Imágenes de páginas


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vaulted roofs or domes at the extreme or lower end above the which represents the gallery of the early basilicas. The columns
chancel, and sometimes also above the aisles. They had com- or pillars are united by circular arches, ornamented by archi-
monly in front the accessory buildings, including the baptistery volts in simple profile, and the whole of the edifice is covered
and the rooms for the catechumens, or those who were preparing with groined vaulting, and with stone mouldings of the game
for admission into the church. These adjoining erections were description.
then separated from the church by an atrium or hall, surrounded At the commencement of the Romanesque period in the West,
by columns which led from outside to the door of the church, the Eastern style of art, the parent of so many architectural
which always had a porch, or narthex, as it was called. In the noveltios, was developed anew in Asia and Africa, and the Arabs,
in icrior, two rows of columns divided the edifice into the nave who played so prominent a part in the history of this epoch,

and the aisles. The nave alone in the ba- covered Arabia and Egypt, and
silicas or churches of the primitive Chris- penetrated the interior of Persia,
tians, terminated in a semicircular arch or with their edifices. The Moorish
choir. At a later period the aisles had branch extended along the northern
also their choirs; it was then that the first side of Africa to the ocean, and
story or gallery which was erected upon there all that an Eastern imagina-
the aisles disappeared, and the women, for tion could produce that was fan-
whom it was reserved, began to occupy tastical and marvellous, was repro-
the left side of the building. The different duced in their architectural works.
parts of the Basilica of Parenzo will con. During the most ancient period of
vey to the mind of the reader the arrange this art the semicircular arch pre-
ment of the principal parts of the churches dominated; but it soon overstepped
now described.

its central point, and the arch be-
The exterior of the basilicas was very coming more than a semicircle,
simple; but the interior was richly deco- took the shape nearly of a horse-
rated with mosaics, with paintings, and shoe. At a later period, the in-
particularly with splendid marbles, which trados, or inner ring of the arch, was
were used in great profusion; also with carved in the manner exhibited in
monoliths, or columns, made of a single the celebrated Mosque of Cordova.
stone, usually stolen from antique edifices, The second period was that of the
all of the most magnificent description; pointed arch very ancient speci-
and the pedestals, capitals, and cornices mens of which are found at Cairo.
were of equally splendid and rich mate. These monuments or erections are

rials. A good example of the old basilica purely Arabic, such as the Mekias PLAN OF THE. BASILICA is the church of St. Agnes at Rome. or Nilometer, and various mosques of that city. In Persia and

The Romanesque style was formed from in India the same style is exhibited, and is always found in cona. The principal nave. b. the combination of the two former, the nection with the pointed arch, and the same principles are fol

The chancel. c. The Latin and the Byzantine ; and in these, lowed in the architecture of that country at the present day. hall, or atrium. d. the arcade played the most prominent part. We give in the annexed engraving a specimen of the Arabic The baptistry. 4. Arches, indeed, were multiplied in endless arch. An important question has never yet been answered The steeple, or bel.

variety, from the choirs which rose on a respecting the origin of the pointed arch, which was first, as . or vestry. h. The circular plane, to domes and arched but we have seen, used by the Pelasgians, but which, abandoned choir. *k. Small tresses, those appendages to buildings until the Middle Ages, was again taken up by the Arabian ard choirs. 1. The tri- which were first employed in this style of the Western architects, at an epoch when it is difficult to ascerclinium, or supper. architecture. The Romanesque period, tain whether the East preceded the West in its application, or

however, produced edifices different from whether the reverse was the case. Whichever was the case was

the basilicas, by characters well defined. of little moment, until it was extended as a complete system of Orientation, or building churches east and west, became the construction, and became the foundation of the Gothic or ogival decided rule; a transverse nave, or transept, changed the ar- style of architecture. It appeared in the West, in the twelfth rangement of the interior of churches, and gave them the form century, in several rare edifices, in which it usually occupied the of 7 cross. The choir or recess, of a somicircular form, was lower part of the building, as presenting more resistance in commonly unique, and spanned the whole width of the edifice, supporting its elevated portions. From this use, first origiincluding the nave and the aisles. Some Romanesque churches, nating in the demand for solidity, it was extended to all parts however, have preserved the three recesses or choirs; and these of the building. Thus applied, this new system of architecture are generally the oldest. The columns were replaced by square was developed, took its flight, and the thirteenth, fourteenth, and piers, ornamented on each side by a column carrying groined fifteenth centuries saw its rise, its full vigour, and its decay. archés; and when stone mouldings were introduced at the edges The Gothic churches are in general larger than those of the of the domes, the number of the columns was increased to eight. Romanesque period, they are disposed in the same way, but their The shafts of the four intermediate columns were then dispro- architecture becomes softer, and the forms more graceful. portionally lengthened, and departing from the proportions established by antiquity, lost their rational proportion to their diameter ; the choir alone preserved the isolated columns. In. dependently of the principal altar, secondary ones were erected,

LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC.-XXXVIII. of which the number was afterwards augmented by those of the

EQUATION OF PAYMENTS. chapels built round the choir. The exterior of the Romanesque 18. This is a method by which to find the time at which two churches also presented a very different aspect from that of the or more debts, due at different times, may be equitably paid by basilicas. The belfries, which were at first small, became then one payment, equal to the sum of the amounts of the debts. of great importance, and were raised above the porch, or above This time is called the equated time of payment. We will firs! the cross aisle. These constructions were very solid, and had take the case of two sums. several storeys, partially open, except at top; and were sur- The principle upon which the time is calculated is this—that mounted by lofty stone spires. At a later period, the abut- the sum of the present values of the two debts is equal to the ments, or spur-walls, became insufficient to sustain the thrust of present value of the sum of the amounts of the debts supposed the great domes, and were then detached from the walls and due at the equated time. transformed into buttresses. Specimens of this kind of edifice Thus, if £100 were due nine months hence, and £50 twelve may be seen in the church of Rosheim, in the Department of months hence, at 4 per cent., we must find the present value of the Lower Rhine ; St. Germain-des-Prés, at Paris; of L'Abbaye-each, and add them together. We must then find the tice aux-l{ommes, at Caen ; of Bocherville, near Rouen ; and others in which, at the given rate of interest, the sum so formed in France. În the most of these churches, there is a small gal. would amount to £150. lery over the aisle, like that of St. Germain-des-Prés at Paris, EXAMPLE.— Find the equated time of payment of £309, due



per cent.




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nine months hence, and of £416, due twelve months hence, at 4 EXAMPLE.-If the Three per Cents. are at 93,, find the rate

per cent. of interest received. 1. Reckoning True Discount.

For £93 5s. paid, .£3 is received yearly. Present value of £309, due 9 months hence, is .


Hence, as 93. : 3 :: 100 : rate per cent. received. Present value of £116, due 12 months hence, is

300 The interest of £300 for 9 months is the same as that of 22,700 for


3.217, the rate per cent.

93.35 1 month.

21. Given the sum invested, and the price of the Stock, to find The interest of £100 for 12 months is the same as thnt $4,800 for

the Income. 1 month. Hence the interest on £700 (the sum of the present values) when thoy are at 889, find the income.

EXAMPLE.-If £1,200 be investod in the Three per Cents. for the equated time must be equal to the interest on

Since for every £83: paid, 6100 worth of stock is received, every £2,700 + £1,800, or £7,500, for one month. Now the timo in which the same interest will be produced by two different copy paid will produce an annual income of £3.

Hence, as £88} : 23 :: 41,200 : required income. soms will be inversely proportional to the sums; hence the

1920 Egnated time will be "my, or 10, months;

Therefore the required income

£ 10 178. 0770.

7500 (9 x 300) : (12 x 400).
Noticing thai

22. Given the income received from an investment of a given

300 400 we see the truth of the following

Sum of Moncy, to find the price of the Stock.

EXAMPLE.--If £1,200 invested in the Three per Cents. proRule for finding the Equated Time of two or more Debts die at duces a yearly income of £40 17s. 012d., find the price of the different times, at a given rate per cent., True Discount being

stock, reckoned.

£40 178. 0174. is-20- of a pound. Find the true present value of each debt, multiply it by its Corresponding time, and add the products. Divide the sum of Hence } * is the number of times £3 is contained in the the products by the sum of the present values.

income; that is, it is the number of times £100 is contained in 2. Reckoning Mercantile Discount.

the amount of stock bought. Interest of £59 for 9 months is the same as that of 9 * £309, or

Hence, £1,200 divided by this will give the actual monoy paid 2,781, for 1 inonth.

for each £100 of stock.

3 x 47 That ou £116 for 12 months is the same as that of 12 * 1416, or Therefore the required price

x 1,200 : 296 = £as. 24,992, for 1 inonth. Hence the interest on £309 + £416, or £725, for the equated

23. When Government stock is purchased, the transaction is time must be the same as that on £2,781 + £4,992, or £7,773, effected through the agency of a broker, who charges :th per for one month.

cent. upon the stock bouglt-i.e., 2s. 6d. upon every £100 of Hence the equated time is 723, or 10.72 months nearly.

stock purchased. We get, then, the following

Thus, if £500 worth of stock be purchased when the funds Kule for finding the Equated Time of two or more Debts due at are at 92, the actual price paid will be (5 x £92) + (5 x €), diferent times, Mercantile Discount being reckoned:

or £460 12s. 6d. And, similarly, the seller of stock pays liis Multiply the amount of each debt by its corresponding time, broker {th per cent. upon the amount of stock sold for him. and add the products. Divide the sum of the products by the This charge is called Brokerage, or Commission. In the examples eum of the debts.

we give, however, it need not be reckoned unless it is expressly X.B.-When mercantile discount is reckoned (as is the case

mentioned. in practice), the rate per cent. does not affect the calculation.

24. Exactly the same principles hold with reference to Shares The times of both debts must of course be expressed in of any kind. Originally they are fixed at a certain price, and the same denomination, and the result will appear in that then, according to the success or failure of the company, and denomination.

the probable amount of dividend it will pay, etc., the value of

the shares fluctuates. EXERCISE 58.--EQUATION OF PAYMENTS. 1. Find the equated time of £800, payable in 3 years, and of £1,200,

When a share, or £100 of stock, will sell for the original royable in 4 years, at 5 per cent. simple interest, by reckoning (1) price which was paid for it, then the shares aro said to be at true, (2) mercantile discount.

par. When the price is less by a certain amount than the .. Find the equated time of payment of £261 5s., due 6 months original price, they are said to be at so much discount ; and besce, and of £209, due 18 months hence, at 44 per cent., reckoning (1) when the price is more by a certain amount, they are said to be trie, (2) mercantile discount.

at so much premium. . Find the equated time of £692, payable in 60 days, and £254, 25. EXAMPLE.—The income derived from investing a sum in payable in 96 days.

the Three per Cents. at 90 differs by £1 from that derived from 4. I owe £500, dne 50 days hence, and £750, due 100 days hence; when should I liquidate the debt equitably by paying down £1,500, cent. upon the original shares. Find the sum.

an equal sum invested in railway shares at 140, paying 5 per interest being reckoned at 4 per cent. per annum ?


£90 produces annually £3; 19. Suppose that I lend a sum of money to the Government


Lyd, or lice cr to a company, on the understanding that I am to receive a certain fixed annual percentage upon it (say 3 per cent.), and

In the second investment, that at any time after this transaction it is found that more

£140 produces annually £5 ; thao 3 per cent. can be commonly got for money ; it is clear

Therefore £1

£rin, or li. that if I sell then my claim upon the Government or company

Hence the difference of income produced by £l is see or Cobvo

Hence the difference of income producci by £420 is £20, or £1. t» another person, he will not give me so much as I gave. The

Tho answer is therefore £120.
Dane given to money so lent is Stock, and the price given at
Dy time for £100 of this stock is the price of stock at that time.

INSURANCE. The Funds are properly the money raised by the Government, 26. By the yearly payment of a certain sum called a los taxes, etc., to pay the interest of the debt, but the term to an insurance company, a person can secure at his death tho i often applied to the debt itself. Thus, when wo hear that payment of a certain larger sum. The document by which the thFunds are at 901 it means that £90 55. must be paid for company binds itself to pay over the money at the death of the £100 worth of stock, this entitling the purchaser to receive insurer is called the Policy of Insurance. Thus, a man of 30, in inn the Gorernment the sum of £3 (in the Three per Cents.) ordinary health, by paying about £25 a year to a company, is unteed to be paid upon the £100 originally lent.

able to “insure his life for £1,000. Different names are given to different descriptions of stock, The principles which determine the amount of premium to be according to the original conditions of the formation of the paid depend upon carefully prepared tables of statistics, showde't. For instance, the Three per Cent. Consols—i.e., the Threo ing the average rate of mortality at different ages, and also upon po. Cent. Consolidated Annuities, etc.

the doctrine of chances and annuities, but they are too compli20. Given the price of Stock, to find the actual Rate per Cent. cated to be introduced here. recited.

Thero are various cther kinds of insurance, ae, for instance,

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insurance against los3 by accidental fire, where a man pays a derrière, behind; chez, at the house of; concernant, touching ; certain per-centage upon the value of the property insured. excepté, except; outre, besides ; selon, according to; voici, here

Farmers can insure their crops against damage by storms. is ; voilà, there is, etc. [$ 139 (1)]. Owners of vessels can insure them and their cargoes, etc.

2. Others, being rather prepositional phrases, govern their EXERCISE 59.-EXAMPLES IN STOCKS, SHARES,

object by means of the preposition de :-hors de, out of; loin de, INSURANCE, ETC.

far from; à fleur de, even with; à force de, by dint of; à l'égard 1. When the Three per Cents. are at 89, find the rate per cent. de, with regard to ; à l'insu de, without the knowledge of, unknown received.

to; à raison de, at the rate of; au deçà de, this way of; au delà 2. When the Three and a Half per Cents, are at 92, find the rate per de, that way of ($ 139 (2)]. cent. received.

3. Others take à-quant à, as to; jusqu'à, as far as, etc. 3. When the Four per Cents. are at 96, find the rate per cent. [$ 139 (3)). received.

4. Two or more verbs, adjectives, or prepositions may in 4. Three per Cents. are offered at 901, Five per Cents. at 150) ; in

French have a regimen in common, provided they govern in the which should one invest?

same manner or case. 5. Shares paying an interest of £i Os. 6d. cost 22); what is the rate per cent. received ? What is the rate per cent. received after a Nous aimons et nous louons nos We love and praise our children. deduction of income tax of 78. in the pound ?

enfants, 6. Is it better to invest in the Threo per Conts. at 89, or the Three Ce jardin est utile et agréable à That garden is useful and agreeabla and a Half per Cents. at 98; ?

notre père,

to our fathor. 7. When the Three per Cents, are at 86, find what the Three and a Au dedans ou au dehors du roy. Within or without the kingdom. Half per Cents. should be at, so that an investment in both should aume, produce the same income.

5. When, however, two or more verbs, adjectives, or preposi. 8. Find the income derived from investing £2,500 in the Three per tions, coming together in the same sentence, do not govern their Cents. at 86.

regimen in the same manner, they cannot have a regimen in 9. Find the income derived from investing £1,000 in the Three per

The regimen must be repeated, or replaced by a proCents. at 87), after deducting an income tax of 7d. in the pound.

The 10. What must a person have invested in the Three per Cents. at

noun, or another turn must be given to the sentence. 20%, if a transfer of } of his capital to the Four per Cents. at 115 would following sentences could not, therefore, be translated literally increase his income by £7 ?

into French :11. A person invests £5,187 10s, in the Three per Cents. at 83, and That man is useful to and loved by his family-I write to and when the funds have risen to 85 he transfers two-fifths of his capital to receive letters from my brother-To be exposed to or sheltered from the Four per Cents. at 96; find the alteration in his income.

the rain. We must say :12. A person sells out of the Three and a Half per Cents, at 92, Cet homme est utile à sa famille, That man is useful to his family, and and realises £18,559; if he invests two-fifths of the produce in the

et il en est aimé,

he is beloved by them. Four per Cents. at 96, and the remainder in the Three per Cents. at

J'écris des lettres à mon frère, et I rrite letters to my brother, and re. 90, find the alteration in his income. Find also the alteration in the

j'en reçois de lui,

ceive some from him, per-centage he gets,

Être exposé à la pluie, ou en être To be exposed to the rain, or to be 13. What is the price of the Three per Cents, when £10,000 will

à l'abri,

sheltered from it. purchase £11,111 2s. 23d. worth of stock ? What will be the annual income produced ?

Utile and aimé, écrire and recevoir, exposé and à l'abri, take 14. Whon the Three per Cents, are at 874, what must the Three and different regimens. & Quarter per Cents. be at in order that an investment of £1,580 in

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. the latter may produce an income greater than the same sum invested Nous sommes arrivés avant la ba- We arrived before tho battle. in the former by £1 189. 674.?

taille. 15. A person buys £500 worth of stock at 989; what must he sell at Vous vous asseyez toujours devant You always sit before me. to gain £21 5s. by the transactiou ?

moi. 16. Which is the better investment, bank stock paying 10 per cent. Les avez-vous placés sur la table ? Have you placed them upon the table ? at 319, or Three per Cent. Consols at 96?

Je les ai placós dessous.

I have placed them under. 17. A man invests £4,297 108. in the Three per Cents. at 954; he Je les ai mis sous la chaise ou I have put them under the chair or sells out one-third of his stock when the funds have fallen to 94, dessus. £1,600 worth of stock when they have risen to 961, and the remainder Ils demeurent derrière notre mai. They live behind our house.

What does he gain ? 18. The income derived from a sum invested in the Three per Cents. J'ai loué une chambre de derrière. I have rented a back room. at 904 differs from that derived from an equal sum in the Five per Nous occupons le devant de la mai. We occupy the front of the house. Cents. at 150} by £1. Find the sumn.

19. A person finds that if he invest a certain sum in railway shares Je les ai recontrés derrière votre I met them behind your garden. paying £6 a share when the £100 share is at 132, he will obtain jardin. £10 168. a-year more for his money thau if he invest in the Three per Vous avez acheté cette terre à You hare bought that estate without Cent. Consols at 93. What sum has he to invest ?

l'insu de votre père.

the knowledge of your father. 20. A person invests £10,000 in the Three per Cents. at 92, and J'ai payé le jardinier à raison de I paid the gardener at the rate of two sells out two-thirds when they have risen 1 per cent. above, and the deux francs par jour.

francs per day. remainder when they have fallen 1 per cent. below, the price at which

he bought; he then invests the proceeds in the Four per Cents. at par.
Find the change in his income.

Dessous, under, under Hors, out.
Assiette, f., plate.


Plat, m., dish. 21. The net income of an estate, after deducting 10d, in the pound Coût-er, 1, to cost.

Pomme de terre, £, for income tax and 4 per cent. on the remainder for expenses of col Dedans, inside, within. Dessus, above, upon it.

potato, Jection, is £437. What is the gross rental ?

Dehors outside without. S'enrich-ir, 2, to become
Derrière, m., back.


Sur, upon, about.

Devant, m., front. Hectolitre,m.,100 litres. KEY TO EXERCISE IN LESSON XXXVII. (page 47).

EXERCISE 153. 1. 12,

8. £21 8s. 11 d. 14. 238 183. 7d. Iff. 2. 216 4s. 8101d. 9. Ratio is 200 : 209–15. £987 13s. 575d.

1. N'avez-vous pas fermé la porte de devant ? 2. Nous 3. £325i.

£109 6s, 8d. 16. £1,236 l'avons fermée, mais nous n'avons pas fermé la porte de derrière. 4. £136 178. 10,0, d. 10. £293 13s. 40.

17. £832 4s. 6jd. 3. Qui est arrivé avant moi ? 4. Le monsieur qui est assis 5. 833 109, 10,98 d. 11. In 1 year 50's mths. 18. £310 68. 47'sd. devant la fenêtre. 5. Qui demeure derrière votre maison ? 6. 6. £798 4s. 11, d. 12. 3} per cent.

19. £752 16s. 17 d. Il n'y a point de maison derrière la nôtre. 7. Ne pensez-vous -7. £8). 13. £230 79. 10. 11. 20. £535 58. 5jutod. pas qu'à force de travailler, il s'enrichira ?

8. Je ne crois pas qu'il s'enrichisse, s'il vend ses marchandises à si bon marché.

9. Apprend-il la musique à l'insu de ses parents ? 10. n l'ap. LESSONS IN FRENCH.-XLI.

prend à leur insu. 11. Vous êtes-vous marié à l'insu de votre SECTION LXXIX.-GOVERNMENT OF PREPOSITIONS, ETC. scur? 12. Je me suis marié à son insu. 13. Notre ami n'est ($ 139).

pas dans la maison, il est dehors. 14. Il n'est pas hors de la 1. SOME prepositions govern the nouns which follow them with ville, il est dedans. 15. Avez-vous de l'argent sur vous ? 16. nt the aid of other prepositions. Avant, before (at an carlier Je n'ai pas d'argent sur moi. 17. Demeurez-vous sur le derrière

1) [§ 142 (1)]; devant, before (opposite place) [§ 142 (1)]; ou sur le devant de la maison ? 18. Nous demeurons sur le

upon it.

at par.






derant. 19. La cuisinière a-t-elle mis les assiettes sur la table Connaissez-vous ces deux Portu- Do you knowo

Portu on dessous ? 20. Elle a mis les assiettes, les plats, les cuillères gais?

gucse ? et les fourchettes sur la table.

I know him who speaks to Mr. L. 21. Combien ces pommes de Je connais celui qui parle à M. L. terre vous coûtent-elles ? 22. Je les ai achetées à raison de cinq

VOCABULARY. francs l'hectolitre. 23. Avez-vous fait réparer le dedans ou le

Appel-er, 1, to call. Connaissance, f., ac-i De temps en temps, 24. J'ai fait réparer l'intérieur et l'ex. À toute force, by all dehors de la maison ?


from time to time. térieur.

Expliqu-er,1,to explain. Numéro (or in abbrevi.
Avert-ir, 2, to trarn. Guerre, f., war.

ation No), number.

Blessure, f., wound. De jour en jour, from | Phrase, f., sentence. 1. Have you bought that house without your father's know

Combl-er, i, to over- day to day.

Prélud-er, 1, to prelude. ledge ? 2. I have bought it without his knowledge. 3. Have

whelm. you forgotten to shut the front door? 4. I have shut the front

EXERCISE 155. door and the back door. 5. I have brought all my books except two or three. 6. Does your brother occupy the front of your 2. Ce n'est pas moi qui l'ai appelé. 3. Est-ce vous, mon ami,

1. Est-ce vous, Madame, qui avez appelé votre domestique ? hoase? 7. He occupies the back. 8. Whom have you met behind that house ? 9. I met nobody behind the house. 10.

qui voulez à toute force aller en Espagne ? 4. Ce n'ost pas

moi, c'est mon cousin. 5. N'est-ce pas lui qui a averti ce Does that gentleman live behind your house ? 11. Nobody lives

matelot de son danger ? 6. Ce n'est pas lui, c'est moi qui l'en behind our house. 12. There is no house behind yours. 13.

ai averti. 7. Est-ce nous que vous attendez de jour en jour ? Have you a knife about you ? 14. I have no knife about me.

8. Ce n'est pas vous, c'est eux que j'attends.

9. Est-ce vous, 15. Do you carry a knife about you? 16. I never carry a knife about me.

10. Ce n'est 17. Has not your brother money about him ? 18.

Madame, qui nous avez comblées de bienfaits ? He has no money about him. 19. Will you put these pencils pas moi, Madame. 11. N'est-ce pas en Italie que vous avez

fait connaissance avec lui ? 12. Ce n'est pas en Italie ; c'est upon the table, or under it? 20. I will put them in the

en Russie. drawer (tiroir).

13. Est-ce vous, Mesdames, ou vos cousines que 21. How much have you given for that wheat? 22. I bought it at the rate of twenty-five francs per cousines que vous avez vues.

nous avons vues au bal ? 14. C'est nous, ce n'est pas nos

15. Ne connaissez-vous pas ces hectolitre. 23. Is that lady's house out of the city ? 24. It is

deux messieurs? 16. Je connais celui qui parle à Madame L. not out of the city ; it is within. 25. Has not your sister

26. She has put the plates Ce n'est pas moi, c'est mon voisiu. placed the plates upon the table ?

17. Est-ce vous qui avez reçu une blessure à la guerre ? 18.

19. N'est-ce pas vous qui upon the table, and the spoons under it. 27. Have you had

nous avez expliqué cette phrase ? 20. Est-ce vous, Monsieur, 28. I have had the inside repaired, but Four house repaired ?

21. Ce n'est pas moi qui y demeure. not the outside. 29. How much does that silk cost you ? 30. I qui demeurez au N° 18 ?

22. Entendez-vous ces musiciens ? 23. J'entends celui qui have bought it at the rate of five francs per metre. 31. Did you chante. 24. Je n'entends pas bien celui qui joue. 25. Nous marry without your father's knowledge ? 32. I married without entendons ceux qui préludent. his knowledge. 33. Have you sold my books without my

knowledge? 34. I sold them without your knowledge. 35. I sold

EXERCISE 156. them without my sister's knowledge.

1. Is it you, my friend, who have warned me of my danger ?

2. It is not I who have warned you of it. 3. Is it they whom SECTION LXXX.--THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN, CE

you expect from day to day ? 4. It is not they whom we ex. ($ 108). pect. 5. Is it you who have done this ?

6. It is not we; it 1. The pronoun ce answers to the English pronoun it, used is you who have done it. 7. Was it in England that you bought before the verb to be, in such sentences as, it is 1, it is thou, etc. this hat ? 8. It was not in England; it was in Germany. 9.. The latter pronouns (I, thou, etc.) are rendered by moi, toi, lui, Was it not in Russia that you became acquainted with him ? elle, nous, vous, eux, m., elles, f. The verb remains in the 10. It was not in Russia ; it was in Italy. 11. Was it you who singular, except when the pronoun following it is in the third were calling us ? 12. It was not we; it was he.

13. Are you person plural; in which case it may be put in the plural or in not acquainted with the two Poles who are reading ? 14. I the singular ($ 116 (2)]. If the pronoun followed by qui, know the one who is near you. 15. Is that (est-ce là) the lady the verb is better in the plural, and if followed by que, in the whom you expected ? 16. It is not (she). 17. Is it you, gentlesingular.

men, who have loaded my brother with kindness ? 18. It is C'est moi, c'est lai, c'est elle, It is I, it is he, it is she.

not (we), sir; we have not the pleasure of knowing him. 19. 18 Ce sont elles qui parlent, It is they who speak.

it you who have been wounded in the (au) arm? 20. It is not (I). C'est elles que nous cherchons, It is thoy whom we seek.

21. Do you not hear those two ladies ? 22. I do not hear the 2. If the relativo pronoun qui and another verb follow étre, who came to our house this morning ? 25. It was not I; I was

one who sings. 23. I hear the one who plays. 24. Was it you this second verb must agree in number and person with the pro- in London then (alors). 26. Was it you, sir, who did us that noun preceding the relative.

favour? 27. It was not (I); it was my sister. 28. Was it C'est vous qui avez fait cela, It is you who have done that. your son who wished by all means to go to London ? 29. It C'est nous qui avons déchiré cette It is we who have torn thuat silk. was not le; he is now in Germany. 30. Is it you who wrote soie,

that letter? 31. We have written no letter. 32. Who lives 3. Co also renders the English pronoun it, used absolutely, at (au) No. 20 ? 33. I live there (c'est moi). 34. Is it we but not unipersonally, before the verb to be ($ 108 (5)].

whom you have seen? 85. It was not you whom I saw. Ce fut en Allemagne qu'il trouva It was in Germany that he found his son ami, friend.

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN FRENCH. 4. Celni qui, celle qui; ceux qui, m., celles qui, f., are equi.

EXERCISE 73 (Vol. I., page 356). valent to the English pronouns he who, she who, they who--celai

1. Are you soon going away ? 2. I am going away next week. que, celle que, ceux que, celles que, render he whom, etc.

3 Why do you go away ? 4. Because I do not like being here. 5. Do

you like being with your aunt better than being here? 6. I like it better. Celui ou celle qui chante, He or she who sings.

7. Are you not wrong to go away so soon ? 8. I am right to go away. RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

9. Do you not rejoice at the misfortunes of others ? 10. We do not

at all rejoice at them. 11. Does that man become angry with the Est-ce vous qui nous avez averti Is it you who have warned us of gardener ? 12. He becomes angry with him, because he will not make de cela ? this?

haste. 13. Does he get angry very often ? 14. He gets angry every C'est nous qui vous en avons averti. It is wo who have warned you of it. moment, he gets angry at nothing. 15. Do you never make haste ? Est-ce vous, mesdames, que nous Is it you, ladies, whom we have met ? 16. I always make haste when I have something to do. 17. Do you not avons rencontres ?

delight in running and playing ? 18. I delight in playing, and my Ce n'est pas nous, c'est eux que It is not we; it is they whom you brother delights in reading. 19. Do you rejoice at the arrival of the

Tavo seen.

Turkish ambassador ? 20. I rejoice at it. 21. Do you not like being Ce n'est pas vous, ce sont eux qui It is not you ; it is they who hare in America ? 22. I like being here much better than being in France. ont fait cela. done that.

23. Does not your scholar like being at your house ? 24. He likes Ceat en Angleterre que je vous It is in England that I have seen you. being with me, but he wishes to return to his father's. 25. Make

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EXERCISE 74 (Vol. I., page 356).

votre bourse? 13. Nous l'avons laissée chez le marchand. 14. Avez1. À quelle heure votre ami s'en va-t-il ? 2. Il s'en va tous les matins

vous acheté les belles gravures que j'ai vues chez votre libraire ? 15. à neuf heures. 3. Vous en allez-vous avec lui ?

Je ne les ai pas vues. 4. Je m'en vais avec

16. Votre mère les a-t-elle achetées ? 17. Elle lui, quand j'ai le temps. 5. Voulez-vous vous dépêcher de finir votre petite fille a-t-elle cassé mes tasses ? 19. Elle les a cassées exprés.

18. Cette

a acheté des livres, mais elle n'a pas acheté de gravures. lettre? 6. Je me dépêche de la finir. 7. Le jardinier se fâche-t-il contre son frère ? 8. Il se fàche contre lui, quand il ne se dépêche tous les six mois.

20. Cette dame reçoit-elle ses revenus tous les mois? 21. Elle les reçoit

22. La maison que vous avez achetée est-elle grande ! pas.

9. Dépêchez-vous, mon ami, il est dix heures. 10. Pourquoi ne vous dépêchez-vous pas ? 11. Je me plais à jouer, mais

23. Je n'ai pas acheté de maison. 24. Avez-vous reçu hier une lettre pas à étudier. 12. Vous plaisez-vous chez moi? 13. Je m'y plais. 26. Avez-vous parlé à ces dames ?

ne me plais de M. votre père ? 25. J'ai reçu une lettre de lui, il y a quatre jours. 14. Vous réjouissez-vous de l'arrivée de votre mère ?

27. Je leur ai parlé. 28. Leur

15. Je m'en réjouis. 16. Votre frère n'a-t-il pas tort de s'en aller si tôt ?

avez-vous donné des fleurs ? 29. Je leur en ai donné. 30. Les livres

17. Il a raison de s'en aller, il a beaucoup à faire à la maison.

que vous avez achetés, sont-ils reliés ? 31. Non, Monsieur, ils sont 18. Vous

brochés, réjouissez-vous des malheurs d'autrui ? 19. Je ne m'en réjouis pas.

32. Avez-vous examiné cette maison ? 33. Je ne l'ai pas

examinée, 20. Je me réjouis de votre succès. 21. M. votre frère ne s'approche.

34. Votre frère en a examiné plusieurs. t-il pas du feu ? 22. Il s'éloigne du feu, il a trop chaud. 23. Cette demoiselle se fâche-t-elle contre vous ? 24. Elle se fåche d'un rien. 25. Vous plaisez-vous à Paris ? 26. Je m'y plais. 27. Pouvez-vous LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.-XXVIII. vous passer de moi aujourd'hui ? 28. Nous ne pouvons nous passer de vous; dépêchez-vous de finir votre ouvrage. 29. Avez-vous besoin TABLE OF LATITUDES AND LONGITUDES OF PLACES IN de votre canif ? 30. J'ai besoin de m'en servir. 3i. Dépêchez-vous de

EUROPE. vous lever, il est six heures. 32. Fait-il beau temps ? 33. Non, Monsieur, il pleut. 34. M. votre père se porte-t-il bien ce matin ? 33. Oui, In the present lesson we continue and bring to a conclusion cur Monsieur, il se porte bien.

table of the latitudes and longitudes of places in the Continent

of Europe. EXERCISE 75 (Vol. I., page 356). 1. Who has told you that? 2. The barrister has told it to me. 3. Have you spoken to him of this affair ? 4. I have not yet spoken

Name of Place. Country, etc. Latitude. Longitade. to him about it. 5. Have you seen him lately? 6. I saw him a few days ago. 7, Did you not write yesterday? 8. We read and wrote the whole day. 9. Have you not taken off your gloves and shoes?

Needles Lighthouse England.

50° 39' N 1° 36' w. 10. I have not taken off my gloves, but I have taken off my hat. 11. Negropont


38 27 23 36 E. Has not the tailor put on his hat? 12. Yes, Sir, he has put on his


47 49 16

15 E. hat. 13. What have you done to that little boy? 14. I have done


47 0 3 9 E. nothing to him. 15. Have you not told him that I am here?

16. I Newark


53 4 0 49 W. have not yet told him of it. 17. What have you studied this morning ? Newbury


51 55 1 20 W. 18. We have studied our lessons, and we have read our books. 19.



7 14 E. Has the minister's gardener planted the pear-tree? 20. He planted it Nieuport

Belgium .

51 8

2 44 E. more than eight days ago. 21. Have you bought a black cloth coat? Nimeguen, or Nyme22. I have bought one. 23. Have you worn it to-day ? 24. I have gen


51 5 52 E. not worn it yet. 25. We have put on onr shoes and stockings this Nîmes, or Nismes France

43 51 4 21 E. morning.

Nishnii, or Nijni
EXERCISE 76 (Vol. I., page 356).


56 18 44 2 E. Nogent-sur-Seine France

48 29


30 E. 1. Avez-vous étudié aujourd'hui ? 2. Nous n'avons pas le temps Noirmoutier (I. de) France

47 0 2 15 W. d'étudier, nous avons lu une page. 3. N'avez-vous pas écrit à mon Nordkyn (Cape) Norway

71 9 27 42 E. frère ? 4. Je ne lui ai pas encore écrit. 5. L'Allemand n'a-t-il pas Nordlingen


48 51 10 29 E. écrit à ma mère ? 6. Il ne lui a pas encore écrit. 7. Avez-vous dit

North Cape

12 25

46 E. à ma mère que j'ai pris ce livre ? 8. Je n'ai pas encore vu votre mère.


52 57 1 8W. 9. Qu'avez-vous fait ce matin? 10. Nous n'avons rien fait. 11. Avez


45 27

38 E. vous ôté votre habit ? 12. Je n'ai pas ôté mon habit, il fait trop froid. Novgorod


58 36


17 E. 13. Le libraire a-t-il écrit à votre frère ? 14. Il lui a ecrit il y a long. Nuremberg


49 27 11 5 E temps. 15. Lui a-t-il écrit il y a un mois ? 16. Il lui a écrit il y a Oczakow


37 31 30 E. plus d'un an. 17. Avez-vous plantó un poirier ? 18. Nous en avons Odessa


46 28 30 43 E. planté plusieurs. 19. Fait-il trop froid pour planter des arbres ? 20.


53 8

8 12 E. Il fait trop chand. 21. Le jardinier, qu'a-t-il fait à votre petit garçon ? Oleron


43 12 0 35 E. 22. Il ne iui a rien fait. 23. Quelqu'un lui a-t-il fait quelque chose ? Omer, St.


50 45

2 15 E. 24. On ne lui a rien fait. 25. A-t-il quelque chose ? 26. Il n'a rien.


63 53 38 4 E. 27. M. votre •père a-t-il mis son chapeau noir ?

28. Non, Monsieur, Oporto


41 7 8 33 W. il n'a pas mis son chapeau noir. 29. M. votre frère, qu'a-t-il dit ? 30. Orebro



15 12 E. Il n'a rien dit.


52 55 36 7 E. EXERCISE 77 (Vol. I., page 371).

Orford Lighthouse. England.

52 6

1 32 E. Orleans France


1 55 E. 1. Have you brought us our clothes ? 2. We have not yet brought

Ortegal (Cape)

43 Spain


7 them.

53 W. 3. Have you forgotten them? 4. We have not forgotten them,


52 17 8 3 E. but we have not had time to bring them. 5. Why have you not called


51 Belgium ,

14 2 the merchants? 6. I have called them, but they have not heard me.

54 E. Otranto Italy

40 8 18 7. Have you heard that music? 8. I bave heard it. 9. Have you not

30 E. Oxford England.

46 1 16 W. soen the pretty flowers which I have brought? 10. I have seen them;


51 43 8 45 E. to whom have you given them? 11. I have given them to no person,


45 Italy

23 11 I have kept them for you.

53 E. 12. Have you examined those engravings Palermo.

38 Sicily

7 13 well? 13. I have examined them well.

22 E. 14. Have you bought them?

Mediterranean Sea


2 43 E. 15. I have not bought them. 16. Have you not received your income? Palma, Majorca (I).


50 17. I have not yet received it. 18. Has the servant broken these cups?

1 12 w. Paris France

48 19. She has broken them.


2 20. Has she broken cups on purpose ? 21. Parma

48 Italy

10 19 E. She has broken none on purpose.

22. Have you bought bound or

Paros (1.)

37 2 25 sewed books? 23. I have bought bound books. ' 24. Have you said

11 E. Pavia Italy

45 11

9 those words to us? 25. We have said them to you, but you have for.


40 Spain


0 25 E. gotten thom. 26. I have not forgotten your errand.

Penrith .

54 41 2 EXERCISE 78 (Vol. I., page 371).


46 8 33 40 E.

45 11

0 44 E. 1. Avez-vous vu mes tasses ? 2. Je ne les ai pas encore vues. 3.


58 1 56 32 E. M'avez-vous apporté mes livres ? 4. Je ne les ai pas oubliés, je les ai



53 E. laissés cbez mon frère. 5. Votre mère a-t-elle appelé vos sœurs ?


43 55 19 53 E. 6. Elle ne les a pas encore appelées. 7. La domestique vous a-t-elle

Peterborough . England.

52 35 0 16 W. dit cette nouvelle ? 8. Elle m'a dit cette nouvelle. 9. Elle me l'a

Petersburg, Si.

59 58 30 26 E. dite. 10. Avez-vous oublié ma commission ? 11. Nous ne l'avons


3 9 40 E. pas oubliée, nous avons oublié votre argent. 12. Ou avez-vous laissé










20 E.

9 E.

45 W.




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