« AnteriorContinuar »
that runs forsaken in the street. 13. If the prince were grieved called "primary,” or rocks first formed. They are supposed, for the people, he would govern differently. 14. But the people will as stated in the last lesson, to be the cooled product of the still reward him for it, and then not spare him. 15. It would be molten mass of which the earth was composed when it condensed indeed worth while to travel to California. 16. I should like to spare from the “fire-cloud.” However, it is but right to state that these clothes, if I had others. 17. I wish to die no other death than much diversity of opinion has existed concerning their origin, the death of decrepitude. 18. Do not forget my words. the pains that have been endured, but forget not the pleasures enjoyed. whether they ever were fused. This question will be alluded to 20. If the princes could, they would spare neither the liberty nor any in a future lesson on the Primary Rocks. one right of their people.
The products of volcanoes, which are frequently found emEXERCISE 89 (Vol. II., page 27).
bedded in stratified rocks, are termed Plutonic, to distinguish 1. Sie pflegte ihres Vatens in seinem Alter und pflegte mich, da ich tas Nervenfieber hatte. 2. Er spottete meiner, und bemerkte nicht, wie die Menschen über ihn spotteten. 3. Hat er mein Geschenk angenommen? 4. Nein, er sagte mir, er bedürfe dieses Geschenkes nicht. 5. Erwihnen Sie nicht seiner Güte. 6. Der Lehrer darf der Nachlässigkeit und Unwahrheit seiner Schüler nicht schonen, sondern muß sie strenge verweisen, wenn er jene wahrnimmt. 7. Vergeßt nicht die warnenbe Stimme eurer Eltern. 8. Gedenke des Sabbathe. 9. Wer kann einem Menschen glauben, der über
Fig. 1.-1. GRAVEL. 2. SAND. alled spöttelt, und der Jetermanns spottet. 10. Wir erwarteten mit Sehn.
3. MUD. sucht die Ankunft unserer Freunde. 11. Wenn du deine Fehler bercuest, dann them from the members of the primary groups, which do not werde ich mich deiner mit Freuden erinnern. 12. Gewissenhafte Leute halten | seem to have been the result of volcanic action, but are due to keine citeln Reben, noch brüsten sie sich mit Eigenswasten, welche sie nicht a much more universal agency. besigen.
The various positions in which rock strata appear, the mode EXERCISE 90 (Vol. II., page 62).
in which the all but universal disturbance of strata has occurred, 1. I am unaccustomed to such work, and should not do it if I were and the manner in which igneous rocks-primary and Plutonic not in want of money. 2. I am in want of a great sum of money ; do -have been injected through the strata, as well as the explanahelp me, I am certainly not unworthy of your assistance. 3. If he tion of the technical geological expressions, will be at once were mindful of my kindness, he would not act so. 4. This man is so comprehended by studying the diagrams in this lesson. bad, that I consider him capable of any action. 5. Do you think the
The simplest form of deposition of strata is that which is covetous man can enjoy his life ? 6. I shall really be willing to confess
Here there are no my deed, only let me go ! 7. The hunter was so sure of his prey, that taking place at the bottom of lakes. he spent the price of the bear's skin in drink, before he had shot him. disturbing currents, no eddies, no tides, and the only cause 8. Let me go now, I am heartily tired of your gossip: 9. Well
, if you débris (waste or worn material) brought down by the river would
which could in any way modify this uniform distribution of are tired of me, I will go. 10. Never will I be guilty of a deed which would render me unworthy of your friendship. 11. I possess a farni, be the state of the river itself-whether it were flooded or not. but being unaccustomed to working, and unacquainted with agricul. The nature of the sediment must entirely be determined by the ture, I am tired of it. 12. One is worthy of the other, but one is also mineral character of the rocks of the country drained by the often unworthy of the other. 13. A king who does not love his people is river. For instance, the colour of the Mississippi is not the unworthy of the throne. 14. Although you suspect me of the deed, still
same as that of the Arkansas and Red River. The mud which I cannot confess it, because I have not committed it. 15. If men were always mindful of death, they would not so often be guilty of Chenab is reddish, and of the Sutlej paler. So that from the
the Indus brings down is of a clayey hue, while that of the wicked deeds. 16. Help thy neighbour, and ask not if he is worthy of deposit of a river the geological character of the country it thy help, when he is in want of it. 17. I will accompany you, for I am acquainted with the road, and see you are unacquainted with it. drains may be determined. From the sediment with which the 18. I thank you, sir, I am not in want of your service; for as I am Nile fertilises Upper Egypt the nature of the distant mountains, tired of walking and weary of riding, I shall remain here. 19. In whose melting snows feed the flooding river, is plainly indicated. America, what does the man do who is not accustomed to any kind of The debris carried down by a river may be conveniently work? 20. He must become accustomed to work, and be mindful of divided into three classes of matter (1) gravel, which is composed the adage-"He who does not work shall not eat."
of water-worn pebbles; (2) sand, which is of the same material as
the pebbles, but in grains; and (3) mud or silt, which is a further LESSONS IN GEOLOGY.-II.
subdivision so as to render the particles impalpable-of such
sediment is clay composed. It is evident that the gravel, being
ROCKS — STRATA-DE- the heaviest, will be deposited nearest to the embouchure of POSITION OF STRATA-DIP OF STRATA-CLINOMETER. the river, the sand would overlie this, while the mud would be A Very casual acquaintance with the appearance of the rocks carried far out into the still water, and gradually settle to the which compose the surface of the earth will be sufficient to bottom. This is depicted in Fig. 1. induce the observer to divide them into rocks stratified and It is evident that upon the occasion of an extraordinary unstratified. Stratified rocks--as the derivation of the word flood in the river the gravel will be larger, and will be carried indicates (stratum, “ that which is spread out”)-have the
D appearance of having been laid in layers one above the other. Sometimes these layers are horizontal and perfectly flat. This is notably the case in the vast plains of Russia, where some of the very earliest deposited rocks--the Silurians--have retained the position in which they were formed for ages, notwithstanding the repeated and often violent changes which have in other regions affected the earth's crust. Most frequently, however,
Fig. 2. the strata exhibit flexures, and are more or less inclined to the further—so will the sand, which will be coarser, and will enhorizon; in some cases—as in the coal measures in the Mendip croach on the area hitherto covered only by mud; thus we Hills, in Somersetshire—they are even vertical, and instances are able to account for those layers of coarse grains which are not wanting in which they have been absolutely turned over. frequently appear in a sandstone. Let the reader carefully
Abundant evidence is given to show that all rocks exhibiting scrutinise the stones of a wall, and he will at once find many stratification have been deposited by aqueous action—that is, examples of this. The area of deposition in a lake is neces. that their particles were once mixed with water, and gradually sarily very limited, hence the strata formed cannot be extensive, sank to the bottom of the sea or lake, where, in process of time, but where this process goes on in the sea enormous tracts are they became solidified, and appeared on the surface, either by covered with sediment. For example, the waters of the Amazon the draining off of the water or by the elevation of the bed. colour the ocean for a distance more than 300 miles from land;
Unstratified rocks are those which appear in amorphous masses that is, there is a layer of sediment now being deposited which (a, without, and morphe, form), that is, which exhibit no marks in after ages may appear as a vast horizontal stratum. of stratification. Granite is a well-known specimen of such Though all aqueous rocks must when deposited have been rocks. If excavations on the earth's surface be carried deep horizontal, yet when aplifted to the surface they submitted to enough, these rocks are invariably reached-hence they are various kinds of disruptions and displacements, and not only
50, but the surface of the earth need not be uniformly lovel, even an interstratified igneous rock. The molten matter was ejected where the strata yet remain in their horizontal position. Thus, in over the floor of the ocean at a time when sediment was in the Fig. 2, the river, A, has worn down and carried away six layers of course of deposition, strata accumulated over this mass, and strata, and is in the act of cutting into the seventh. A similar then another eruption broke through E and its overlying strata, action has denuded the country to the right of the hill, c, which is pouring out another layer of unstratified rock; when the whole thus composed of strata still in their original position, and which was raised from the ocean bed and submitted to the denuding are found in a corresponding position on the hill, B. After action of water, the hard bed u preserved the softer underthe denudation had been completed in the neighbourhood of D, lying strata ; the water having but little action on E, left it an upheaving force tilted the strata, throwing them out of their exposed, running along the side of the hill as a terrace. It often position and producing a hill, by very different means from those happens that several of these igneous layers thus appear one above to which c owes its existence. The valley formed by the river
the other, and for this reason have between the hills B and c would be styled a valley of denudation.
acquired the name of trap rocks (from When the subterranean force acts upon strata which has not
the Swedish word trapp, a stair). room to obey its impulse, the strata become crumpled as easily
At F is shown a smaller fissure, as the leaves of a book borne down by a weight upon their
whose ramifications pass through edges. This phenomenon is illustrated in Fig. 3, where the
stratified and unstratified rocks. sedimentary strata abut upon the granite mass A, at B; the
Such fissures are usually filled with contortions are numerous, but many instances no less remark
mineral ores; they then are called lodes (from the Saxon lad, a course)
and veins. Fig. 5.
The irruption of igneous rocks
necessarily produces dislocation of the strata through which they pass; when the angle of the dip alters, as at a, a fault is the result. But if the continuity of
the strata be broken, as at B, then a slip is said to have been IL
caused. These faults and slips are of vital importance to the miner, as sometimes the seam of coal or the metalliferous vein
has slipped practically beyond his reach. Fig. 3.
The facts which have now been described are applied to able are known; one is well exposed on the Rhine, where draw geological sections of countries and localities in the follow. the Drachenfels wall in the river. At c, the whole series of ing manner. It is impossible to trace a bed of rock through strata has bent in accordance with the pressure, forming a the whole of its development; we meet with it here and there saddle-back or anticline (anti, opposite, and clino, I bend), be. —at the sca-shore—in a railway cutting-in a quarry, or in cause the strata dip in opposite directions from the summit of some ravine where a stream of water has worn its way; at the hill on whose crest runs the anticlinal line. The Swiss these different points we take its bearings, and then complete Jura may be quoted as a specimen of the formation sketched the section from our knowledge of the general flexures which at c. These mountains are composed of three such anticlines strata undergo. running in parallel ridges. The valleys between B and c and The observer must carry with him a compass and a clinometer. c and D would be called valleys of elevation. At d the strata This latter instrument may be a quadrant of cardboard, the edge would be said to outcrop. If the outcrop be a bluff, bold cliff, of which is divided into 90 degrees. A piece of slight wood is it is termed an escarpment. The angle which the direction of fastened with a pin to the angle of the cardboard, which is placed the strata makes with the horizontal line is called the dip. in the direction of the dip of the strata by the eye ; a plumb-line, The line of the outcrop is termed the strike, that is, the direction also attached to the pin, will show when the upper edge of the of the face of the hill as seen from the plain E. It is necessary clinometer is horizontal. The angle between this upper edge also to determine not only the angle of the dip, but the direction and the rod is the dip of the strata. A clinometer is given in of the dip, which will evidently be at right angles to the strike ; Fig. 5. They may be bought with a compass attached to them that is, if the strike run north and south, then the direction of and a spirit level, so made as to fold together into a small space. the dip will be east and west.
Thus provided, the expedition may be commenced. The notes When strata lie evenly upon each other and parallel, they are of the observations are registered, as in Fig. 6. The observer is said to be conformable ; but when such an instance as E occurs, where the overlying strata are not parallel to those beneath, but have been deposited after the disturbed strata had assumed
300 their new position, they are then said to be unconformable.
It may easily be imagined that sometimes the strata is too brittle to permit of a bend such as c, it then breaks on the crest of the ridge; this cleft becomes water-worn, forming a valley running along the top of the mountain. An example of this is also furnished in the Jura range.
The modes in which the unstratified rocks are found associated with those of aqueous origin are either in disrupting,
с interstratified, or overlying masses.
Fig. 6. In Fig. 4 the strata has been opened at c, and the fissure
guided by his compass to walk along the same direction, say from south to north. He finds the strata at a dipping southwards at an angle of 25°; a few miles further, after passing the crest of a slight eminence, the strata is again exposed at B in a quarry, and here the dip is changed to northwards and the angle to 30°. Again at c an observation is made, where the dip is southwards, and the angle 20°. Hence between B and c the
strata evidently form a basin, the steeper side being at B. At Fig. 4.
D the dip is again northwards at a small angle, when suddenly at E the azgle is greatly increased, while the direction of the
dip remains the same. This could only be accounted for by filled from below with molten rock. This was much harder supposing that somewhere between D and E the strata had been than the stratified rocks around it, which succumbed to the dislocated, and a fault produoed. action of water, and became degraded, leaving the mass of hard From these observations the section represented may be igneous rock standing out of the ground like a wall; hence such drawn. The three parallel lines at A, B, C, etc., indicate the phenomena are termed dykes. At E is figured a specimen of direction of the strike.
LESSONS IN ITALIAN.-II.
IX. v, named in the alphabet vee (u consonante).
X. %, named in the alphabet tsaita, sounded like t: in II.—PRONUNCIATION OF VOWELS AND CONSONANTS.
Switzerland, or like dz in adze. These sounds vary I now proceed to explain Italian pronunciation in a method of
in different parts of Italy. After l, n, and r, it is recent adoption by some ingenious teachers of Italy, by which
generally pronounced like tz in Switzerland. The all the combinations of the vowels and consonants, and conse
same sharp sound occurs in words derived from quently all the ingredients and component parts of the language,
Latin, and ending in zia, zio, zione, etc. will pass under the eye of the reader. Let him learn from the very beginning of his labours to pronounce each syllable of the indeed each word given as an example or illustration, with an
I shall mark each word in the following pronouncing tables, and following words and tables, and he will soon acquire a correct method of pronunciation. No word or combination of words accent, which, being merely arbitrary, used for the occasion to
facilitate the progress of the English learner, and not used in can offer any difficulty to him, because he will have mastered the Italian printing, I denominate the accent of tone. In every component parts of all words in these tables.
Italian word composed of more than one syllable, there is always The Italian language has five vowels, representing seven
one syllable on which, when we pronounce it, the voice ought to sounds :
pause with a marked elevation of tone. This prolongation and I. a, invariably sounded like the English interjection ah. elevation of the voice on the syllable is similar to the transition II. i, invariably sounded like ee in see.
of the voice from one tone to another in music, in order to III. u, invariably sounded like oo in too.
descend to the level of the original tone from which the voice IV. 1. e, invariably sounded like ay in say, but with a slight was raised. The accent of tone exists more or less in every lan
opening of the mouth only, and with an elevated and guage, but it is more or less sensibly marked in one language clear tone. It is called, on that account, the close than another, and it is strongly so in Italian ; and on the marked sound of the vowel.
use of this accent in a great measure depends the harmony of 2. e, invariably sounded something like e in let, set, and the language. I shall mark this accent by the acute sign ('),
the first e in every, but with a wide opening of the from right to left. It is true that this sign is sometimes printed mouth, and with a deep sound. It is called, on that in Italian words, but in a very few instances only, which I shall account, the open sound of the vowel.
have occasion to point out hereafter. The grare accent ('), from V. 1. o, invariably sounded with a medium sound between o left to right, is used much more frequently (the rules for its use
and oo, which has no equivalent in the English lan- will be given hereafter), and for this reason I prefer using, in guage, but which may be easily caught by the ear order to avoid confusion, the acute accent as the arbitrary mark from hearing an educated Roman or Tuscan speak. or sign of the accent of tone. Two-thirds of the Italian words Perhaps an approximation is the o in bone, hole, and have an accent of tone regulated by principles clear and in. note, but with a slight opening of the mouth only, variable; which it would be inexpedient to lay down now, as and with an elevated and clear tone. It is called, on they would not at this stage of our progress be thoroughly that account, the close sound of the vowel.
understood, but which I shall take occasion to point out in con. 2. o, invariably sounded something like o in lord and venient places as I proceed.
orange, but with a wide opening of the mouth, and One remark more with respect to the vowels e and o. I have with a deep sound. It is called, on that account, the called the first sound of e as ay in say, and the first sound of o open sound of the vowel.
(the medium sound between 0 and oo, which cannot be adequately The first sound of e and the first of o occur in the majority of vowels. The reason is this : they are heard in all syllables with
marked by an English equivalent) the ruling sounds of those syllables, and may be called the ruling sounds of those two vowels. No distinguishing sign is used in Italian to mark the while the second sound of e (pronounced with a wider opening of
out distinction, whether they have the accent of tone or not ; two e's or two o's. Englishmen must have some mark to indicate when e and o are to be sounded with their second or open ever) and the second sound of 0 (also pronounced with a wider
the month and a deeper sound, and something like e in let and sounds. I shall, in these cases, place on e and o this sign “, as
opening of the mouth and a deeper sound, and something like o in for example, ê, ô.
The pronunciation of what, for the sake of distinction, I shall orange and lord), can only be heard in accented syllables, of which denominate the circumflexed sounds of e and o is not uniform fore, are much more frequent than the latter; because un
The former sounds, there
there can be in each word only one. throughout Italy; but as the pronunciation of Rome and Florence is the standard, all departures from it may be reckoned accented syllables are more numerous than those accented. by our students as provincialisms, which ought to be carefully lish equivalent in ai or ay, I shall have no difficulty in marking
With regard to the e in unaccented syllables having an Eng. avoided. The Italian consonants, seventeen in number, are divided into
the pronunciation; but with regard to o in unaccented syllables, mutes and semi-vowels. Mutes are those that require a vowel accent, and thus confuse the reader, who would perhaps be
as there is no equivalent, I should be obliged to use the acute after them to render them pronounceable. Semi-vowels are
unable to determine which was the accent of tone in a word and those which require a vowel before them to make them pro- which the accent marking the peculiar sound of o. I beg it nounceable. Let me first enumerate the mutes, and show by tables their therefore to be understood once for all, that where I shall have
occasion to use an o in unaccented syllables without any sign combinations with vowels in Italian words. There are ten above it, the vowel must invariably have the first sound of o as mutes :
above explained. I follow the authority not only of the eduI. b, named in the alphabet, bee.
cated classes of Florence and Rome, but also that of Celso II. c, named in the alphabet chee, and sounded like ch in Cittadini and the best theoretical writers on Italian pronuncia.
church before the vowels e and i. Before all other tion.
FIRST PRONOUNCING TABLE,
showing the combination of vowels with mute consonants in IV. g, named in the alphabet jee, and sounded like g in natural order. ginger before the vowels e and i only. Before all
I take care. V. j, named in the alphabet i (ee) lungo or jota (i conso
I drink. nante), and sounded like y in yes only at the com
bée-tchai Beatrice, a woman's name. mencement of a word or syllable and before a vowel.
The reader must not forget my previous observation that c At the termination of a word it is no longer a conso.
before e and i is sounded like ch in the English word church. nant, but must be sounded like a prolonged or lengthened ee.
Boce (for voce) bó-tchai Voice, word. VI. p, named in the alphabet pee.
The acute accent over o marks not only the accent of tone, VII. q, named in the alphabet koo. It is an auxiliary letter, but also the first sound of o as stated before. only used before u with the sound of k.
Hole, VIII. t, named in the alphabet tee.
Once for all, I must refer my readers to the opening expla- Adele
ah-de-lai Adeline, a woman's name. nation, where I stated that there is no English equivalent to
ah-dée-ro I provoke to anger. Adoro
I adore. the second, open or circumflexed sound of the e, as in the first
ah-doo-no I unite, I assemble others. syllable of ebano. For that reason, I have not attempted to
The river Adda. imitate it by an English sound; and have therefore simply
The Edda of Scandinavian marked it by the circumflex sign. In all cases of the e circum
[literature. flexed, the reader must studiously avoid the English sound of Adduco
ahd-doo-ko I lead to. e, which would only create the greatest confusion.
Gah-dzah Gaza in Palestine. always bear in mind what I have stated, that an approximation Geto
Jess (in falconry). to the circumflexed e is to be found in the e of the English Gita
jée-tah A walk, trip.
Godo words let and ever; only uttered with a wider opening of the
I rejoice. mouth and a deeper sound. The circumflexed e is invariably
A horned owl.
lai-gáb-mai the accent of tone.
A tie, ligament.
ahn-jée-nah Inflammation of the throat. Abila sh-bee-lai Able.
vee-gó-rai Vigour. Obolo (Latin, obolus) 6-bo-lo Farthing.
ahr-góo-to Ingenious, witty.
Paggi The reader must bear in mind, that this is the second or less
páhd-jee Pages (attendants). frequent sound of o, something like the English o in the words The pronunciation of gg depends on the vowel that follows orange and lord, but with a wider opening of the mouth and a the latter g. If that vowel is e or i, the gg's are pronounced deeper sound. I give it the circumflex mark, because it is the somewhat as if the first g had merely the sound of d; and the less common sound. Wherever it occurs in my lessons, it will second g, which goes to the next syllable, like the English j in invariably denote, as in the case of the circumflexed e, the jay, only the voice must not pause too long on the d of the accent of tone as well as the peculiar sound of the o.
syllable where the first g occurs; the stress must be laid on it,
and the voice must glide as quickly as possible to the proAduso ah-bóo-zo Abuse.
nunciation of the second g, which must be very soft. In this I shall have occasion to speak of the two sounds of s when I way there will be effected a more equal distribution of the sound emplain the sounds of the semi-vowels.
j between the two syllables, which will produce the correct sound Babbo (Tuscan) báhb-bo Papa.
of the gg. It is a fundamental rule of Italian pronunciation that double consonants must be uttered and vibrated distinctly. This is
LESSONS IN MUSIC.—XV. essentially necessary, not only as it augments the beauty and marks the orthography of words, but as it frequently distin
ILLUSTRATIONS OF MENTAL EFFECT OF FAH AND guishes words of totally different meaning, but differing only
LAH- —(continued). in spelling by the single consonant instead of the double one; 1. In the last lesson we requested our pupils to study, in the as, for example, caro, dear, and carro, a car; as I shall have examples given, the proper mental effect of the note Fau. But occasion later more fully to illustrate. Where a or any other our attention was specially called to its effect in slow music. vowel precedes a double consonant, a particular stress must be Let us now take one example of the remarkable manner in laid on that vowel, and its sound must be shortened. I have which this effect is modified by quickened movement and a lively not attempted to indicate that shortening of the sound of rhythm. The following is an old song-tune, which was composed the vowel by any new sign, because a frequent change of sign by the great Henry Purcell. Meant, at first, as it would seem, only creates confusion, and the truo pronunciation is obvious for the nursery rhyme of “Old Woman, whither so high,” but from the necessity of giving a vibrating clearness to the double which was put to a peculiar use by Lord Wharton in the memorable consonants.
year A.D. 1688. Wishing to throw ridicule on an unpopular lordBebbe (for bevve)
lieutenant of Ireland, whom King James II. had just appointed, he
composed a doggrel ballad, which, by the charm of the music, The English e, whenever it is sounded as in the word get,
conquered the hearts of the king's own army. Bishop Burnet corresponds to the shortened sound of the first sound of e (ai).
says:--"A foolish ballad was made about that time, which had Gilbi (for gobbi) jib'-bee Hunchbacks.
a burden said to be Irish words—Lero, Lero, Lilliburlero'The reader must not forget my previous observation that g that made an impression on the king's army that cannot be before e and i is sounded as in the English word ginger.
imagined by those who saw it not. The whole army, and at last, Gotho
the people both in city and country, were singing it perpetually ; gób-bo A hunchback, Dubbi
and perhaps never had so slight a thing so great an effect.” dóob-bee Doubts. Cado
“Lord Wharton,” says Mr. W. Chappell, in his valuable . Col. Cecino tchai-tchée-no A wild swan.
lection of National English Airs,' “boasted publicly of having Cito tchée-to Quickly.
rhymed King James out of his dominions. But he might, with Coda
far greater justice, have given the credit to Purcell, without Cute
whose irresistibly fascinating tune his lordship’s rhymes would, Dricato doo-káh-to Dukedom, ducat.
in all probability, have fallen as harmless as his enemies could Riceto ree-tchái-vo I receive.
have wished.” But where lies the power of ridicule in this tune, Incido
in-tchée-do I cut. Ancona
thus so remarkably proved ? Undoubtedly the elegant melody, an-kó-na Ancona.
with its various rhythm, forms the magic spell which detains the It is obvious that not only before double consonants not in ear; but the poison of the bowl, the sting of the ridicule, the the same syllable, but even before one consonant in the same mockery of the laugh, is in that note Fau-the fourth of the sylable, a or any vowel must be shortened in the Italian, as scale—so persistently recurring on the marked accents of the perhaps in any other language. It is therefore unnecessary to measure-ever and anon showing itself with cold sarcastic curl. use any sign.
ing lip out of the midst of “wreathed smiles.” Every one who Laciena lah-kóo-nah Pool, swamp
sings the song must feel that Fay is the note on which his feel. Racco bák-ko Bacchus.
ings of contempt would find expression, if he can suppose his Becco
“ the new pik-kah Spear.
Deputie.” a former lesson we noticed how the note me is búk-kah Mouth.
used to express contempt. But that was the contempt of pride, sóok-ko Juice.
that despises and passes by. This is the contempt that looks dáh-do Die for gaming.
long enough at its object to loathe it. Let our pupils, however, dái.vo
I ought, I must.
judge of all these matters for themselves by actual experiment. Dopo do-po After, afterwards.
Let our own opinions be doubted, discussed, even rejecteddóo-tchai General.
anything so that our pupils only observe and think for them. ai-dán-tchai Gluttonous.
Picca Bocca Succo