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Milites urbem combusserunt. 13. Literas legi, quas scripsisti. 14.

THE ALPHABET OF NATURE, Metuo ne hostes urbem obsidione cincturi siut. 15. Corrige illum 2. Phonography is based upon an analysis of the English spoken puerum. 16. Præceptor curabit ut discipulos corrigat. 17. Narra language. Its consonants and vowels are arranged so as to show, as far mihi, quid patri dixeris. 18. Cupiditates coerceto, 19. Cupiditates as possible, their mutual relations. In the consonants, p stands first, coercere debemus. 20. Puer coercens cupiditates amatur. 21. Strenue

nextb; the rest follow in perfectly natural order, first the mute or er. animum cole, mi fili!

plosive letters, proceeding from the lips to the throat ; then the semi

vocals, or continuants, in the same order ; and lastly the basals, LESSONS IN SHORTHAND.-II.

liquids, coalescents, and aspirate. Scarcely more than half the conso

nants are essentially different ; the articulations in the pairs p and b, t EXPLANATION OF TERMS.

and d, f and v, etc., are precisely the same, but the sound is, so to speak, 1. PHONETICS (from owon, phònē, voice,) the things relating to light in the first, and heavy in the second letter of each pair. The conthe voice: the science which treats of the different sounds of the sonants in each pair are represented by strokes in the same position, and human voice, and their modifications. The style of spelling in of the same shape, but that chosen for the second is written thick, in. accordance with this science is named PHONETIC; the common stead of thin ; thus, \ p \o, It, Id, , L 0, etc.; and style, such as is used in this book, being called Romanic, because it thus, not only is the memory not burdened with a multitude of signs, is formed from an alphabet derived from that which was used by the but the mind perceives that a thin stroke corresponds with a light Romans. Pronog'RAPHY, (from phònē, voice, and ypaon, graphê, writing,) f, th(in), s, sh, are called light, or sharp consonants, and f, th(in), s, sk,

articulation, and a thick stroke with a heary articulation. P, 1, k, the art of representing spoken sounds by written signs; also the style are further denominated whispered, or breathed consonants; while of writing in accordance with this art. Phonor'YPY, (from phònē, voice, and TUTOS, tūpos, type,) the art

b, d, g, v, th(en), 2, zh, are heavy, flat, spoken, or murmured consoof representing sounds by printed characters or types; also the style murmur is added to the action of the organs by which the sharp let.

nants. The difference is, that in the flat letters (6, d, g, etc.) a vocal of printing in accordance with this art. Puo'NOGRAM, (from ypauua, gramma, letter,) a written letter

ters (p, t, k, etc.,) are produced. The "vocal murmur” which makes or mark, indicating a certain sound, or modification of sound; as ligaments in the larynx or muscular sound-box in the windpipe,

p into b, t into d, etc., is produced by the vibration of two vocał ah, \ p.

which lies behind the bony projection in the throat called Adam's Puo'NOTYPE, a printed letter, or sign, indicative of a particular apple, or pomum Adami. The light sounds are also called surds, sound, or modification of sound; as, O, o (in so, snow); P, p. while all the other letters (including m, n, ng, l, r, w, y, and

Logʻogram, (from noyos, logos, word,) a word-letter; a phono- the vowels,) are called sonants. Ch and j are double consonants, gram, that, for the sake of brevity, represents a word; as | t, which formed by the union of t, sh, and d, zh, as may be heard in fetch, represents it.

cheap; edge, jem. They are placed, in the alphabet, next to t, d, the GRAM'MALOGUE, a letter-word; a word represented by a logogram; first elements of these compound consonants. The vowels are aras it, represented by | t.

ranged naturally in two series, guttural and labial. Each series PARA'SEOGRAM, a combination of shorthand letters representing a

commences with the most open sound. The short vowels are repre

sented by light dots and strokes, and the corresponding long sounds phrase or sentence. The terms art and science should be used in accordance with phy, the heavy strokes and dots are made without any perceptible

by heavy ones. After a few weeks' practice in writing Phonograthe following definitions :-a science consists of general principles effort ; they are traced by the pen, with as much facility as their corthat are to be known ; an art, of practical rules for something that responding heavy sounds are produced by the organs of speech. is to be done. Hence we speak of the art of Phonography, and of the science of Phonetics on which it is based.

DIRECTIONS FOR PRACTICE.

3. The student of Phonography will find no difficulty in acquiring THE PHONOGRAPHIC ALPHABET.

a knowledge of this useful art, if he will practise according to the Consonants.

following directions :-He should first obtain & knowledge of the sounds of the Phonographic Alphabet, by pronouncing them aloud;

and then learn the signs by which these sounds are represented. P

B
F

V

This is most effectually done by writing each character several times,

and pronouncing its name aloud at the same time. T D THIS

4. The following Exercises are to be read, and afterwards copied (TH

into a book made of ruled paper. The pupil need not read through

the whole lesson before he commences writing, but when he has I J S ) ) Z

read an Exercise, (that is, pronounced to himself the shorthand let

ters or words of which it is composed,) he should write it several K G sh) ZH times, until he can form the characters neatly and accurately. A 3d.

or 6d. "Phonographic Copy-Buok” may be obtained of Mr. F. Pitman,

20, Paternoster Row, London, or of Mr. Isaac Pitman, Phonetic
M
N
NG

Institute, Bath, or it may be ordered through any bookseller. As a

child learns to wa slowly, and with ion, and continued walkLIQUIDS.

ing acquires strength to walk quickly, or to run, so must the shortLr

hand pupil trace his characters deliberately and accurately, until by R ,

much writing he can write both well and fast. We have known many

students acquire an illegible style of shorthand writiog by disregarding COALESCENTS W

Y .
ASPIRATE H () o 9 this advice.

5. The phonographic characters should not be written smaller thanı Towels.

they are here; and care must be taken at the outset to trace them

slowly and accurately. Rapidity and accuracy combined can be at. 1. AH alms

tained only by practice. The student is again particularly cautioned against attempting to write with rapidity at the outset. When his

hand has become accustomed to trace the simple geometrical forms of 2. A

ape
ě

et

the phonographic characters with correctness and elegance, he will 3. E J eat

I

it

find no difficulty in writing them quickly; but if he lets his anxiety

to write fast, overcome his resolution to write nell, he will not only 4. AU all

be longer in attaining real swiftness, but will always have to lament

the illegibility of his writing. 5. o -1

น ope

6. All the consonants, when standing alone, should rest upon the line. up

Lr , the straight / r, 1 y, and 6 h, are written 6. 00

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full upward. Horizontal letters, as k,

m, are written from

EXPLODENTS.

CONTINUA

NTS.

CH /

NASALS.

LONG.

SHORT.

at

on

ooze

K, G'

left to right. All other consonants, as It, \ p, are written

EXERCISE 1.-CONSONANTS. downward; but, WHEN JOINED TO OTHER STROKES, 1 and sh The pupil should write out this Esercise several times, if necessary, may be written either upward or downward. In Exercise 1, until he is able to form the characters as accurately as they are here each consonant is repeated several times, for the purpose of giving drawn. Place the longhand letters at the commencement of each line the pupil sufficient practice in its formation to enable him to write it in the copy book. accurately, and remember its sound. 7. Phonography is at all times best written on ruled paper, but

P, B plain paper may be used, as in the following Exercises. The learner should always write upon paper ruled with single lines, and T, D

11 he may use either a quill or a steel pen, or a pencil. A pencil is recommended for exercises, and a pen for ordinary writing and reporting.

CII, J //

// As, however, the reporter is sometimes so situated that he cannot use a pen, he should aecustom himself, at times, to report with a pencil. The pen or pencil should be held as for longhand writing, and the elbow be turned out so that the letter \ b can be struck with ease. We will now display the shorthand consonants in a more extended form

F, V

, than in the preceding alphabet, and show by illustrative words the scand or power of each letter. Strictly speaking, consonants are not

THI, T ((

(( sounds but interruptions of sounds, made by the action of different parts of the mouth. The vowels are the only sounds of speech.

S, Z

))
CONSONANTS.

SI, ZII J1
Letter. Phonograph. Eramples of its power. Name. Phonotype.

M
Р
rope post
рее P

N
B

robe Coast bee b
т
sale

NG
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edge

jest

j

jay
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gain fat

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W (up) cucu (down)
Y cccccccc
II (12) oooo (down) 9 9

(down) 9 9 9 9
ON JOINING THE CONSONANTS.
9. All the consonants, when written alone, should rest upon the
line. When combined to form words, they should be written with.
out taking off the pen; the second commencing where the first ends,
and the third being continued from the end of the second, etc.
The following combinations, from line 1 to 5, must rest upon the
line. In the combinations given in line 6, and all similar ones,
the first letter rests upon the line, and the second is written below.

10. With one exception (which will be explained in the next lesson), every right-line and curve employed in Phonography, is writ. ten in the direction of one of the lines in the following diagram :

3 2

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Z

his

zcal

zec

Z

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Y

yay

1 y Aspirate. H

high aitch I 8. In the above Table the last column is occupied with the phonotype, or phonetic printing letler, that corresponds to the shorthand better in the second column. These phonotypes are introduced for the purpose of assisting the pupil occasionally, in representing to his eye the sounds of which a word is composed, in order to guide him in his practice in the selection of the corresponding shorthand letters. The Exercise that follows must be carefully written out by the pupil into his copy book, cach shorthand letter being pronounced aloud as it is written. A good style of writing can be formed only by care(ally drawing the shorthand characters at the commencement of the pupil's practice. Speed will come by practice.

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neue

READINGS IN GERMAN.-III.

VOCABULARY. 3.--Die Ganarienvögelchen.

Canarien, canary (not Erheben, to raise, lift Schlecyt, ihlechter, bad, Dee ka-nah'-ree-en-fö-ghel-ġen.

used alone).

up. Vögelchen, little laut, aloud.

Ach, oh, alas. Ein Fleines Mädchen, Namens Carolina, hatte ein

bird.

Wchflagen, n, lamen- Handeln, to act. Ine kli'-ness meyt'-yen, nah-menss Ca-ro-lee'-na, hat-tai ine

Name, m. name. nation; v. n. to Inrecht, wrong. allerliebstes Canarienvögelchen. Das Thierchen sang vom Allerliebst, most lovely.i lament (Klage, f. Un, prefix, un-, not. al'-ler-leep'-stess ka-nah'-ree-en-to--ghel-yen. Dass teer'-yen zank fom Thierchen, n. little complaint,laiment. Mūs, what. frühen Morgen bis

Abend, den

creature.
war sehr schön

Sollen, to be obliged,
Wch, n. woe).
Wcinen, to weep.

shall. frü"-hen mör-ghen biss an dain ah'-bend, dónt vahr zeyr sho'n Pon, of, from.

Früly, early. goldgelb mit schwarzem Häubchen.

aber gab ihm

Ilm, for, about, &- Sein, seiner, genilice, Carolina

Morgen, m.

round.

of it, of him. gòlt'-gailb mit shwar'-tsem hoip -yen. Ca-ro-lee'-na ah'- bet gahp eem

ing.

Saufen, to buy. Sergfiltis, carefully. zu essen Saamen und fühlentes Sraut, auch zuiveilen

cin Bis, till.

Ander, other.

Nein, no. tsoo ess'-sen zah'-men dönt kü"-len-dess krout, oud) tsoo-vi'-len ine abend, m. evening. Noch, yet, still. Erwicbern, to reply. Stüdchen Zuder und täglich frisches Wasser.

Schön, beautiful. Farbe, f. colour, dye, Kurz, short, -ly. shtück.yen tsdóck'-ker oönt teyy'-liġ frish'-shess vass'-ser.

Gelb, yellow.

paint.

Tor, m. death.

Mit, with.
Aber plößlich begann das Vögelchen

Gben so, just so.
und cines
zu

Mir, dative, to me. trauern, Ah'-ber plöts'-lıý bai-gann' dass fõ'-ghel-yen tsoo trou'-ern, dont i'-nes

Schwarz, black.

Icner, jene, jenes, that. Für, for.

Häubchen, n. tuft Thun, to put, to do. Dasselbe, the same. Morgens, als Carolina ihm Wasser bringen wollte, lag 08

(Baube, f. cap). Allein, but, alone. Sontorn, but. mör-ghens, als Ca-ro-lee'-na eem vass'-ser bring'-en võll'-tai, lahc ess

Geben, to give. Neut, new.

Selbst, myseis, your. todt im Käfig.

Ihm, to him (it). Sich wusterr., to won. self, etc. toat im koy'-fiy.

Zu, to.

der.

Herz, n. heart. Da erhob tie Kleine ein lautes Wehflagen

bas Eilen, to eat.

Cieb, dear.

Lächeln, to smile. Dah err-hope dee kli’-nai ine lou’-tess vey'-klah-ghen đóm dass

Saamen, m. seed. Du biit, thou art. liber, at, over.

Kühlen, to cool. Betrübt, sad (betrüben, Grfenxen, to recognise. geliebte Thier und wcinte febr. Die Mutter des Middens

Dee moot'-ter dess meyt'.yenss

Kraut, n. herb. gai-leep'-tai teer dont vine'-tai zeyr.

to afflict).

20bl, indeed, well. Zuweilen, sometimes. Dein, thy.

Vereiren, to horour aber ging hin und faufte ein anderes, bas noch schöner Stück, n. piece. Ibråne, f. tear.

(Gure, f. honour). ah'-ber ghink hin ddnt kauf-tai ine an-dai-ress, dass něch shoʻ-ner Zucker, m. sugar. Rufen, to call.

Stimme, f. voice. war an Farben und eben so lieblich sang wie jenes. und that Frijd, fresh.

Werten, to become, Mögeni, may. vahr an far-ben dönt ey'-ben zo leep'-llý zank vee yey'-ness, dont taht Wasser, n. water. sign of the täre Zu Mutbe sein, feel. 68 in den Stäfig.

Plößlich, suddenly. toase, shall, will ;

(Mutb, m. courage. ess in dain key'-fiy.

Trauern, to griove, sign of the passive mind).
mourn.

voice, to be, to be Dankbar, grateful Allein tas Magolein weinete noch lauter, als cetas

Liegen, to lie.

doing.

(-bar, afix, produeAl-line' dass meyyt-line vi’-nai-tai noch lou'-ter, alss es dass noi’-ai

Todt, dead.
Sterben, to die.

tive of, able). Vögelchen fah. Da wunderte sich die Mutter sehr und Kifiy, m. cage.

Leben, n. life.

Orab, n. grave. fö'-ghel-yen zah. Dah vodn'-der-tai zij dee moot-ter zeyr Jónt sprach : Mein liebes Kind, warum weinest du noch, und bist so

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN GERMAN. shprahc): Mine lee'-bess kint, vah'-róðm vi’-nest doo noch, dont bist zo

EXERCISE 91 (Vol. II., page 63). sehr betrübt? Deine Thränen werten das gestorbene zeyr bai-trů'pt'? Di-nai trey'-nen veyr-den dass gai-shtor'-bai-nai

1. Amerika hat einen goldenen Boren für denjenigen, welcher eines Sant

werfs funtig ist. 2. Der Geizige ist unempfindlich gegen tas Glond An. Vögelchen nicht in das Leben rufen, und bier hast du ja ein

terer. 3. Die Italiener, welde sich in einigen Provinzen gegen oftet föʻ-ghel-yen niyt in dass ley'-ben rooʻ-fen, dont here hast doo yah ine

reichische Untertrudung crhoben, waren uneingebenf ihrer Sowäche. 4. andres, das nicht schlechter ist denn jenes. Da sprach tas

Ich wurde des Hörens einer so langen Rete müde. 5. Jeder Mensch it an'-dress, dass niýt shley'-ter ist den yey'-ness. Dah shprahch dass seines Toreo gewiß, aber Niemand ist stets desselben eingebenf. 6. Werner Kind: Ach liebe Mutter, ich babe Unrecht gegen

des Landlebens jo gewohnt wärest wie ich, würdest du nicht in der Stadt bies křnt: Ady leesbai mošt'-ter, iy hah'-bai ošn'-reyt ghey'-ghen dass ben. 7. Niemals will ich mich einer That schulrig maden, welche mic Thierchen gchandelt, und nicht alles an ihm gethan, was ich

Ihrer Freundichaft unwürdig macht. 8. Der Mensch, welcher ein garifler teer'-yen gai-han'-delt, dënt nằyt al-less an eem gai-tahn, vass ìý haftes Leben geführt hat, und den Befehlen seines Venvissens gefolgt ist, fürchtet

den Tod nicht ; dud) ter Büse, uneingeeent seiner Thaten, und bewußt scinct Tollte und fonnte.

Verbrechen, fürchtet den Tod und die Zufunft. 9. Mancher der eines Bei. 28ll'.ai ošnt kõn'-tai,

brechens angeflagt vor seinen Richtern steht, ist sich einer ficinern Schan Liebe lina, antivortete die Mutter, du hast sein ja bewußt, als die, welche ihn richten. Leo'-bai lee-nah, ant'-võr-tai-tai dee măst'-ter, doo hast zine yah

EXERCISE 92 (Vol. II., page 63). sorgfältig gerfiegt.

Ach nein,
erwieterte ta$ Kind, ich habe

1. It would be agreeable to me if I could find a man who was attached zðry'-fel-třý gai-pfleyýt'. Ad nine, err-vee'-der-tai dass kint, îý hah'- bai

to me.

2. Even if you are related to me, yet your behaviour does not noch furz vor seinem Tode cin Stückchen Zuder, tas seem to me at all becoming; and I should think you yourself might něch köðrts fore zi’-nem to".dai ine shtück'.yen tsčðk'-ker, dass doo perceive that people to whom your behaviour is known are not favour

able to you mir für tasselbe gabft, ihm nicht gebracht, sondern selbst

3. My father remembers the last dearth very well. meer fü'r dass-zel-bai gahpst, eem nằýt gai-bracht', zón'-dern zelpst bour, obedient to thy superiors, then will they be well disposed, and be

That path is dangerous to the wanderer. 5. Be obligiog to thy neigh gegessen. So frrach das Märchen mit betrübtem Herzen. be favourable to you. 6. Is the money promised to you certain ? 7 gai-ghess'-sen. Zo shprahd, dass meyt'-yen mit bai-trū'p-tem herr'-tsen. As the prince is not like-minded with the people, and the people are inDie Mutter aber lächelte nicht

über
tie Klagen tes

different to the prince, it makes governing difficult to the former, and Deo móðt'-ter ali'-ber ley'-yel-tai niyt ü"-ber doe klah'-ghen dess

hinders the prosperity of the latter. 8. The stars are favourable to

me; my undertaking will be easy to me. Mitchens, tenn sie crfannte wohl und verehrte die Heilige

9. If bugs are not injurious

to men, yet they are troublesome to them. 10. I am very glad that I meyt-yenss, den zee err-kan'-tai vole ovat ferr-eyr’-tai dee hi-li-gai

can be useful to you in this affair. 11. Your praise was very flatterin Stimune

ter
Natur in tem Herzen bes Kindes

Ach! to my friend. 12. To become good is difficult to the vicious, because shtim'-mai dair na-toor in daiin herr'-tsen dess kin'-dess. Ady! they generally remain true to their inclinations. 13. Many a week sagte sie, wie mag dem untantbaren Kinde Muthe

man is superior in mind to the strong man. zu

11. What difference is zahich'- tai zee, vee mahdh ) daim õõn'-dank-bah-ren kin'-dai tsoo moo'-tai is dissimilar to the other ?”

there between saying, “One man is unlike to the other," and "One min

15. How stands the game? 16. Very Tein am Grabe ter Gltern.

unfavourably to me. 17. Though it is disagreeable to me, I must de zine am grah'- bai dair eľ-tern,

clare to you that your talk is insufferable to me. 18. Who likes to admit

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the principle, that "He who is not submissive to his king is untrue to is deposited in crystals. In this form its specific gravity is 4:5, his fatherknd p" 19. I shall never forget how much I am obliged to whereas in the vitreous state it was 4.7. you. 20. Not every one who is related to me is also well-pleasing to

A third modification, corresponding to the viscid state of 21. What concerns me, I consider also as a matter of importance.

sulphur, is obtained by sustaining the temperature of the EXERCISE 93 (Vol. II., page 63).

selenium at 90°C. for some hours: it then suddenly rises to 1. Wer fann einem Kinte feind sein? 2. 3it es Ihnen genehm, einen 160°C. If it now be cooled, its specific gravity is found to be Spaziergang zu macben? 3. Dieses ist Jürem Gesetsäste ichädlich. 4. 4-8, its fracture has become granular, like cast iron, and its Jaermann war ihm gcirocent. 5. Eine gütige That ist Butt wohlgefällig.

colour changed to bluish-grey. When thrown upon a hot coal 6. Sie sind 3ørem Vater in Ihren Gewohnheiten sehr ähnlich, denn er war peculiar smell—that of horseradish. It burns in the air with a

reddish vapours are given off, which are characterised by their abgeneiyt dem Rauchen und abholt dein Trinfen. 7. Was mir ingebürt, lub ich mir auch angelegen sein. 8. Ietem denkenden Manne ist es bemert: bright blue flame, and two well-defined oxides-selenic dioxide

Seo,) and selenic trioxide (SeO3)—are known. lar, das es für einen Fürsten nicht leicht ist, ein Volt sich ergeben sachen. 9. Mit Vergnügen will ich Ihnen behülflich sein, eine Anreitung zu erhal 111.5), is usually prepared by oxidising selenium by means

Selenic dioxide, or Selenious Acid (Se0,; combining weight, 10. Sei teinen Eltern gefällig, ihrein Willer gehorsam, dann wer: den sie tir geneigt und teitei Glüfe günstig sein. 11. Kaltes Wasser of nitric acid. The excess of the nitric acid is expelled by heat, trinten in einem erbitten Körper schidlich. 12. Das Pferd ist ein gelehriges near low red heat it will sublime in a yellow vapour, which on

and the white selenious anhydroxide remains. At a temperaturo ter une feinem Serrn geborjam. 13. Wenn es Ihnen angenehm ist, condensing forms beautiful white acicular (needle-like) crystals. isanen Sie morgen Mittag zu mir. 14. Der Hund ist seinem Herrn These are deliquescent—that is, they absorb moisture from the pu:ain und treu. 15. Er war geneigt sich seinen Freunden unangenehm atmosphere becoming selenious acid, which forms with bases zu machen. EXERCISE 94 (Vol. II., page 94).

the class of salts called selenites, which are all recognised by

emitting the horseradish odour, when heated on charcoal in 1. In olden times, when a mighty man was hostile to another, he de- the blowpipe flame. clared war against him. 2. From all places which belonged to him, this

Selenic Acid (H,Se0.).—This acid is produced if, in the promighty man collected those men who adhered to him. 3. After they had

cess which has been given for procuring selenium, sulphuretted Essented to his purpose, they engaged to assist him, and to follow him to the war. 4. Such a mighty lord was Henry the Lion, Duke of Bavaria, hydrogen be used, instead of sulphurous acid. Thus--to whoun belonged large territories, and whom thousands of warriors

PbSeo, + H,S = H, Seo, + PbS. obeyed. 5. Yet the crown of an emperor always floated before his eyes. By filtering, the lead sulphide is separated; and by evaporating 6. The ducal coronet was not sufficient for him, 7. He trusted to his the liquid until its specific gravity is 2:6, selenic acid is own power, and defied the emperor. 8. The emperor summoned him obtained. When heated this acid gives off oxygen, and becomes to submit to his orders, and threatened him with outlawry. 9. Yet the selenious acid; it forms with bases selenates, which are isomordute, who resembled a lion, valued neither reason nor advice. 10. As he phous with their corresponding sulphates, that is, they crystaltill then had overcome all his enemies, he believed himself to be a match lise in the same form. for everybody. 11. He resisted the demand to render an honour to the

Seleniuretted Hydrogen (symbol, H, Se; combining weight, emperor, which was due to him. 12. The emperor, who for some time sished the duke ill, and on account of his pride was angry with him, 81-5; density, 40:75).-This gas is obtained exactly as sulanticipated him, and waged war against him. 13. The warlike expedi- phuretted hydrogen, that is, by the action of an acid on a tion was not unsuccessful for the emperor. 14. The duke could not selenide. Its odour is even more offensive than that of its withstand the hostile power, and was defeated by the emperor in the sulphur correspondent. battle. 15. He was obliged to flee to England, and only his family and TELLURIUM :-SYMBOL, T5-COMBINING WEIGHT, 129-DENSITY, 120. a few of his friends followed him. 16. Here he resigned all hope, and

The classes of every natural kingdom seem to gradate into each esecrated pride as the cause of his misery. 17. According to your other. That is, between every great division we find individuals rish, I will help you in looking for the horse which you have lost. 18. One very easily obeys a noble master, who convinces while he which partake of the characteristics of each class. Tellurium cornmands us, 19. I do not relish this roast meat.

occupies this position between the metals and metalloids, whilst, from its rather high specific gravity, 6'5, some chemists are inclined to rank it with the metals; yet, from its close

analogy to selenium and sulphur, others prefer to consider it LESSONS IN CHEMISTRY.-XVI. as a metalloid. It is a rare substance, sometimes found native SELENIUM-TELLURIUM-PHOSPHORUS.

in the mines of Hungary and Transylvania, but generally it is

combined with gold, silver, bismuth, or copper. It possesses & SELENIUM :-SYMBOL, SE--COMBINING WEIGHT, 79.5—DENSITY, 79.5. high metallic lustre, and resembles bismuth in appearance. A This rare element was discovered by Berzelius in the refuse of high temperature converts it into a yellow vapour, which cona salphuric acid manufactory, at Fahlun, in Sweden. It is not denses in drops and flexible needles ; it is a feeble conductor of found free in nature, and the source from which it is usually heat and electricity. When strongly heated in the air it takes obtained is the mineral clausthalite, in which it is combined fire, and burns with a blue flame, edged with green, into with lead-although the selenides of iron, copper, and silver are Tellurous Dioxide (Te0.), which with water forms tellurous the most abundant.

acid (H, Te0z). Its acid properties are feeble, and it possesses Preparation. Some clausthalite is reduced to a fine powder a bitter metallic taste. and fused with three times its weight of saltpetre, by this means Telluric Acid (H,Te0.) is the combination of telluric trioxide the selenide (PbSe) becomes selenate (PbSe0.). The mass is and water. This trioxide is produced when the element, or a Dow digested in water, acidulated with a little hydrochloric acid tellurite, is heated with salt patre. The process is similar to that to neutralise any of the alkali of the nitre which may remain, by which selenic acid was procured. and the liquid evaporated down to a small bulk. A current of Telluretted Hydrogen (H, Te) is procured by the action of sulphurous acid throws down the reduced selenium as a red, hydrochloric acid on an alloy of tellurium with zinc or tin. It Bocculent, amorphous powder, the sulphurous acid becoming is a colourless gas, having the same smell as sulphuretted zulphuric.

hydrogen. It acts upon solutions of metallic salts similarly to Properties.-It is chiefly remarkable for its close resemblance that gas, precipitating their tellurides. to sulphur. It may be obtained, like that element, in the three It is usual to group oxygen, sulphur, selenium, and tellurium forms-amorphous, vitreous, and crystalline. When the powder together, since they each unite with two atoms of hydrogen. of the precipitato above alluded to is dried, and submitted to a The last three elements, as in the case of the three halogens, temperature a little below that of boiling water, it begins to exhibit a remarkablo gradation. Their combining weights, their xoften, and a few degrees higher it melts ; upon cooling, it forms specific gravities, their melting and boiling points, being almost a brittle solid, with a glassy fracture. Its colour is deep brown; in arithinetical progression--that is, in everything selenium is a it possesses neither taste nor smell; is insoluble in water, and mean between sulphur and tellurium. refuses to conduct either heat or electricity: and yet its lustre is PHOSPHORUS:--SYMBOL, P-COMBINING WEIGHT, 31-DENSITY, 62. metallic. Sulphuric acid is capable of dissolving it, and is The density of the vapour of phosphorus is an exception to rendered green; but when diluted the selenium falls unaltered. the rulo hitherto strictly regarded, for, instead of being the Bi-ulphide of carbon, at its boiling point, can hold in solution same as its atomic weight, it is just double, or 62, and there1 per cent of this element, and upon evaporation the selenium | fore the volume occupied by an atom of phosphorus is only

H

H

Na

H

}, that of the preceding elements being 1. The great affinity | form by evaporating its solution. If, now, these crystals bo phosphorus exhibits for oxygen, precludes the possibility of its melted by heat, and the temperature maintained for some time being found free in nature. It chiefly exists in combination at 212°C, one atom of the basic water will be expelled, and the with lime, as phosphate of lime (calcium phosphate, Ca,2PO.), bibasic acid remains. These three kinds may, when in solution, which is found in bones, and in the seeds of plants. The origin be thus distinguished — of calcium phosphate is traced to a constituent of some of the The monobasic is the only one which will precipitate a solution granitic rocks—the mineral apatite-from the disintegration of of albumen. which the soil has become possessed of this necessary ingre- The bibasic gives a white precipitate with nitrate of silver. dient of all seed-producing soils.

The tribasic a yellow precipitate with the same salt. Preparation. Bone earth—which is obtained by calcining By replacing the atoms of water in these acids by various bones—is composed of į phosphate of lime and } carbonate of bases, corresponding salts may be obtained. Sometimes the lime; this is treated with diluted sulphuric acid, and kept at water atoms are replaced by different bases. Thus, 100°C for twenty-four hours. By this means all the carbonate of

Na,o lime becomes sulphate, and the phosphate is deprived of two

2(NH 20 ,05. molecules of lime, which are replaced by two of water. Thus,

H,0 3CaOP,0, + 24, so, = 2(Caso.) + Ca02H,OP,0.. is microcosmic salt, which is much used with the blowpipe. This last salt is called the superphosphate of lime. Being soluble This process may be thus exhibited it is easily separated from the calcium sulphate. Evaporating

H,O down the solution to a syrup, a quarter of its weight of charcoal

H20 P,0s, or HY PO, is added, and the whole transferred to an iron retort. The neck

HO of the retort dips into water. On applying heat, bubbles of Now replace one of the H by its equivalent of Nag, and another carbonic oxide escape, and phosphorus, as a yellow wax-like by its equivalent (NH,) ammonium, so that we have substance, distils into the water, the reaction being thus ex. pressed :

NH?PO,. 3(Ca02H,OP,0) + 10C = 1000 + 6H,0 + 3CaO P,0, + 4P. Properties. It is sold in sticks, which are clear and colourless Phosphorous Acid (P,0,) is obtained by burning phosphorus when the substance is new. Its specific gravity is 1.83. It in a limited supply of air. It is bibasic, forming phosphites. oxidises at all temperatures above 0°C, emitting a faint "phos- When raised to a high heat it is resolved into phosphoric acid, phorescent" light, giving off white fumes, which are phosphoric and the gas next to be considered. acid (P, 03). It melts at 45°C, and boils at 290°C. It is extremely

4P,0, + 3H,0 = 3P,0; + 2PH,. inflammable, and must be handled with the greatest care, as much under water as possible. Carbonic disulphide dissolves it phorus are heated in a strong solution of potash, bubbles of

Phosphuretted Hydrogen (PH3).—When a few pieces of phosreadily: from this solution it can be obtained in crystals. When this gas are emitted, which, as they rise from the water into heated in an atmosphere of H, or CO,, to a temperature of which the delivery tube is dipped, take fire. As the combustion 240°C, it assumes its “amorphous” condition, which is a dark red powder. This is more easily made by melting

the is simultaneous at all points of bubble, a ring of white vapour phosphorus with a trace of iodine. In this condition it is not of phosphoric acid is formed. This very beautiful experiment is nearly so inflammable, need not be kept under water, and is not soluble in carbonic disulphide. Matches.—

The great use of phosphorus is in the manufacture of lucifer matches. The ordinary ones are composed of a mixture of phosphorus, potassium chlorate, glue, and red lead, the stick is first dipped in parafin, and then into the above paste.

Bryant and May's safety matches, which only strike on the lid, are made of sulphide of antimony, potassium chlorate, and powdered glass. The lid is smeared with red amorphous

K phosphorus, and ignition only takes place when the potassium chlorate and phosphorus are rubbed together. By using the above mixture, it is found unnecessary to dip the stick in parafin, as it will catch fire from the ignited composition. This action of phosphorus and potassium chlorate may be shown by powdering a few grains of the salt, adding a piece of red phosphorus about the size of a pea, then very carefully folding it up in paper, upon striking it a moderate blow with a stick, a somowhat violent explosion will ensue. Phosphorus is poison. ous; it has a singular action on the jaw-bone, which decays away: this is said not to be the case with the amorphous variety.

Phosphoric Anhydride (symbol, P,03) is a white powder, formed when phosphorus is burnt in oxygen, or dry air. It is very

Fig. 48. deliquescent, combining with three atoms of water, forming the hydrated acid (3H,OP,0.), which may be considered as two arranged as in Fig. 48. The flask must be nearly full of the molecules of H,PO,

solution. Phosphoric Acid.—The anhydride is capable of forming three

Phosphuretted hydrogen is not spontaneously inflammable acids, by taking three different proportions of water. Consider. when pure, but this property is due to the presence of a minute ing the water as a base, the acids are named

quantity of a liquid, whose composition is supposed to be PH,. Monobasic H,OP,0,.

It is this gas which sets fire to the bubble of marsh gas, forming 2H,OP,05.

the ignis fatuus.
Tribasic
3H,OP,Os.

Phosphorous Chloride (PC12).-Clear phosphorus burns with 2 Sometimes the first is called "metaphospholic acid,” and the pale blue flame in dry chlorine, forming this compound. It is second "pyrophosphoric acid,” because it is got from the third capable of decomposing water and other oxides, the chlorino by heat.

combining with the hydrogen, or the metal and the phosphorus The Monobasic is obtained by evaporating dilute phosphoric forming a phosphite (H,PO2). acid to a syrup, and subjecting this to a low red heat.

Phosphoric Chloride (PC1,) is produced by a further action of The Tribasic is procured by boiling for twenty minutes a chlorine on phosphorus chloride. With bromine two similar solution in water of “glacial phosphoric acid.” This latter is compounds are formed; with iodine the beautiful crystalline formed when the hydrate (2H, PO.) is exposed to a red heat in P. I,, and with sulphur three well characterised sulphides-P, a platinum dish. The tribasic acid may be got in a crystalline P, S, P,S.--are produced.

[graphic]

Bibasic

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