohlth återin.

Streuen, to strew. Eis, n. ice.

maid. Dee kli'-nai vole'-tey-tai-rin.

Herbei, np (her., here, Beređen, to cover. Heilig, holy. Es war ein talter strenger Winter. Da sammelte die hither, indicates Taß, conjunction, Einfalt, f. simpliEss vahr ine kal-ter shtreng'-er vin'-ter. Dah zam'-mel-tai dee motion towards that.

city. Fleine Minna, bie einzige Tortter wohlthätiger Aetern, die the speaker). Nichts, nothing. kli-nai min'-na, dee ine'-tsi-gai toc'ter volo'-tey-ti-gher el'-tern, dee Krümchen und Brosamen, rie übrig blieben und bewahrete

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN GERMAN. krü'm'.yen ont bro'-zah-men, dee û" briy bled'-ben öðnt bai-vab'-rai-tai

EXERCISE 79 (Vol. I., page 382). • The different specimens of these vary considerably, tho numbers 1. Die nie zu ergründende Allmacht Gottes. 2. Ich bin hier, anstatt given are therefore approximations only.

meine Bruders. 3. Das Widerstehen der Polen war verzweiflung&roll;

10}

schrecklich das Singen ihres Schlactliedes: „Noch ist Polen nicht verloren." | what you would have done if you had been in my place. 3. If misfor4. Tad gesen lehrreicher Bücher vermehrt den Verstand. 5. Den Armen

tune had not visited me, I should hardly have come to these opinions. beigusieben ist eine driftliche Pflicht. 6. Der Wechsel der Zeiten und

4. He might have been happy, if he had known how to make use of the

opportunity. 5. If the water had carried the bridge away, the toll3abreszeiten, und das Abießen und Ginseßen der Künige gehört allein der

gatherer would have been lost. 6. If I had been able to come to

you,

I Borichung an. 7. Er vertheidigt diesen Mann, ohne ihn zu kennen. 8. Die should certainly not have remained here. 7. Great men would never have Gefahr erhöhte den Muth ter Soltaten, anstatt ihn zu beugen. 9. Der appeared, if they had allowed themselves to be kept back by difficulties Stüler lernt tas Zeichnen und Malen von seinem Bruder. 10. Diese and troubles. 8. If I had resolved to attain what I wished, I should Beije gu leben bekommt mir nicht.

have had to work more diligently and perseveringly. 9. If he had

called, I should have heard him. 10. We will not go out, it might EXERCISE 80 (Vol. I., page 383).

rain. 11. If you would communicate to me some particulars about 1. Have you heard also that I fell from my horse ? 2. No, I heard

these affairs, you would very much oblige me. 12. It would be my you had fallen out of the carriage. 3. History mentions that Tilly, greatest joy to see all men happy. 13. I must have been without bo took Magdeburg in the Thirty Years' War, acted very barbarously.

sense, if I had engaged myself in these affairs. 14. The shore has 4. My brother said you had been much praised. 5. Frenchmen assert

vanished in the distance; O how I long to be in my fatherland! 15. If that they are the most educated people in the world. 6. Your sister

he wore as I wish (him), and if he had answered all my requirements, thought you had been in the town. 7. Englishmen are of opinion | I should have kept him. that they are the masters of the sea. 8. This traveller said he had been twice at Rome. 9. He hopes he shall be at Dresden in a week.

EXERCISE 85 (Vol. I., page 403). 10. You fear you have been too slow in acting. 11. We thought you 1. Wäre Ihr Freund nicht unwohl geworten, so würde er gewiß das Fest were in the country. 12. I think we should have come to you yester; durch seine Gegenwart verschönert haben. 2. Wenn Sie Flüger wären, ja day if the weather had been finer. 13. I thought ho had been mindful

würten Sie dicse Unannehmlichkeit nicht erfahren haben. 3. Ich würte of his parents' warning voice. 14. He told me indeed he was ill, but many declare it was dissimulation on his part. 15. His relations say

Ihr (Hesch ift in Ordnung gebracht haben, wenn Sie es mir gesagt hätten.

4. Sein Brutor würde besser empfangen worden sein, wenn er Empfehlungehis prosperity has brought on his misfortune. 16. I heard with re. gret that you had had the nervous fever. 17. Being up-stairs (in the briefe gehabt hätte. 5. Er würde bessere Freunde haben, wenn er angeupper room), I did not hear you call. 18. They say the Hungarian nelmer wire. 6. Sie würden mchr Schwierigfeiten gehabt haben, wenn faithfully defended his country until his death. 19. I heard this young Sie dem Mathe Iurer Freunde nicht gefolgt wären. 7. Ich würde nicht Frenchman would inherit a great fortune. 20. I believe that many ten geringsten Zweifel haben, taß es Ihnen gelungen wäre, hätten Sie Flüger people will have had their happiness here on earth.

gehandelt. 8. Wir würden nach Holland absegeln, wenn wir günstigen EXERCISE 81.(Vol. I., page 383).

Wind hätten. 9. Er würde der erste unter unsern Kaufícuten sein, wenn er 1. Man sagt, tiese Herren seien betrunken gewesen, aber sie irren sich. 2. geselliger wäre. 10. Wenn ich die Macht gehabt hätte, so würde ich anders

11. Man sagt, tag der Aufenthalt in Paris angenehmer sei, als in London. 3. gehandelt haben, denn ich würde nicht so viel Geduld gehabt haben. Bir tonnten nicht glauben, taß dieses wahr sei. 4. Man glaubt allgemein, Was würde tie Glüdseligkeit des Menschen sein, wenn er sein Glück trz Heint habe die Grenze überschritten. 5. Er behauptete, daß es besser immer in sich selbst suchte? 12. Sie würden reicher sein, wenn Sie unterwire, zu Hause zu bleiben, als auszugehen. 6. Ich wollte, taß er mit nehmender wiren. 13. Wenn ich meine Börse nicht verloren hatte, würte mehr Viebe behandelt würre. 7. Er sagt Jedermann, das Sie ein sehr ich sie noch haben. 14. Er würde nicht so viel Geld haben, wenn er faul Teider Mann seien; aber wenn Sie es wåren, so würden Sie nicht so svar, gewesen wire. 15. Je grösser tic Schwierigheit, desto grösser ist tas jam icin. 8. Haben Sie auch gehört, daß Ihr Freund vom Pferte gefallen Vergnügen sie zu überwinden. 16. Wenn er nicht über die Brüde gegangen jci? 9. Nein, aber ich habe gehört, er sei aus dem Wagen gefallen.

10. wäre, würde der Zöllner feine Bezahlung verlangt haben. Ich hoffe, Sie werden in vierzehn Tagen bei Ihren Eltern sein. 11. Ich

EXERCISE 86 (Vol. II., page 26). purifle, daß er so undankbar sein kann. 12. Dieser Fremde sagt, er sci 1. Can you not remember the day of my arrival ? 2. O yes, I stil! fitcimal in Intien, und auf seiner lebten Reise sehr tranf gewesen.

remember it very well. 3. There are many people who are more dis. EXERCISE 82 (Vol. I., page 402).

posed to remember their bad than their good actions. 4. It was diffi.

cult to convince him of the truth of this narration. 5. It is sometimes 1. Do you like to see my brother-in-law ? 2. Yes, I like to see

very difficult to believe what we cannot comprehend. 6. It is hard for him. 3. Uncle would like to see your drawings. 4. I like to have

the poor but industrious man to be obliged to claim the assistance of friends Dear at band. 5. In my youth I was fond of studying, but now

strange people. 7. The English language is more difficult to me than I take no pleasure in it. 6. He is fond of talking of his travels and

the French. 8. With his money, his relations, and his knowledge, it what he has met with, 7. If you need the books, I will lend them to

was not difficult for him to obtain a good as well as an agreeable posi. you with all my heart. 8. He does not like to separate himself from

tion. 9. Why does your brother learn so much quicker than you? 10. his family. 9. I like & warm room. 10. Can you row us safely over

Because he has a better memory, and can retain the words better. 11. this stream? 11. No, we are not able, for this boat is too small. 12.

Can you not remember to whom you have given the books and the If you are able to translate these newspapers, do it. 13. As I under

paper ? 12. I cannot remember anything about it. 13. The idler canstand the English language perfectly, I will gladly accept your pro- | not remember the rules, because he does not thoroughly learn them, posal . 14. If he is able to do the work well, he may come to me; but if he

and likes play better than work. 14. Theft is a crime. 15. He placed is not able, it would be useless. 15. He did not believe that I was able

a dollar in the poor man's hand. 16. We gladly remember friends at to execute all his commands. 16. If thou knowest how to govern all

a distance. 17. Young people sometimes wear spectacles in order to thy passions, thou art to be envied. 17. My friend Edward was so

appear learned. weak that he was not able to walk alone, and therefore he asked me to conduct him. 18. He thought no one was able to write on this rough

EXERCISE 87 (Vol. II., page 26). paper. 19. He was in want of money yesterday, consequently he 1. Erinnern Sie sich tes Tages ter Anfunft Ihres Freuntce ? 2. Ja, ich asked me if I would give him some. 20. It is true, he already owes erinnere mich des Tages sehr wohl. 3. Die meisten Menschen erinnern sich ma several dollars; but as he was in need of the money, I gave him der Jahre ihrer Jugend mit Vergnügen. 4. Es gicbt viele, die sich ihrer zome. 21. No one is able to go out, because it rains too hard. 22.

Leidenschaften mit Sdam erinnern. 5. && ist schwer, alle Regeln einer He will soon be able to complete his work. 23. He cannot keep his Sprache zu behalten. 6. Es ist nicht so itwer, einen Gelehrten zu über. word, and for the following reasons.

zeugen, als einen Ungelehrten. 7. 38 est schwer, sid, den Schicksalen des EXERCISE 83 (Vol. I., page 403).

Sebend zu unterwerfen. 8. In, es ist sehr schwer; aber te: tenfende Mensch 1. Wenn er nicht im Stande gewesen wäre, die Arbeit zu thun, so würde übernintet sie. 9. Können Sie sich nicht erinnern, wem Sie mein Wuch er fie nicht unternommen haben. 2. Wird er im Stante sein, sein Ver. geliehen haben? 10. Nein, ich erinnere mich ressen nicht. 11. Lügen ist ifreden zu erfüllen? 3. Er ist es nicht im Stande gewesen. 4. Wir soll. cine Sünte. ten nicht mehr versprechen, als wir im Stande sind, zu erfüllen. 5. Sind

EXERCISE 88 (Vol. II., page 27). Sie im Stante, eine bessere Erflärung von diesem Gegenstande abzugeben?

1. He who does not esteem old people, is pot worthy to be esteemed 6. Ich bin es wohl im Stande, aber ich habe jept feine Zeit. 7. Holt der

himself. 2. If a person resolved to notice every speech, he would Anabe meinen Stod gern? 8. Wenn er esthut, so ist es ungern ; ich have to trouble himself about many things. 3. He was in want of the mürte lieber selbst gehen. 9. Sehen Sie Ihre Verwandten gern? 10.

means necessary to carry out his plans. 4. Who will take care of 11. Wenn Sie diese Bücher nöthig haben, so leihe me when I am forsaken ? 5. When he repents of his faults, then

12. Er hatte gestern Geld nöthig, deshalb bat er mich, will I, too, think no more of them. 6. I should still need many more tak ich ihin einiges geben möchte. 13. Da Sie schon so viel schulden, so ist things, if I were not accustomed to dispense with articles which many

& unnug, um mehr zu bitten. 14. Wer möchte nicht gern die Wunden people think indispensable. 7. The general mentioned your son as cincs ftanten Herzens heilen!

one of the bravest men in his regiments. 8. Grant me my petition, O

Lord, and protect me from my enemies. 9. Remember my petition. EXERCISE 84 (Vol. I., page 403).

10. Nothing is more insufferable than to wait long for some one, who, 1. I might have spared myself many an annoyance before now, at last, does not come at all. 11. I was anxiously waiting a long time if I had been silent instead of contradicting. 2. I should like to know for you, when I at last saw you come. 12. Take pity on the child

3a, ich jehe sie gern. id fie Ihnen gerne.

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