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NOTES.

nations, a gardé la teinte brune de sa peau et le noir éclat de ses

COLLOQUIAL EXERCISE. cheveux.13 Voilà donc notre Bilboquet enchanté. Enfin il se

1. Le marchand chercha-t-il à 11. Que fut-elle bientôt obligée de décide, et entre dans une petite boutiques où se trouvait un

le dissuader?

faire ? barchand magnifiquement barbu.15 Le marchand s'approche

2. Pourquoi ne put-il lui faire 12. Pourquoi l'auteur ne veut-il de notre ami et lui demande humblement en mauvais français- entendre raison ?

point faire le tableau de cet hor"Que voulez-vous, mon petit Monsieur ?" 16

3. Comment les soldats trou rible désastre ? * Je veux (i) ta barbe,” répondit cavalièrement Bilboquet.17 vèrent-ils l'idée du tambour ? 13. Que suffit-il de savoir ? " Ma barbe !” dit le marchand stupéfait; " vous voulez (j)

4. Quo firent-ils?

14. Où se trouvait le régiment de 5. Que fit le perruquier du régi Bilboquet ?

ment? "Je te dis, vaincu, que je veux ta barbe,” reprend le vain

15. Que faisnient les Cosaques ?

6. Le tambour parut-il content de 16. Qu'avait-on essayé de faire çceur superbe en posant la main sur son sabre; "mais no crois

si prise ?

après avoir passé la rivière ? pas que je veuillo (k) te la voler :19 tiens, (l) voilà un nepoléon,

17. Pourquoi l'explosion n'avaittu me rendras mon romani im).

arrivant ?

elle pas eu beaucoup d'effet ?

8. Où la plaça-t-il ensuito ? 18. Pourquoi la charpente da pont COLLOQUIAL EXERCISE.

9. Parla-t-on longtemps de cetto ne tombait-elle pas ? 1. A partir de ce jour, comment| 11. Dès que Bilboquet y fut entre, aventure ?

19. Qu'est-ce que les ennemis traita-t-on notre héros ? qu'éprouva-t-il ?

10. Qu'arriva-t-il à l'armée fran-1 auraient pu faire, s'ils étaicnt 2. Que fit-il de son argent ? 12. Quelle était la couleur de leurs çaise après son entrée à

arrivés ? Que firent les troupes françaises barbes ?

Moscou ? quelque temps après ?

13. Quelle est la teinte qu'a gardée Que fit le petit tambour le jour la nation juive ? de son arrifée ?

14. Quand il eut décidé, que fit. (a) Faire entendre raison au (1) On se remit en marche, the 5. De quoi parnissait-il content ? il ?

petit B., induce little B. to march was resumed. 6. De quelle manière considérait- 15. Qui s'y trouvait-il ?

listen to reason.

(1) From atteindre. ul le visage des habitants ? 16. Que lui dit le marchand ? (6) Il s'engagea une dispute, (le) Qu'il, let it. 7. Quelles personnes regardait-il 17. Que lui répondit le petit tam an altercation comnienced. (1) From suffire. particulièrement? bour? (c) From se mettre.

(m) S'il restait, if there remained. Enfin où arriva-t-il ? 18. Que lui répondit le mar. (d) Remit, delivered.

(n) Obéissant, obeying, 9. Que Tendent les Juifs à Smo chand?

() Carried it.

(o) Ils venaient de, they had just. lensk?

19. Quelle fut la réponse du petit (f) Fit coudre, had it sowed. (P) Faire sauter, blow up. 11. Y'ont-ils pas un quartier par. tambour ?

(9) Causa, talked, spoke.

() From produire. siculier ?

(h) From falloir.

(1) La retenait, supported it. NOTES. (a) They did not laugh any more. (9) Thick, bushy. 1. From devenir. (1) Y, there.

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS I FRENCH. 14 Au lieu de, instead of. (0) I want.

EXERCISE 79 (Vol. I., page 371). (d! I alla se promener, he went 6) Vous voulez rire, you are to take a walk.

1. At what hour did your sister come? 2. She came at a quarter

joking. (1) Il faut vous dire, I must tell (1) Je veuille, subj., from vouloir. 4. They were born neither in Ronen nor in Caen, they were born in

before eight. 3. Were those young ladies born in Rouen or in Caen? (1) Tiens, tako, here. From porter. (m) Mon reste, my change.

Strasburg. 5. Is the watchmaker at home? 6. No, Sir, he is gone

to his warehouse. 7. Has he been in Paris this year? 8. Yes, Madam, SECTION VI.

he has been there. 9. Has he bought goods there? 10. He has

bought jewellery there. 11. Did you go to my father? . 12. I went to Le pauvre marchand voulut faire entendre (a) raison au him. 13. Has your hatter gone out to-day? 14. He has not been petit Bilboquet, mais il était entêté comme un cheval aveugle, out, he is sick. 15. Is the mason at home? 16. No, Madam, he is et il s'engagea (6) une dispute qui attira bientôt quelques gone out. 17. When did he go out? 18. He went out an hour ago. soldats. Ils entrèrent pour s'informer du motif de la querelle, 19. Did your hatter arrive to-day or yesterday! 20. He arrived yeset ils trouvèrent l'idée du tambour si drôle, qu'ils obligèrent terday at four o'clock in the morning. 21. Has our tailor been to le pauvre Juif à lui céder sa barbe, * et l'un d'eux, Gascon et see his father to-day? 22. He has left for Lyons. 23. Has not my perruquier du régiment, tira des rasoirs de sa poche, se mit () Germany. 25. My sister has been at church this morning, and is

cousin's goldsmith left for Spain? 24. No, Sir, he has returned to i maser le malheureux marchand et remit (d) solennellement le

gone to school half an hour ago. tout à Bilboquet qui l'emporta (e) en triomphe. En arrivant au régiment, il la fit (1) coudre par le tailleur sur un morceau

EXERCISE 80 (Vol. I., page 371). de peau d'un tambour crevé, et sans rien dire de son dessein, 1. Le médecin est-il à la maison? 2. Non, Monsieur, il n'est pas à il la mit au fond de son sac. On en causa (9) pendant quelques la maison, il est sorti. 3. Etes-vous sorti ce matin? 4. Non, Monsieur, jours, mais il fallut (h) bientôt penser à autre chose. On se je ne suis pas sorti

, je suis malade. 5. La petite fille de votre sour estremit en (1) marche, et on ne pensait plus au petit Bilboquet, elle sortie ? 6. Oui, Monsieur, elle est sortie, elle est chez mon frère. quand on arriva à Moscou.

7. À quelle heure le chapelier est-il arrivé? 8. Il est arrivé hier au Alors il arriva d'affreux malheurs, le froid et la dévastation soir à neuf heures. 9. Le bijoutier a-t-il été à Paris ou à Lyon cette privèrent l'armée française de toutes ses ressources,lo la famine Avez-vous été trouver mon frère ou ma sæur? 12. Je n'ai pas eu le

année? 10. Il a été a Paris il y a six mois, mais il est de retour. 11. atteignit (), et bientôt il fallut se retirer à travers un pays temps d'aller les trouver. 13. Où ce monsieur est-il né? 14. Il est désert et des neiges sans fin." Je ne veux pas vous faire un né en Angleterre, à Exeter ou à Portsmouth. 15. Votre soeur n'esttrhleau de cet horrible désastre ; c'est une chose trop vaste et elle pas née à Paris? 16. Non, Monsieur, elle est née à Madrid, en trop épouvantable 12 à la fois, pour que je vous en parle dans Espagne. 17. M'avez-vous dit que M. votre frère a acheté une bonne cette histoire; qu'il (k) vous suffise (1) de savoir que chacun maison? 18. Il a acheté une très bonne maison à Londres. 19. Savezl'on retournait comme il pouvait, 13 et que c'est à peine s'il (m) vous à quelle heure l'horloger est arrivé? 20. Il est arrivé ce matin à restait quelques régiments réunis en corps d'armée et obéissant (n) cinq

heures moins un quart. 21. A-t-il apporté beaucoup de bijouterie ? 13 généraux. Celui de Bilboquet était de ce nombre. Il était de montres. 23. A-t-il été en France ou en Allemagne ? 24. Il a été

22. Il n'a pas apporté beaucoup de bijouterie, mais il a apporté beaucoup de l'arrière-garde, 14 qui empêchait des milliers de Cosaques, qui en France, en Allemagne et en Suisse. 25. Malle, votre seur est-elle souvaient la retraite de l'armée, 15 de massacrer les malheureux à la maison, Monsieur? 26. Non, Monsieur, elle est sortie, elle est

allée à l'église. 27. A-t-elle été à l'école, hier? 28. Elle a été à l'école Cn jour, ils venaient de (o) franchir une petite rivière, et, et à l'église. 29. Y est-elle à présent? 30. Non, Monsieur, elle en rotz retarder la poursuite des ennemis

, on avait essayé de faire est revenue. 31. Le chapelier ect-il arrivé? 32. Oui, Monsieur, il est sauter (p) deux arches d'un pont de bois qu'on venait de tra- arrivé. 33. Quand est-il arrivé ? 34. Il est arrivé hier, à neuf heures Tamer ; mais les tonneaux de poudre avaient été posés si pre

du matin, capitamment,17 que l'explosion ne produisit (a) que peu d'effet:

EXERCISE 81 (Vol. I., page 372). szches furent cependant démantibulées, mais toute la char 1. Is the young man gone far! 2. He is not gone very far, he is only I ate appuyait encore sur une grosse poutre qui la (9) retenait, 18 gone as far as Paris. 3. Your children make too much noise ; why do et qui, si les ennemis fussent arrivés, eût bientôt permis de you not take them away ? 4. They are sick, they cannot walk. 5. construire le pont.19

How have you brought them here? 6. I brought them in a carriage.

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2xy

13@y

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are

ax

7. At what hour do you bring the physician? 8. I bring him every alike, as + 4b + 56, or — 4y— 3y, etc. Find the sum of the co. day at twelve. 9. How many times a day do you take your pupils to efficients, annex the common letter or letters, and prefix the com. church? 10. I take them to church twice a day. 11. How many

mon sign. times have you been there? 12. I have been there several times. 13.

EXAMPLES.-(1.) What is the sum of 3a, 4a, and 6a ? Which way did those travellers come ? 14. They came through Amiens and Rouen.

= 13a. Ans. 15. Whence do you bring this news? 16. I

Here, 3a + 4a + 6a bring it from Cologne. 17. Whence have you brought those superb (2.) 3xy (3). 76 + y (4.) ry + 3abh (5.) cdwy + 3mg horses? 18. I have brought them from England. 19. If you leave 7xy

8b + 3xy
3ry + abh

2cdxy + ng France, do you intend to take away your son? 20. I intend to tako

ay
2b + 2xy
Gry + 4abh

5cdxy + 7mg him away. 21. What have you brought from France? 22. We have

6b + 5xy
2ry + abh

7cdzy + 8mg brought magnificent silk goods, fine cloths, and Lyons hats. 23. Have you brought your daughter on foot or on horseback? 24. I

23b + 1lcy
12ry +9abh

15cdæy + 19mg brought her in a carriage. 25. Your brothers have brought us books.

50. The mode of proceeding is the same, when all the signs EXERCISE RA (VAI T

- học: . 1. Combien de temps M. votre fils a-t-il demeuré à Londres ? 2.

EXAMPLES.-(1.) What is the sum of - Buc, Il y a demeuré dix ans. 3. Jusqu'où le médecin est-il allé ? 4. Lo

Here — 3c - bc - 5bc = -9bc. médecin est allé jusqu'à Cologne. 5. A-t-il emmené son fils avec lui?

(2.)

(3.) – 2ab my (4.) Засh. 8bdy 6. Il ne l'a pas emmené. 7. Comment avez-vous amené vos deux petites

ach - bdy filles ? B. J'ai amené l'une en voiture, et ma femme a porté l'autre. 9.

Зах
ab - 3my

2ax
- 7ab — Smy

- 5ach — 7bdy Est-elle trop petite pour marcher? 10. Elle n'est pas trop petite pour marcher, mais elle est malade. 11. Avez-vous amené votre cheval? 12.

баа - 10ab - 12my

Sach

16bdy Nous avons amené deux chevaux. 13. Avez-vous apporté les livres

51. Case 2.-When the quantities are alike, but the signs que vous m'avez promis ? 14. J'a oublié de les apporter. 15. Cette unlike, that is, only one of each, as + 9b and — 6b; dame a-t-elle amené son fils aîné ? 16. Elle a amené tous ses enfants. 17. Comment sont-ils venus ? 18. Ils sont venus en voiture. 19.

Take the less co-efficient from the greater ; to the difference, Par où M. votre frère est-il venu d'Allemagne ? 20. Il est venu par annex the common letter or letters, and prefix the sign of the Aix-la-Chapelle et par Bruxelles. 21. Avez-vous l'intention de mener greater co-efficient. votre fils à l'école, cette après-midi? 22. Je n'ai pas l'intention de l'y Suppose a man's loss is £500, and his gain £2,000. The mener, il fait trop froid. 23. Cet enfant est-il trop malade pour algebraic notation is - 500 + 2000, i.e., £500 is to be subtracted marcher ? 24. Il est trop malade pour marcher, et j'ai l'intention de from his stock, and £2,000 added to it. But it will be the same le porter. 25. Pourquoi ne l'y menez-vous pas en voiture? 20. Mon in effect, and the expression will be greatly abridged, if we add frère a emmené mon cheval. 27. Avez-vous amené le médecin ? 28. the difference between £500 and £2,000, viz., £1,500 to his Je ne l'ai pas amené, il n'y a personne de malade chez vous. 29.

stock. Voulez-vous porter ce livre à l'église ? 30. J'en ai un autre, je n'en ai pas besoin. 31. Avez-vous porté ma lettre à la poste ? 32. Je l'ai

EXAMPLES.-(1.) What is the sum of 16 ab and — 7ab? oubliée. 33. Jusqu'à quelle heure avez-vous écrit ? 34. J'ai écrit

Ans. 9ab. jusqu'à minuit. 35. D'où Mlles. vos seurs viennent-elles ? 36. Elles

(2.) (3.) (4.) (5.)

(6.) viennent de Paris.

To + 4b 5bc 2hm

dy + 6m 3hAdd -- 66 7bc

Ohm 4dy - 5h + 4de LESSONS IN ALGEBRA.-III.

-26 — 25c -7hm 3dy + 5m 8h + 3ds

52. If several positive and several negative quantities are to ADDITION.

be reduced to one term, first reduce those which are positive, EXAMPLES.-(1.) John has a marbles and gains 6 marbles more. and next those which are negative, to one term, and then proHow many marbles has he in all ?

ceed as in Art. 51. In this example we wish to add a marbles to b marbles. But EXAMPLES.-(1.) Reduce 136 + 66 +6 - 46 - 55 7b, to addition in algebra is denoted by the sign +. Hence +b is one term.

the answer, i.e., John has the sum of a marbles added to b Here, 136 + 66 +b=20b; and — 46 — 5b - 76= - 16b; marbles.

Whence 20b - 166 = 46. Ans. (2.) What is the sum of 36 pounds added to the sum of c (2.) Add 3xy - xy + 2xy — 7xy + 4xy – 9xy + 7y - 6xy. pounds and f pounds ?

Here, 3xy + 2xy + 4xy + 7xy = 16xy. By algebraic notation, 36 +c+f pounds is the answer. And, - xy - 7xy - Ivy - 6xy = -:- 23xy; 44. The learner may be curious to know how many marbles

Whence, 16ay - 23xy = - 7xy. Ans. there are in a + b marbles; and how many pounds in 3b + ctf (3.) Add 3ad had + ad + 7ad - 2ad + 9ad-Bad - dad. pounds. This depends upon the number each letter stands for. Here, 3ad + ad + 7ad + 9ad=20ad; But the questions do not decide what this number is. It is not And, -bad-2ad-sad-4ad = 20ad; the object, in adding them, to ascertain the specific value of a

Whence 20ad -- 20ad = 0. Ans. .and b, or 3b, c, and f; but we find an algebraic expression, which (4.) Add 2abm- abm + 7abm - 3abm + 7abm. will represent their sum or amount. This process is called Here, 2abm + 7abm + 7abm = 16abm; addition. Hence

And, abm -- 3abm= -4abm; 45. ADDITION in algebra may be defined, the connecting of

Whence, 16abm 4abm = 12abın. Ans. several quantities with their signs into one expression.

(5.) Add axy 7axy + Boxy axy — Saxy + 9axy. 46. Quantities may be added, by writing them one after another, Here, axy + Saxy + 9asy = 18axy ; without altering their signs.

And, - 7axy- awy — Saxy = - 16awy; N.B.-A quantity to which no sign is prefixed is always to

Whence, 18axy -- 16axy = 2axy. Ans. be considered positive, that is, the sign + is understood (Art. 53. If two equal quantities have contrary signs, they destroy 12].

each other, that is, the results of their addition is 0, and they EXAMPLE.—What is the sum of a + m, 6 - 8, and 2h – 3m may be cancelled. Thus + 66 - 6b = 0. And (3 X 6) --- 18 + d?

a + m +b - 8+2h — 3m + d. Ans. 0, so 7bc -- 760 = 0. 47. It is immaterial in what order the terms or letters are 54. If the letters, or quantities in the several terms to be added, arranged. If you add 6 and 3 and 9, the amount is the same, are UNLIKE, they can only be placed after each other, with their whether you put the 6, the 3, or the 9 first-namely, 18. But it proper signs (Art. 46). is frequently more convenient, and therefore customary, to arrange EXAMPLES.-(1.) If 46, — 6y, 3x, 17h, 5d, and 6, be added, the letters in alphabetical order.

their sum will be 46 - 6y + 3x + 17h - 5d + 6. 48. It often happens that the expression denoting the sum or (2.) Add ad, aad, to cr, arx, and exxx. amount may be simplified by reducing several terms to one. Different letters, and different powers of the same letter, can Thus, the expression 2a + 7a+ 4a may be abridged by uniting no more be united in the same term, than pounds and guiness the three terms into one. Thus, 2a added to 7a makes 9a, and can be added, so as to make a single sum. Six guineas and four 4a added to 9a makes 13a, that is, 2a + 7a + 4a = 13a. pounds are neither ten guineas nor ten pounds; therefore the There are two cases in which reductions can be made.

sum of the above = aa + aaa + ax + xxx + xxxx. 49. Case 1.-When the quantities are alike, and the signs 55. From the foregoing principles we derive the following

b

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6 abc

6
a + b

GENERAL ROLE FOR ADDITION,

23. az", a*x, y, xy, and 3bya.
29. a3 – 2alb - 3ab2 + 263, 303 – – 4ab2 + 1063, 293 – 3a2

6ab2 Write down the quantities to be aaded without altering their

+ 13, and 503 – 4a*b - ab? + 363. signs, placing those that are álike_under each other; and unite 30. 2 - 5,3- 3.c + 1, 22-3 + 6x2 + 5x + 3, 3x3 22:2 — *-1, and 4x3 such terms as are similar.

22 + 2x - 5. Otherwise.-Write the quantities to be added one after another, 31. - @ +b+c+d, a-b+c+d, a + b -c+d, and a +b +o- d. putting the sign + between them, and then simplify the expression 32. a - 26, 2b - 3c, 3c - 4d, 4d - 5e, and 56 - 6f. by incorporating like quantities.

33. 33 + 2yz - 3yz", 2y3 + 2yaz + 5yz, and 343 – 4yaz – 2y22. Nate 1.-If any of the quantities be in brackets and the sign S4. ax3 + bx, bas – cx, and can + dx*. + be before the brackets, the brackets may be removed without

35. mai – nz, nza - pz, and 2z - . altering the result.

By brackets is meant the vinculum or parenthesis, already KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN ALGEBRA.
explained [Art. 21). This is one of the most important things
in the study of Algebra ; its use is unlimited. If quantities

EXERCISE 1. be included in any manner between brackets or parentheses,

1. (a - b) (b + c + a) 37m +

h + 6 they must be treated as a single quantity, that is, the result of the operation of the signs within the brackets is to be used 2. a + b :

:: ac : 19h, instead of the quantities themselves, as a general rule. If the

a + b + c signs of the quan ties within the brackets be either plus or 3.

4 (a + b + c)- d. minus, or a combination of both, and if a factor be outside the

= 7a bracket, each of the quantities within may be multiplied by

36" that factor, preserving their signs, and the product will be the

EXERCISE 2. same as if the result were multiplied by that factor. Thus, : (+ b - c) = ax + bx — c; or, if a + b c = e; then

1. The product of a and 6 increased by the quotient of 3 times hi 2(a + b - c) = er. Conversely, if the result of the quantities minus c, divided by the sum of a and y, is equal to the product of d by

a increased by the sum of b and c, and diminished by the quotient of within the brackets be multiplied by any factor, the result will

h divided by the sum of 6 and b. be the same as if each of the quantities were multiplied by that 2. If a be added to 7 times the sum of h and x, and from this sum, factor. Thus, if a + b c = e; then, ex = (a + b -- c) the quotient of c less 6 times d, divided by the sum of twice a and 4, et br - cz. If several factors be employed, the same results be subtracted, the remainder will be equal to the sum of a and hig, will tako place. Thus, axy + bæy - cxy = æy ( a + bc) multiplied by the difference of b and c. (a + b - c) zy; and mbed — nbcd + pbcd=bcd (m – n+p) = 3. The difference of a and b, is to the product of a and c, as the (mn -- + p) bed; and payz + qxyz rxyz = xyz (p+q--7)=

difference of d and 4, divided by m, is to 3 multiplied by the sum of (P+9-9) rys. Expressions of this kind may be varied in-h, d, and y. definitely.

4. If the quotient of the difference between a and h, divided by the Note 2.-If the sign – be before the brackets, they cannot be the product of a and b, divided by twice m, the whole will be equal to

sum of 3, and b less c, be added to the quotient of the sum of d and removed without vitiating the result, until the signs of all the the quotient of b times a multiplied by the sum of 2 and h, divided by terms within the brackets be changed, viz., + into

and con

a times m, lessened by the quotient of c times a divided by h increased versely.

by d times m. EXAMPLE.—To 3bc -- 60 + 26 - 3y, add 3bc + 2 - 3d

EXERCISE 3. + bg, and 20+ y +3x + b.

3 x 6 These may be arranged thus : 3bc — 6d + 26-3y

1. + 3 + 8 x 10 = 9 + 3 + S0 = 92.

2 -3bc - 3d

+*+bg

4 + 80 (4 2) + 10
20+ b + y +- 3.

2.
+

7 + 1 = 8.
2 x 6 3 X 6 12 18

4 + (4 x 2 x 10)

4 + 18 - 72 +36 - 2y +4c +- bg And the sum will be

3.

+ 64 EXERCISE 4.

+ 6+ -7 = 68. Add together the following quantities

(3 x 4) + (3 x 6) (3 x 4 x 10) - (6 x 2)

12 + 18 I eh + 8, to cd - 3, and 5ab 4m + 2.

4. 4 X8 +

=32 + 2 2+ 3y - dz, to 7 - X-8 + hm.

12) - 12

108

32 + 5 – 3 = 34. 3. abu - 3+ bm, to y - x + 7, and 5x – 6y + 9.

36

36 4. 3am # 6 – 7xy - 8, to 10xy - 9 + 5am.

2 x 4

5. (3 x 4 x 8) + 5. 6ıky + 7d - 1 + wxy, to zahy - 78 + 17

+ (2 * 10) = 96 + + 20 = 118. - may & 7ad - h + 8xy - ad, to 5ad + h - 7xy.

8-4

3 = 5 x 2 + 7. Pby - Jax + 2a, to 3bx

6. (3 + 2) * (10 - 8) + by + a.

- 3= 9.

ž &. ax + by - xy, to - by + 2xy + 5ar.

3 x (6 + 2)

(2 + 4) (8 6)
7.
+ (3 X 4 X 2)

+ 24 9. 4lodf - 10xy - 186, to 7xy + 25 + 3cdf.

10 - 6

10

(* x 2) 10.3 - 17xy + 18a, to fax 5x + 63cx,

6 x 2

12

= 6 + 24 - 24. 11. Bab - 6ibe + 4cd 7xy, to 17mn + 18fg – 2ax. 42abe + 10abd, to 50abc + 15abd + 5xyz.

(9 x 2) + (5 x 8)

6 + 40 8.

(4 x 6 - 4) * (3-2)

+ 8 - (2 x 4) + 13. -y; 6 - df + 44, to 4df – 20 + 3ax + 754.

(2 x 10) + 3

10

20 + 3 46

(24 — 4) x 1 14 450 - 106 + 4cdj, to 826 - 4cdf + 100 –

20
46.
8-8+

+ 0 +
10

10 15, 12 (Q + b) + 3 (a + b), to 2 (a + b) – 10 (a + b). 16. zy (a + b) + Sry (a + b), to 2xy (a + b) - day (a + b). 17. ax + ea, * + axr, 4aq + 2x + ax, and 2xrx. 18. y - m + , 2x + 10g, to 4xy + 6g Sex. 19 aad + taga, to 10aaa 14aaa + 8aaa.

8+

18

+

4+ (3 x 6) + (4 * 2 * 8)

2

3 x 4,

12

3 x 2 x 6

6 30 6

=32 +

8

8

8 - 6

24

18

12.

23

LATIN STEMS. 29. 12yvyy - 10xx, to 20xx - Syyyy + 211 + 3yyyy. 21. 4 (2-y) - 13, to (a + b) - 16 (x - y) - 7(a + b).

We are about to lay before the student a large portion of the 22. a (x + y) - 6y, to 40 (a - b) + 8a (x + y) - 36 (a - b).

roots of the Latin language. In the study of them, he may 23. 10axy + 17bcd axy, to Gaxy 14bcd,

become acquainted with the treasures of the Roman literature, 24. - 2+ y + 6* (a - b) - 7x, to 16y - 15x (a - b) + 25%.

and the tone and strength of the Roman mind. These lessons dom 3. - 4(x + y) + 16 (x + y), to 15abc - 10 (x + y).

not indeed, lie on the surface. Nevertheless, they are to be learnt B. Sabe - Bay + min, a + 6abc + 14cy - 11a + 6mn, to 15xy - 17abc by care and diligence. For this purpose, the learner should 156 -abc + xy - 3mn + abe. 27. a (x + y) – 36 (2 + y)-4a (x + y) – 4 (x + y) – (x + y), to 4b (x + y) that a language is the mirror of a nation's mind, accustom

impress on his mind the preceding remarks, and remembering + 78 (2 + y) + 5(x + y) + 6b (x + y).

himself to see and contemplate the Romans in their wordsNote. As the expressions (square a), y) (cube y), etc., are those unerring tokens of thought, those mental miniatures. used for the first time in the following exercises, the learner is Of course it is only so much of the Latin vocabulary as exists referred to Art. 28:

in English that I shall set forth in these pages. The Latin

LESSONS IN ENGLISH.—XXIX.

cras

cub

}

Jag

alt

words found in English exist almost exclusively combination. Latin Words. Meanings. Stems.

English Words. The combinations in which they appear vary in kind. The com- Clino

I bend, lie

olin

clinical, recline. bination may consist of one word and a suffix, or one word and Clivus a slope

cliv

declivity, acclivity. a prefix; or, again, of two words with or without terminating

Ccelum
heaven

cel

celestial. forms. The combinations require certain changes. The changes Comes (comitis) a companion

Colo
I cultivate inhabit col

colony. are effected by dropping or altering the Latin termination, or by Copia

comit

concomitant.

plenty the substitution of one vowel for another, as i for a, e for a, etc. Coquo

copi

copious. I cook

c00

co(o)k, to cocker. Coctus cooked

coct LATIN STEMS.

decection. Cor(cordis) the heart

cord

cordial, concord. Latin Words. Meanings. Stems. English Words.

Cornu
a horn

corn

unicorn, cornet. Acer (acris) sharp

acri
acrimony.
Corpus

corpus, corpu, corpuscle, corpulent. Ædes a house edi

the body
edifice.
(corporis) )

corpor incorporate. Facio I make

fi, fy
ratification, edify.

Cras
to-morrow

procrastinate. Æquus equal

equo, equi equanimity, equilibrium. Animus mind

cro(e) d.credulous,cel. anim

Credo animosity.

I believe, trust

cred

ible, credit. Libra a poundorbalance libr libration, equilibrium. Cremo

I burn

crem

cremation.
Aer
air

deri
aerial, aeriform.
Crux (crucis) a cross

cruc

crucify. Ævum an age

ev
cooval.

Cubo
Ager (agri) a field

incubation.
agri
agriculture.

I lie
(cumbo)

cumb incumbent. Cultura cultivation cultur culture.

Culpa
a fault

culp

culpable, culprit. Agger a hеар agger exaggerate.

Cura
care, cure

cura, cur {curator, sinecure. Ago I do, act

agent, agency.
act
actor, active.

The meaning of many of the words given as examples the Ala a ning

ali
aliped.

student will either know already or may deduce from the Pes (pedis) a foot

ped
pedestrian.

etymology. In other cases some additional aid may be required. Altus high

altitude, exalt.

That aid I shall supply in quotations and in such remarks as Amicus a friend

amic, imic amicable, inimical. the several topics may seem to require. Amo I love

ami,amor,amat amiable, amorous,amatory. Anima life, the soul anim animate.

“Those milks (in certain plants) have all an acrimony, though one Verto I turn

vert
animadrert.

would think they should be lenitive."-Bacon, “Natural History." Ad to

ad
adequate.

“Most satirists are indeed a public scourge,
Aunus a year
ann, annu, enni annals, annual, biennial.

Their mildest physic is a farrier's purge,
Bis
twice

bi
biped.

Their acrid temper turns, as soon as stirred,
Aqua water
aqua, aque aquatic, aqueduct.

The milk of their good purpose all to curd."-Corper. Ductus a leading

duct

conduct. Arceo I keep off

Acer is properly that which is sharp, as the point of a spear, erce

coerce. Aro I plough

arable.

or the edge of a sword, that which pricks or cuts; whereas an Ars (artis) art

art, ert
artificer, artist, inert,

acerbus (acerbity) denotes that which is bitter to the taste. Artus a joint

crli
articulation.

According to its derivation, edification is house-building. T1:4 Asper rough

0.8 per

asperity, exasperate, spiritual house is intended, the metaphor being borrowed from Audio I hear

audi, audit audience, auditor. the diction of the New Testament. Consult 1 Cor. iii. 9; xiv. 3; Augeo I increase

aug
augment.

Ephes. ii. 21 ; iv. 12, 16.
Auctio an increasing auct

auction. Auctor an originator auth

author.

“So that it is by the equilibre of the muscles, by the aid of a con: Avis a bird

ari
ariary.

siderable and equipollent (equally powerful) muscular force in constart Beatus blessed

beati
beatitude.

exertion, that the head maintains its erect posture."— Paley," Natura! Bellum

belli, bel
belligerent, rebel.

History."
Gero I carry on
ger, gest belligerent, gesture.

"Government has coercion (restraint) and animadversion upon such back, in opposition

repel, repulse.

as neglect their duty."-South. Bellus beautiful

bell
ernbellish, belle.

Articulation is properly the making of articles, that is, sma". Bene well

bone

benediction, Dictio c saying

dictio
malediction.

limbs or joints; hence dividing a flow of sound so as to produce Bibo I drink

vil
wine-bibber, imbibe.

separate and distinct sounds, that is, letters and syllables. This tro, cacle

bin
combination, binary.

power belongs only to man. Accordingly, Milton, that great Brevis short

brev

brevity, abbreviate. master of distinctive and descriptive epithets, gives as the Cado I fall

cad, cid

cadaverous, accident. characteristics of the human race that they articulate. Casus a fall

casunl. Cædo I cut

The first of these, at least, I thought denied cid

homicide. Casus

To beast, whom God on their creation-day cut

cis

incision, precision. Calor

Created mute to all articulate sound." heat

calor

caloric. Candeo I burn

Milton, “Paradise Lost." Cous, cend incense, incendiary. Candesco I begin to burn

“The former (fore) legs of this animal (the elephant) appear, when candesc

incandescence. Canis

he standeth, like pillars of flesh without any evidence of articulation."a dog

cat

canine. Cano, canto I sing

Brown, "Vulgar Errors." cant, cent

canticles, precentor. Capillus

“Père Bougeant's third volume will give you the best idea of the hair

capill

capillary. Caput

Treaty of Munster, and open to you several views of the belligerent and the head capit

capital. (capitis) ) cipit precipitate.

contracting parties." --Chesterfield. Capio I take

| cap, capt, cip capable,capture anticipate, Derivatively considered, to combine is to put things together

cipi, cept recipient, receptive. in pairs, but it is employed without this restriction to signify t» Carcer a prison

carcer

incarcerate. Caro carnis) flesh

put together generally. carni, carn carnivorous, incarnate. Voro I detour

poracious.

“The impediments were — first, the negligence of the pastors; Carus dear

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Bini

cas

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car
caress.

secondly, combinations, that is double benefices, when men having two Cedo I give place to

ced
recede.

cures could not sufficiently attend both.”-Hales.
ces
concession, access, success.

"Few painters have obliged us with finer scenes, or have possessed Celer swift

celer
celerity, acc'erate.

the art of combining woods, lakes, and rocks into more agreeable Centum a hundred

cont

century, centennial. pictures than G. Poussin."--Hurd, Cerno I separate, see

discern.

It is curious to see in incubation, the act of the hen in setting Cretus separated

cret

secretion, discre(e)t. Cete a whale

on her eggs, and incumbency, the condition of a clergyman as cet

cetaceous. Cinctus girded

cinct
succinct, precincts.

occupant of a living, how the same stem, and very nearly the Citus quickly mored cit

cite, excitement.

same letters, may come to signify things so very unlike. C'lamo I call out

clam, claim
exclamation, proclaim.

Cadaverous comes immediately from cadaver, a corpse, and Clarus clear

clar
clarify, declare.

denotes the colour or complexion of a corpse. Cadaver, a corpse, Claudo I shut

clud
include, exclule.

by its etymology points out the fact which denotes death, namely, Clausus shut

chaus, clus clause, seclusion. falling, from cado, I fall. A dead body cannot stand.

cein

"The subject of the present chapter will be the offence of homicide, measure subsided. The autographs of the writers of the New Testao destroying the life of man, in its several stages of guilt, arising from ment are not known to exist. The word apology sometimes signifies the particular circumstances of mitigation or aggravation which attend defence rather than excuse. The former is the older meaning of the it."-Blackstone, " Commentaries,”

term. The monuments of Egypt are covered with hieroglyphics.

The hieroglyphics of Egypt have for the most part been at length Homicide, that is, in its corresponding Saxon term, man

deciphered. Exodus is the name borne by the second book in the slaughter, denotes the general act of man-killing, leaving it to be Bible. This name was given to the book because it recounts the decided whether the killing was or was not murder, that is, pre departure of the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt. meditated killing. Unpremeditated man-killing is generally termed manslaughter, as contradistinguished from murder. It

To endeavour to improve yourself in composition, report the deserves attention, that not one of these words, homicide, man. following anecdote, as before, to a child or to a class of slaughter, man-killing, murder (Ger. mord, murder; Fr. mort, children :death; and Lat. mort, death), conveys in itself the idea of

ESCAPE OF THE DUKE OF ALBANY. * malice aforethought." Clinical is a scientific word, and, like most of our scientific Princess of Denmark, having disgusted his proud nobility by patro

King James III. of Scotland, after his marriage with Margaret, words, may have come to us from the Greek; for the Greek nising and receiving into favour many persons of inferior rank, deep klino is the root of the Latin clino, and is similar to it in import and dangerous intrigues were formed against him. By these minions A clinical lecture is a discourse on a disease, delivered by the and upstart counsellors he was speedily made aware that his brothers bedside of the patient. A clinical convert is one that is con- -Alexander, Duke of Albany, and John, Earl of Mar-were forming Terted on his death-bed. In the early history of the churches, conspiracies against him, and that the former aimed at nothing less those were called clinici or clinical, who, wishing to have all than wresting the sceptre from his hand--a fact which has since been their sins washed away at once, postponed baptism till their proved by authentic documents. In 1482, Albany was committed to dying hour. See Gibson's remarks on the delay of baptism by the Castle of Edinburgh, where he was kept a close prisoner by those

who knew that his accession to power would assuredly be their Constantine, miscalled the Great.

destruction. He had not been long in durance until he formed and “Horror stalks around

matured a plan of escape, which, with desperate courage, he executed Wild staring, and his sad concomitant

in the following manner. Terrified by the mysterious fate of Mar, Despair, of abject look."--Philip.

and aware that his day of trial was approaching, some of Albany's “I persuaded her to take, as hot as she could well drink it, every numerous friends in France or Scotland contrived means to acquaint morning, a full draught of the decoction of centaury boiled in beer or him that a small vessel, laden with Gascon wine, lay in the roadstead of ale."-Bayle.

Leith, by which he might escape if he made an effort. The tower in Cordial, of Latin origin, has a corresponding word from the it "arose from the northern verge of the rock on which the castle is

which he was confined was probably David's, for we are informed that Saxon, that is, hearty. This is by no means a solitary case, as founded, where the height of the precipice seemed to bar all possiwill appear from the ensuing list :

bility of escape." He had but one attendant (styled his chamberLatin. Saxon.

Latin.

Saxon, chield) left to wait upon him, and to this trusty follower alone he Timid fearful.

Altitude height. revealed his intention. From the French vessel he received two small Velocity swiftness.

Annual

yearly. ranlets or barrels of wine, which luckily the castle-guard permitted to Effeminate womanish, Aqueous watery. be carried into his apartment untasted and unexamined. On opening Edifice building. Auditor hearer.

them in private the duke found that they contained Malvoisie, and, Paucity fewness.

what was of more importance, a strong rope and a waxen roll inclosing

an anonymous letter, urging him to lose no time in attempting to In incorporate, animadvert, and other words, the student is escape, as the king's minions had determined he should die ere the expected to make use of the information which he has already morrow's sunset ; and the billet ended by an assurance that the boats had supplied to him regarding prepositions in combination, as of the French vessel should await him at the shore of Leith. The well as regarding prefixes and suffixes.

first point to be gained was to lull the suspicions of the captain of the "Cremation, burning, is applied particularly to the ancient custom guard, for which purpose the duke invited him to supper, and by interment of their bodies, make use of trees and much burning, while ing until the hour grew late, Albany found the moment for action had of destroying corpses by fire. The Chinois, without cremation or arnal pressing him and three of his soldiers to drink freely of the Malvoisie,

After gaming and drink. they plant a pine-tree by their grave."-Brown, “ Urn Burial.”

come. Rushing upon the captain he snatched a long dagger from his Capillary signifies that which is like hair ; hence it is applied baldrick, and buried it repeatedly in his breast ; then, quick as thought, to the small vessels of the body, as the ramifications (branches) he dispatched the intoxicated soldiers in the same manner, and, in of the arteries, " the capillaries;” also to tubes; and attraction token of his hostility and contempt (with the assistance of his

chamber-chield), he savagely threw the bodies on the great fire that in tubes as fine as hair, is called "capillary attraction.”

blazed in the stone fire-place of the tower; and there in their armour "A strict and succinct style is that where you can take away nothing they broiled and sweltered like tortoises in iron shells. Having without losse, and that losse to be manifest."--Ben Jonson.

secured the keys of the doors, they locked them as they retired, and "To translate him line for line is impossible, because the Latin is stealthily hurried to the wall, which they prepared to descend at the naturally a more succinct language than either the Italian, Spanish, most retired part. The chamber-chield lowered himself first over the French, or even the English ; which by reason of its monosyllables, is beetling crag, which is two hundred feet in height, but the cord ir the most compendious of them."-Dryden.

proving too short, it slipped suddenly through his hands, he fell to

the bottom, and there lay senseless. We may imagine how the heart The idea in succinct, girded, is taken from the custom prevalent of the blood-stained Albany must have beat at this terrible crisis! among the ancient Greeks and Romans of gathering up and Every moment was fraught with danger, and his death or life were binding around the waist their long flowing robes, when they hanging by a hair. Rushing back to his apartment in the tower, ho were about to apply to any manual occupation. Compare tore the sheets from his bed, twisted them into a rope, lengthened Isa, viii. 9; John xiii. 4, 5.

the cord, looped it around an embrasure, and, lowering himself over

the rampart, and the rugged rocks it overlooked, reached the bottom EXERCISES IN COMPOSITION.

in snfety. There he found his attendant stretched on the ground, Words veith their proper Prepositions to be formed into sentences, with his thigh-bone broken. Unwilling to leave behind him, to the WORDS. FOREIGN REPRESENTATIVES.

mercy of his enemies, one who had been so faithful, Albany, with o Clear of, clarus, bright, distinct.

sentiment of gratitude which seems almost incompatible with his preCoalesce with, coalesco, I grow together.

vious ferocity, lifted him on his shoulders, and, being a man of gigantic Coincide with, cum, in, cado, I fall in with.

stature and uncommon strength, carried him thus with ease to Leith, Commune with, communis, common.

where they embarked without delay; and setting sail before the Commit to, cum, mitto, I send with.

rising sun brightened the German sea, cast anchor under the towers Communicate to, communico, I communicate.

of Dunbar, the patrimovial castle of Albany. During the whola Compare to (in respect to

night nothing was known of his escape; but daylight revealed the quality),

rope and twisted sheets hanging over the northern ramparts; thero Compare with (by way of comparo, I compare, match.

was immediately given an alarm, which the dreadful stench in David's Mustration),

tower must have increased. His flight was discovered, and the half

consumed corpses were found in the fire-place of his chamber. EXERCISE IN PARSING.

Enraged and confounded, James III. refused to credit the intelliSome have termed the "Song of Solomon, or the Canticles," a gence until he had examined the place in person.-Memorials of tho Lebrow Epithalamium. The rage for autographs seems to have in a Castle of Edinburgh, pp. 52-55.

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