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ale non fcuter verfannt zu sein, deren Liebe und Achtung man sich gern Der Onkel seßte seinen Hut auf und The uncle put on his hat and Cometben möchte. 4. Gs thut mir leid, ihn beleidigt zu haben. 5. Schei. þängte seinen Mantel um.
cloak (hung his cloak round). ten und Meiden thut weh, sagt ein altes beutides Bolfslied. 6. Der er cilt þeim mit sorógender Scele, He hastens home with anxious Sorr thut mir web. 7. Es thut mir in der Seele weh, ihm nicht helfen zu damit' er die Frist nicht verfeh'le soul in order that he may not fönnen. 8. Was feblt Dir, mein Freund, warum so traurig ? 9. && fehlt (Schiller).
miss the appointed time. mit breiter nichts, als baß ich ein wenig verstimmt bin. 10. Sind Sie
EXERCISE 146. frant? 11. Ja, ich bin ein wenig unwohl. 12. Was fehlt Ihnen? 13. So habe Korfiveh. 14. Sie sind reich und angesehen, und doch sind Sie
1. Seitdem ich hier angekommen bin, hat sich schon Manches ereignet. niedergeschlagen, was fehlt Ihnen? 15. Es fehlt mir viel, „Zufrieden 2. Seitdem er diese That begangen þat, scheint aller Friede von ihm gebeit und Seelenruhe." 16. AU (Sect. XL. 6) meine Freunde, die ver. wichen zu sein. 3. Seitdem er fort ist, habe ich feine recht frohe Stunde jprođen hatten, zu fommen, waren da, nur Giner fehlte. 17. Alle Menschen mehr. 4. Seit dieser Zeit hat man nichts wieder von ihm gehört. 5. jehlen. 18. Mein Bruder ist abermals fehl gegangen; statt in mein Haus, Seit meinem zehnten Jahre habe ich das elterliche Haus verlassen. 6. Seit ift er in das meines Nachbars gekommen. 19. Seine Worte gereuten ihn, gestern befinde ich mich nicht ganz wohl. 7. Seit dem Tode seiner Eltern und er versprach, dieselben nie wieder sagen zu wollen. 20. Als dieses vor- irrt er ohne Heimath in der Fremde umher. 8. Seitdem er zur Erfenntniß fiel, war ich nicht zu Hause. 21. Dieser Streit fiel in der Nähe meiner seiner selbit gekommen ist, ist er ein ganz anderer Mensch geworden. 9. Wohnung vor. 22. Io habe dem bereits Gesagten nur noch wenig hinzu: Er zog sich in aller Geschwindigteit an. 10. In der Eile vergaß er seine gufügen 23. Diesem Geschenfe fügte fie cin kleines Vriefchen hinzu. 24. &r Stiefel anzuziehen, und eilte in den Pantoffeln fort. 11. Seine Kleider Fügte mir vorsäßlich dieses Leib zu; teßhalb kann ich ihm nicht verzeihen. waren ganz burchnäßt, deßhalb mußte er sich anders anziehen. 12. Er seşte
diesen Morgen seinen Hut nicht auf, sondern seine Müte. 13. Der Diener EXERCISE 145.
hängte seinem Herrn nicht, wie gewöhnlich, den Mantel um, sondern er wars in 1. It pains a father to hear of the wickedness of his son. 2. sich selber um. 14. Vergessen sie nicht, Ihren Mantel umzuhangen, es ist Nothing pains more than to be accused innocently. 3. It pains sehr falt und stürmisch. 15. Vingen Sie mir gefälligst meinen Mantel me that so many persons have been found killed by the last um, und Teßen Sie mir meinen Gut auf, denn ich habe schon meine tiden storm. 4. I am sorry that you did not find me at home. 5. Pelzhantíchuhe angezogen. 16. Er stieg auf den höchsten Baum, tamit er The wound which the soldier received in the contest pains him. den König seben fõnne. 17. Gr war sehr cilig, damit er die Abfahrt des 6. What ails you, my friend ? 7. Oh, nothing particularly. 8. Postwagens nicht versäumen möchte. 18. Er erzählte mir viejos, damit ich mir You look very ill, what is the matter with you ? 9. I am not ein Beispiel daran nehmen möchte. 19. Der Schüler entschuldigte sich damit, well, I have hurt myself. 10. He has fallen out of the window. daß er keine Zeit gehabt hätte, seine Aufgabe zu lernen. 20. In großen 11. This boy lacks understanding. 12. You have been offended Staaten müssen Hunderte hungern, damit Einer frasse und schwelge : by me; I am sorry, for I esteem you much. 13. You dare not Zehntausende werden gedrůdt und in den Tod gejagt, damit ein gekrönter look courage to encounter the contest with your enemy. 14. I Thor ober Weiser seine Phantasien aussühre. lack patience to await the result of this matter.
EXERCISE 147. SECTION LXXVI.--IDIOMS OF VARIOUS KINDS.
1. Will you please to give me a cup of coffee or tea ? 2. Damit (therewith) is often to be rendered by “in order to, in Since yesterday I have felt myself not quite well. 3. Since he order that, so that," etc., as :
:-Ich muß eilen, damit ich nicht zu spit quitted his parental house we have not heard anything of him. anfømme, I must hasten, in order not to arrive too late. Idy 4. Since the twelfth year of my age I have not visited my native wellte bitten, taf Sie das thäten, damit ich es nicht thun müjte (Gellert), land. 5. Since he received the intelligence, he has had no I would beg you to do that, in order that I might not be obliged peace. 6. In order that my friend may not come in vain, I to do it.
shall stop at home. 7. I have not seen my friend since he 1. Seittem =since, since then, since the or that time ; as :- arrived from Germany. 8. Instead of putting on his boots, he Zeitzem fie in Deutitland war, spridit sie nichts als Deutsty, since she went out in his slippers. 9. Tell your friend, if you please, he as in Germany, she speaks nothing but German. Seitdem ist er may visit us at any time. 10. Why does he not take advantage glücflit, since then (or that time) he is happy.
of his youth, in order to acquire the knowledge he wants ? 11. 2. Hejälligft, an adverb in the superlative degree, from the ad- How have you been since I saw you last? 12. Finish your exerjective gefällig, pleasing, agreeable, answers to our phrase "please, cise, if you have not yet finished it, then you will not be punished if you please ;' as :-Wollen Sie mir gefälligst * sagen, wieriel Uhr es by your master. int? will you please to tell me what time it is ? Geben Sie mir
SECTION LXXVII.-IDIOMS OF VARIOUS KINDS (continued). gefälligst meinen Gut, please to give me my hat.
Lieb, beloved, dear, agreeable, may, when applied to persons, VOCABULARY.
be rendered (like gern with haben, Sect. XLIII. 1) “dear;" as :Sfahrt, f. departure. Geschwindigfcit, f. ce- Seitrem'. (See R. 1, Id) habe ihn sehr lieb, he is very "dear” to me. Applied to things, liuiizen, to put on. lerity, swiftness. above.)
lieb with sein signifies to be agreeable, to please, etc.; as :-Dieses Beispiel, n. example. Heimath, f. home, na- Stürmisch, stormy.
Fleine Geschent ist mir lieb, this little present pleases (is pleasing) Guten, to hasten. tive place.
ilm hingen, to hang me, or is dear to me. Es ist mir licb, taß Sie damit zufrieden sind, Elterlich, parental. Hungern, to hunger, round, put on.
I am glad (it is pleasing) that you are satisfied with it. Crrig'nen, to happen, starve.
Umher'irren, to wander
1. Böse auf (literally, bad upon) and böse über (bad over or to. Krönen, to crown. about.
wards) signify, “ill-disposed ;” the former being applied chiefly Grtenat'niß, f. know. Nachricht, f. intelli- Ilmʻwerfen, to throw
to persons, the latter to things; as :--Warum sind Sie böse auf ihn? ledge. gence.
round, put on.
why are you angry at him? Er ist böse über mein Laden, he is (Soct. Pelz'hanrícul, m. fur- Versäuémen, to miss, angry at my laughing. LXXXII. 2.) glove.
neglect, lose. 2. Kennen lernen (tennen, Sect. XXV. 3) signifies " to become acgert'eilen, to hasten Phantasie', f. fancy.
Vortlcil, m. advan: quainted with.”
Wollen Sie ihn fennen lernen? do you wish to away. ! Post'wagen, m. stage- tage.
become acquainted with him ? Ich habe ihn schon kennen gelernt, I itemte, f. foreign coach. [dise. Weichen, to give way,
have already become acquainted with him. country, abroad. Prassen, to gorman. retire.
VOCABULARY. Gefäll'igst (See R. 2, Schwelgen, to revel, Weshalb', why, where- An'treffen, to meet| Gin'führen, to usherin, Schmuggler, mn. smug. above.) carouse. fore. with,
introduce, import. gler. RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.
Befrie'rigent, satisfac- Erfolg', m. result. linmögʻlidfeit. f. in. Die Deutichen fönnen erst über di The Germans can only (for the Bejini'tigen, to pacify, Chcfeß', n. law.
Verbieten, to forbid. tortur'ur'tbeilen, feittem' sie first) judge of literature,
Mittheilen, to import, | Borstellen, to repro felbft cine Literatur' haben (Göthe). since they themselves have a
Girgensinnig, stubborn, communicate, be- sent, literature,
stow, give. Er ift an'griogen mit dem Kleite der He is clothed with the garment
personate. of justice.
RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.
Es ist ihm sehr lich, daß Sie wegen He is very glad that you aro Note, that gefälligst, unlike the phrase Sect. LXXIV. 1, is employed
dieser Sache nicht böse auf ihn not angry at him on account in zocit ng and not in acknowledging a favour.
of this affair.
lleber was sind Sie so böse? At what are you so angry? orderly life. 9. But I remind you of his actions in the last war, of Ich habe Herrn K. voʻriges Jahr I have become acquainted with which he may justly boast. 10. Rejoice at his acquittal, and vouchsafe teunen gelernt'.
Mr. K. (during) the past year.
him your friendship. 11. Do not scoff at him because he was in the Wollen Sie mich in diese Gesell'schaft Will you introduce me to this dungeon, but rather pity him and think of his sufferings. 12. Let ein'führen?
every one who laughs at him be ashamed of his own behaviour." 13. company ?
All present rejoiced at this speech, and they instantaneously released Idy will Sie meinen Befann'ten vor's I will introduce you to my ac
the accused man of his fetters. 14. Teach us thy way, O Lord ! and stellen.
deprive us not of thy grace. 15. I intend to visit a watering-place Ich will Sie mit meinen Freunten I will make you acquainted next summer. 16. I cannot by any means be of opinion tha befannt' machen.
with my friends.
should not indulge in repose after dinner. 17. He who rejoices at Mein Vetter stellte ben Kaiser vor. My cousin represented (perso- life should also remember death. 18. When General Tilly had con
nated) the emperor.
quered the town of Magdeburg, he laughed at the supplicants who be Sein Bruder stellte mir vor, daß es His brother represented to me sought him to commiserate them. unrecht sei. that it was wrong.
EXERCISE 97 (Vol. II., page 95).
1. In früheren Zeiten fonnten die Leute nicht lesen, viel weniger schreiben. 1. Es ist mir lieb, daß ich Sie hier antreffe ; ich ħabe Ihnen Wichtiges 2. Ich bin Willens, im nächsten Sommer die Bäter Homburg und mitzutheilen. 2. Es ist mir lieb, Šie so wohl zu sehen. 3. 68 wäre mir Laubach zu besuchen. 3. Alt Ludwig Philipp, König der Franzosen, seinem lieb, Sie bald wieder zu sehen. 4. Er ist böse über das Betragen seines Throne entsagt hatte, ging er mit seiner ganzen Familie nachEngland. 4. Neffen. 5. Er ist böse über das Ausbleiben seines Sohnes. 6. Sie ist Einige Könige haben wenig Ursache
, sich ihrer Regierung zu rühmen. 5.
6. 68 ge böse über sich selbst. 7. Der Freund war böse auf mich, aber ich habe ihn Kaiser Karl V. entsagte seiner Krone und ging in ein Kloster. wieder besänftigt. 8. Die Mutter ist böse auf ihr eigensinniges Kind. 9. ziemt einem Manne besser, auf seine Handlungen aufmerksam zu sein, ale fich Ich bin böje auf ihn, weil er mich beleidigt hat. 10. Kennen Sie Heren seiner Fähigkeiten zu rühmen. 7. Ich werte mich aller meiner Geschäfte N? 11. Ja, ich habe ihn leyte Woche in dem Hause Ihrer Frau Tante entledigen, und ein ruhiges Leben genießen. 8. Er freute sich der kennen gelernt. 12. Ich lerne ihn mit jedem Tage mehr fennen. 13. Freisprechung der Unschuldigen, und würdigte sie der größten Freundschaft
. 9. Man lernt Jedermann cher fennen, als sich selbst.
14. Wo find Sie mit Die Feinde ftürmten die Stadt, und lachten ter Flehenden, welche sie baten, tiesem Herrn bekannt geworden?' 15. Wir fennen und von Jugend auf, ridy ihrer zu erbarmen. und lernen uns mit jedem Tage mehr fennen. 16. Kennen Sie Frau.
EXERCISE 98 (Vol. II., page 118). lein B.? 17. Nein, aber ich hoffe noch mit ihr bekannt zu werden. 18.
1. The old Saxons abjured their gods after Charles the Great Dieser Mann wird durch seine trefflichen Werfe bald befannt werden. 19. had completely vanquished them. 2. Whilst he foreswore this deed Herr N. stellte mich rieser Familie vor. 20. Er wurde der Gesellschaft with a false oath, he denied the immortality of the soul. 3. His durch seinen Bruter vorgestellt. 21. Das Neußere dieses Mannes stellt wickedness is perceptiblo in his eyes. 4. I have not given up tho nichts vor. 22. Dieser Schauspieler stellte Karl XII. vor.
5. I had ordered my servant hope of again seeing my relations.
to call me as soon as you came. 6. When I heard myself called, I wen wurden Sie eingeführt? 24. Ich vertanfe (Sect. XLIII. 6) diese turned back immediately. 7. If I were to imitate you, I should soon Ehre der Nichte des reichen Kaufmannes. 25. Der Freund führte mich in have no more money. 8. It has often happened to him already, that die Gejellschaft ein. 26. Der Franzese führte ticse neue Mode ein. 27.
he looked for his spectacles and had them upon his nose. 9. The king Der Schmuggler führt verbotene Waaren ein.
passes through this town to-day. 10. Steer thy ship tbrough the EXERCISE 149.
raging waves, courageous pilot. 11. A judicious father checks the rade
behaviour of his children in time. 12. I seldom have money, but 1. It would be very agreeable to me if you could leave me to always debts; I wish I only knew how to check this inconvenience. myself. 2. It was very satisfactory to me to see my brother 13. For what does it profit a man if he gain the whole world and lose well. 3. I am very glad to hear that your undertaking has suc- his own soul ? 14. His strength assisted (him) to endure these sufferceeded. 4. He is angry at the conduct of his brother.
5. My i ings.
15. The cook tasted of the dishes. 16. It cost me liberty and brother introduced me to Mr. G. 6. Has your sister already
fatherland. 17. It cost him his first-born son. 18. He assured me of become acquainted with my brother? 7. Yes, she became ac
the truth of this circumstance. 19. They secured the thief. 20. One
should seek to imitate good manners. quainted with him at the last concert. 8. Do
know why your brother is so angry? 9. He is angry at me, because I laughed at him. 10. The actor personated Henry IV. very well. ESSAYS ON LIFE AND DUTY.-XIII. 11. That government has introduced good laws. 12. This
TACT. fashion has been introduced by the French. 13. The import of The word tact comes from the Latin " tactus,” simply meaning wine from France is very great.
touch, but from thence is derived the idea of delicate perception
-a peculiar skill or faculty of discernment: and, certainly, if KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN GERMAN.
any gift is of greater importance than another, in the general EXERCISE 95 (Vol. II., page 94).
conduct of life, it is the possession of tact. Multitudes who 1. Ich schmeichle mir, daß Sie mich mit einem Besuch beehren werten. experience of men and manners, lose their way to the goal of
have a large amount of knowledge, and some considerable 2. Er würde mir gewiß schaden, wenn er mir beifommen fönnte. 3. Der Stern der Hoffnung leuchtet dem Menschen selbst in der düstersten Nacht. 4.
success, for want of tact. It may be suggested, however, by
some, that tact is not a very honourable thing—that it neans Ich werde meinem Freunde beistehen für die Hülfe, welche er mir geleistet something akin to cunning and craftiness. But it is in no sense hat. 5. Der Lehrer hat mir gesagt, er lei mit seinen Schülern zufrieten; synonymous with these. It means very much what the Greek fie seien fleißig, und fämen allen seinen Wünschen zuvor. 6. Id fenne word vous means, a keen perceptivity which acts like an instinct. feinen, welcher den Leitenschaften Anderer so schmeichelt, als er. 7. 68 wäre zu wünschen, daß Jedermann den Armen beistehen möchte. 8. done, when it ought to be done, and how it ought to be done, is
The tact to see what ought to be
with quickness and success. Schmeichie teinen Kindern nicht zu riel. 9. Napoleon sammelte die besten often the making of a man.
Masters, tutors, overseers, and seiner Generale um sich. 10. Nachtem er denselben sein Vorhaben mit. getheilt hatte, erbote:i fie sich ihm beizustehen.
managers must leave very much to the personal acuteness of
11. Er traute seiner those who are under them; and constant observation soon eigenen Madyt, überzog Europa mit feintlichen Truppen, und trepte jeter teaches them who amongst those in their charge have eyes Uefahr. 12. Seiner eigenen Meinung nach war seine Macht unumschränkt, and know how to use them. und er gedachte nicht der Schwierigkeiten, welche ihn umgaben.
The possession of tact is also of vast importance in the EXERCISE 96 (Vol. II., page 95).
common duties and courtesies of life. To see the state of feeling 1. I suppose you still remember the young man who was accused in the mind we are addressing, and to judge the right mode of of robbery last year. 2. He was accused of having robbed a rich ministering to the ease and happiness of our visitors or fellowcattle-dealer of his money on the highway. 3. But they could not travellers; this is surely no light gift: the want of it often mars convict him of this crime. 4. He had already given up all hope of an
some means of good, and weakens the influence which we might acquittal, and abandoned the idea of being declared innocent. 5.
have exerted over the comfort and weal of others. The judge, however, relieved him of all anxiety. 6. After he had told the accused man to be of good heart and cast away all sorrow, he doubtful meaning ; it is confined to the idea of skill, or desterity
Tact is not diplomacy. For diplomacy has become a word of said, “I am fully of opinion that they cannot charge this young man with the robbery. 7. For it is not every one who is ashamed of beg. in managing negotiations, and has, therefore, become associated ging, and destitute of all means, that becomes a robber. 8. I can with a sort of clever “ dust-throwing” into other peoplo's eyes. speak Lighly of his behaviour, for he has always been addicted to an Our better instincts do not take comfortably to the idea of
diplomacy. It is not so, howerer, with tact. This is the operations into new spheres which would escape the attention of education of our faculties, so that they have a keen edge upon others, and, by the perception of the harmonies in character, it them, whereby mental vision is brightened, and nature acts with avoids as much as possible the unpleasant discords and turmoils a healthy spontaneity in difficulties. Large classes of people of life. When, however, difficult work has to be done, and can remember what they ought to have said, and what it would cannot righteously be let alone, tact achieves the end in the wisest have been proper to do, hours after the emergency has arisen. and kindest way that the circumstances render possible. Depend They can then give you a sketch of the “position," or state of upon it, that a true inscription over the failures of many who had affairs, and have the key to it in their hands. But, unfortunately glorious faculties and golden opportunities would be “Want of for them, the occasion is lost, and it becomes only a story of tact;” whilst some who had more mediocre abilities, and had a possibilities; the thing to be lamented being irrevocable. They back start in the course, have distanced others in life's race, see now what they ought to have seen then, and can cleverly and risen above them in its rewards, by the wise and righteous construct an after answer which they ought to have given at the exerciso of a clever tact. time. Tact would have laid hold on the best mental resources of the moment, and used them dexterously, however slender
vnita_XXVIII. those resources miguu mare been.
HISTUKIO DALTUGU. A little tact often overcomes difficulties which much earnest endeavour fails to remove. Just as a tiny bolt withdrawn, a
SWISS INDEPENDENCE. gate opens which it would have taken many strong-armed men ONE night in the spring of the year 1307, thirty-three men met to cast down; and a word rightly spoken, though in itself a in a field, known to this day as the Grütli meadow, on a spot overthing little enough, does that which volumes would not accom- looking the Swiss lake of the four cantons, and solemnly sworo plish at another time. Tact is in no sense difficult of attainment; to assert the common cause of the liberties of the three cantons, it needs, however, that its pupils should dispossess themselves Schweitz, Uri, and Unterwald, and yet “to do no wrong to the of any self-opinionated manners which make them contemptible Counts of Hapsburg!" These men were but the representativos and objectionable to others. If persons will persist in carrying of thousands more who, accustomed ever since human memory with them an ungainly self-consciousness, a determination to be reported anything of the history of the country to share the heard by every one, and to be believed in by every one, and to freedom of the air they breathed, were moved to the very bottom lord it over every one, they will soon be consigned to the limbo of their hearts by the appearance of an oppression which of unprepossessing and unpopular people, who forget that the threatened to go the length of enslaving them. What came of outside world contains wiser and better people than themselves. their vow thus made will be declared in this sketch, but let us Tact is quick to learn, quick to discern when it ought to be first see what the circumstances were under which they felt con. silent, as well as when it ought to speak. In this senso it is strained to bind themselves by the oath at all, and what claim consistent with true humility, and with a wise recognition of the Counts of Hapsburg had to be so considerately treated in individual imperfection. The victories of several of the greatest this purely non-aggressi sort of rebellion. generals in history have been achieved by the sense of knowing When, about the middle of the eleventh century, Europe in when they were, for the time, beaten, and having the tact to all its parts was beginning to settle down out of the confusion retreat for the hour, and gather up their broken forces, rather resulting from the overthrow of the western Roman Empire into than risk all upon a last strugglo with superior strength; and a general state of feudalism, there was one country among the some of the most successful statesmen have been characterised rest where the feudal conditions could not be enforced with the by a tact which knew how to speak right words at right seasons, customary severity. That country was Switzerland. There was who possess very slender powers of oratory indeed.
not found among the warrior chiefs who carved duchies, counties, Some there are who slight tact, because of its seeming lack and kingdoms for themselves out of the débris of the empire, of superiority over the endowments of others. They never one bold enough to try his hand at subjugating Switzerland for like to overcome difficulties so much by skill as by force. A his own possession. The mountainous character of the ground, victory is nothing to them unless it be achieved by a hotly the utter absence of communication from place to place, except contested battle; a success loses its honour unless it be the by paths dangerous to any but expert climbers, the unattractiveresult of strong competitive forces; but in reality they are ness, unrichness of the land, and the stubborn, independent mistaken, for in quiet skill there is as much manifestation of character of its inhabitants, suggested to princes on the lookpower as there is in hand-to-hand tussles with our compeers. out to go further afield, and no one pretended to claim rights of
Some there are who not only depreciate tact, but positively sovereignty there. The Emperor of Germany claimed a sort of despise it. They are, for the most part, what may be called supremacy over it, but he did not practically urge it, and the plain-spoken persons; and a very offensive class they are. It is people, of whom the majority never heard of his pretension, particularly obvious that they bruise people's feelings without went on without consulting him or troubling their heads about compunction, and it is equally clear that they have a parti- him. But though there was not any actual King of Switzerland, colar dislike to being themselves treated to homilies by other the country was included within the kingdom of Arles or Burplain-spoken persons. They are happier as speakers than gundy, and the Dukes of Burgundy down to Charles the Bold hearers ! Tact! what do they care for tact? they have truth to claimed lordship over it, a claim that was allowed to about the tell, and isn't it right to tell it ? With such like sophisms they same extent as that of the emperor's was to be feudal lord paraEmother over the fact that even truth must be spoken in love, mo In the country, however, there had established them. and that the how and when to speak it are amongst the most selves many soldier chiefs, who built castles on their estates, important considerations that can occupy the minds of kind and and kept up some feudal rules, governing within their own thoughtful persons. There is a tact even in telling the most domain almost as sovereign princes, but acknowledging for disagreeable truths, and that man is little to be envied who themselves allegiance to no one. Some of the ecclesiastical despises a skill which, whilst it preserves the manliness which dignitaries came within this category. They had enormous dares to speak the truth, also preserves the gentleness which estates belonging to their convents, and they governed as lords desires to spare the feelings,
over such parts of God's inheritance as came under their power, Tact has no one special department of life or duty to call its though there existed at the same time in the breasts of the own; but it bas to do with all spheres of life, with trade and people a spirit of original independence which tempered the commerce, with domestic arrangements, with the conquest of severity of the feudal régime. In the towns also thọ spirit of difficulties, and with all the civil and social relations of mankind. freedom burned with considerable brilliancy, at least until the It need not be disguised that thero is a danger of tact descending aristocratic element imparted by the country nobles invaded to unworthy compromise and crafty management. But these are them, and even then there were found many hundreds of men in no sense the necessary or natural uses of so valuable a gift. who never bowed the knee savo to God only. We may well reply to this supposed difficulty, that almost every Chief among the lay nobles of the country were the Counts of good may be perverted, that the abuse of a faculty is no Zahringen, Toggenburg, Kyburg, and Hapsburg ; while their argument against its use, and that tact has its uses, wide and ecclesiastical rivals in power and influence were the Bishop of manifold, the whole history of mankind abundantly proves. Coire, the Abbot of st. Gall, and the Abbess of Seckingen. Tact save time and labour ; it not only expedites business that Besides these, there were many lesser nobles who depended on tho has to be done, but it seizes opportunities for extending greater, or professed a sort of informal allegiance direct to the
imperial crown; but all of these, the greater and the less, had was by its nature, with studied harshness and brutal indifference been wise in time, and had at their own solicitation become to the popular feelings; they set aside the customary laws of * citizens” of some one or other of the towns, which in return the district, and introduced their own, which they administered often conferred upon thein the honour and title of their “advo- in the most tyrannical fashion. The people were required to
or protector. The religious houses adopted the like perform acts of homage to the Counts of Hapsburg which would method to obtain the protecting services of some great noble. have been reckoned degrading to “villeins” born and bred to The existence of the "noble” class on the basis mentioned feudalism; they were made to yield obedience to commands above was not found to be inconsistent with the existence of a which were an affront to their free understandings, and to conpurely democratic class in the towns. On the contrary, the tribute towards the expense of riveting the imperial yoke upon modified character of the aristocracy, the community of interests their own necks. It was under these circumstances that the between it and the democracy, proved to be a source of strength meeting took place in the Grütli meadow, and that Stauffacher to both parties, and a strong love of country, which was common Schweitz, Furst of Uri, and Melchthal of Unterwald, bound them. to both classes, prevented that strength ever being used in the selves and their friends by the simple, solemn oath to do them. wrong direction. By degrees the wealthier towemon assumond colons virplat and the Count of charg no wrope. The people the rank, though not the title, of nobles, and extended yet of the three districts flew to arms, and with an ease they little farther the element of democratic aristocracy. Switzerland was expected, considering the "tall talk” in which their oppressors not, however, a united country in the sense of being one indulged, drove the emperor's bailiffs out of the country. dominion; it was not governed by any one set of laws, nor This unlooked-for success did not make them too confident. bound together by any formal ties or treaties ; each town, each They knew the power and the malice of the Duke of Austria, village, each noble, was self-governing and independent; the and that he would be likely to bring the whole force of the bond which knitted the several parts into a whole was the empire upon them. They immediately entered into a connatural bond of necessity, which operated without any prescribed federacy or union of the three cantons, by the terms of which form.
each canton, while reserving its right of self-government, was The Counts of Hapsburg were the most considerable of the bound to make common cause with the others whenever sumSwiss nobles, and by virtue of their rank were appointed moned to do so. They were the forest cantons, the hard, “advocates ” of many religious houses. They possossed large ragged, naturally independent districts, that first set an example estates themselves, not only in Switzerland but on the Rhine of federation upon special, recognised conditions. Fortunately elso, so that what with their own property and that which they for them their enemy, Count Albert, was soon afterwards assas. held in trust for the convents, they wielded a formidable in- sinated by his nephew, so that they had leisure to consolidate fluence either for good or evil. For many years this influence their union. The prince who succeeded Albert on the imperial had never been used but for the furtherance of Swiss prosperity, throne was not unfriendly to the Swiss; but Leopold of Austria, and the people having learnt to love their strong counts, placed Albert's son, thinking to punish the "cowherds and dairymen themselve to some extent in their hands; or to speak moro who had dared to rebel against his father, led a considerable precisely, the people of Schweitz and of part of Unterwald body of troops into the forest cantons: the Swiss, however, united had made them their “advocates," an office which necessarily as one man, inflamed with anger at the assumption of lordship bestowed upon them the right to interfere in the administration over them, and goaded to fury by the desperate nature of their of affairs, though it did not convey any proprietary or sovereign case, met the Austrians at Morgarten, opposed untrained valour right.
and unarmed bodies to skilled courage and armour-covered Rudolph of Hapsburg had carried the fortunes of his family men-at-arms, and utterly defeated their enemies with dreadful to their maximum height, and was possessed unquestionably of slaughter (November 16, 1315). the ascendancy in Switzerland, when he was chosen by the This victory, which has been called the Marathon of Switzerelectors to fill the vacant throne of the empire. This was in the land, secured the independence of the three cantons, and atyear 1273. It so happened that at this time the right of suc- tracted, after some delay, the contiguous district of Lucerne, cession to the Duchy of Austria, with several other valuable which was incorporated with the confederacy. About thirty political fees, became for disposal, and the new emperor, with years later Zurich, Glaris, Zug, and Berne joined the league, the consent of the other princes of the empire, gave the Duchy and these eight cantons remained till the Swiss revolution in of Austria to his own son Albert.
1830 to enjoy privileges and even sovereignty over many of tho Duke Albert was for some reason or other, which appears to surrounding districts. Zurich and Berne were already indepen. have been warranted by facts, hated by the Swiss. He was dent and republican in their form of government before the forinsolent, overbearing, and disposed to plume himself upon his mation of the union, but they secured additional strength not family grandeur and his wealth rather than upon his Swiss only for the maintenance of their existing power, but also for the nationality. The Swiss held him to be not their friend, and it object which they now proceeded to execute, that of curtailing was with lively concern that they saw him about to succeed to the influence of the rural nobles. Small wars, having this aim his father's Swiss estates while he lived in his new duchy, in view, were carried on between the towns and the nobles, in uncontrolled by residence among his countrymen, and powerful which the latter fared badly, the wisest among them making to do them harm by means of his German subjects. It was
their peace betimes by consenting to sink their rank and dignity, probably at his suggestion that the defunct claim of the Imperial and to secure their property by identifying themselves as Diet or Parliament to bind Switzerland by its laws was revived
“ citizens" of the dominant towns. For eighty years there during Rudolph's tenure of the throne. Certain it is that after was not any attempt from without to destroy the palladium of his own election* to the empire, on the death of his father's liberty which was being reared among the mountains of Hel. successor, Adolphus of Nassau, he tried to assert the imperial vetia. The nations had other things to do than to attend to so supremacy over Switzerland as part of Germany, and, abusing seemingly insignificant a place, and even the Dukes of Austria, the privileges which, as Count of Hapsburg and as “advocate" while retaining for a time their Swiss hereditary possessions, did of certain convents, he possessed, he sent imperial commissioners not find it convenient to cross swords with their co-protectors into the valleys of Schweitz, Unterwald, and Uri, to administer after the battle of Sempach (July 9, 1386). In this, the last of criminal justice and to act as stewards on his own and the con
a series of encounters with the Austrians, all of which had been vents' behalf. These persons were not native Swiss, but Germans bloody and none inglorious for Switzerland, the Austrian knights who had no sympathy with the people, who despised the sim. dismounted and presented their lances as a steel hedge of pricks plicity of their life and manners, and who made no secret of to the Swiss. It was necessary to break their line, and Winkelried their contempt for them generally.
of Unterwald, seeing no other way, commended himself to It was not likely such men would get on with the free Heaven, and his wife and children to his country, and gathering minded, high-spirited, and dominion-hating mountaineers. They as many lances' points as he could embrace, received them in did the work with which they were charged, disagreeable as it his body, and so opened a way to the ingress of the Swiss with
their five-feet-long swords. The Austrians were overthrown, and The imperial dignity in Germany was elective, the principle of in the end the dukes alienated to the Swiss the lands and lordships hereditary succession not being recoguised. Generally a German was
of the Counts of Hapsburg. During this time power had become clected, but not always. Francis I. of France and Henry VIII. of consolidated, and when the attention of surrounding nations was England were both candidates in their time.
drawn to the country, by the prompt resentment of some injury
done to its people, by the fearless, or as it was then called, LESSONS IN CHEMISTRY.-XVII. insolent, way in which the Swiss threw back a rebuke or threat,
BORON-SILICON--THE METALS. it was found that the people were a sort of human conglomerate, hard and strorg flints from which fire might be struck, but
BORON (SYMBOL, B; COMBINING WEIGHT, 11). aguinst which it would be unwise to hurl oneself. Nevertheless, BORON and silicon aro often classed with carbon, for each of about the year 1440 it seemed good to the despots and autocrats these elements is capable of being produced in three statesof the day to undertake the destruction of the home of liberty, amorphous, crystalline, and crystallised. as being too near their own dominions to be safe. The princes The element boron is procured by the action of sodium on of Western Germany formed an association, which had the boracic acid, thusapproval of the enrperor, for the purpose of subjugating Switzer
B,03 + GNa = 3Na,0 + 2B. land, and, the Duke of Burgundy having declined the use of his Thus obtained it is a dull greenish powder, slightly soluble in army, applied to the King of France for help. The King of water, from which solution it is precipitated unchanged by salFrance was only too glad of a pretext for getting rid of the ammoniac. It does not oxidise in the air, but readily with nitric anmerous bands of adventurers who filled every one of his cities acid. At a very high heat it takes fire, burning into boracic renar, men who were the officourings and the refuse of avia in:
8,0). dpiva, the Anglo-French wars. He raised a large army, iri which all The other two kinds of boron are exhibited by its action on these cut-throats were enrolled, and put it under the command melted aluminum. of the Dauphin. Away the French prince marched, and laid siege The crystals of boron are as hard as the diamond. to Basle before the Swiss knew he was coming. The men of Basle Boracic Acid (B,03).–At Monte Cerboli and Monte Rotondo, defended themselves as best they could, and sent off messengers in Tuscany, exist “fumeroles," that is, jets of steam escaping to the Swiss army for help. Help came in the shape of 2,000 from the ground. This steam is mixed with sulphuretted men, who did not hesitate to engage an army of which the ad- hydrogen, but holds in solution free boracic acid. The vapour ranced guard was ten times more numerous than they. The is directed into small lagoons, where it is condensed, and upon. Swiss fought with desperate valour (26th of August, 1414), and evaporating the water crude boracic acid is obtained, which is were cut to pieces on the ground where they stood; but the the chief source of the borax of commerce. This acid combined victory cost the Dauphin (afterwards Louis XI.) 8,000 of his best with soda is found in the tincal from Thibet, and a borate of lime troops, and made such an impression upon him that he made and magnesia is found on the west coast of South America. peace and retired, and subsequently, when he came to the throne, Boracic acid imparts a green tint to the flame of alcohol. Its he entered into alliance with his former foes,
great value lies in the fact that it imparts to its salts ready In 1476 the last grand attack was made on Switzerland with fusibility; hence in the manufacture of porcelain and in metalthe view of bringing her again under feudal bondage. Charles lurgy borax is used as a flux. the Bold, the last Duke of Burgundy, proposed the task to him. The crude boracio acid, procured as above, is really the self, both because the Swiss were allies of his inveterate enemy, hydrio borate or 311,01,03, which is usually written H, BOz. Louis XI., and because he hated the bare idea of popular free- Borax is the biborate of soda. don. With & splendid army of 36,000 men, furnished with Boric Chloride (BC1,) is obtained by passing dry chlorine everything necessary for the campaign, he marched into the through a red-hot porcelain tube containing a mixture of boracio country and laid siege to Yverdun. The garrison cut their way acid and charcoal. It is a gas which condenses into a mobile ont and retired to Granson, whither Charles proceeded, and liquid below 18° Cent. It is decomposed by contact with water, having, after a desperate resistance, induced the garrison to thus
BC1, + 3H,0 = H,B0, + 3HCI. ofer to capitulate, he murdered in cold blood the governor and 200 of his officers who had put themselves as a sign of good
Boric Fluoride (BF) is procured by heating fluor spar and faith within his power.
boracic acid. It is a gas which combines with water, thusEvery man in Switzerland took up arms, and when, shortly
BF: + 31,0 = 3H,F BO,, after the bloody deed just recited, the Swiss came upon the forming hydro-fluo-boric acid. Burgundian army in the mountain passes near Neuchatel, they Boric Sulphide (B,S) is produced when boron is burnt in stnote them hip and thigh to the shout of “Granson ! Granson!” sulphur. so that the splendid army melted like snow off the mountains.
Boric Nitride (BN).—Like titanium, boron combines with nitroNumbers were slain in the battle or in the pursuit, and all the gen at a red heat, forming a white powder, which has a “greasy duke's camp equipage, his artillery, treasures, jewels, everything feel. When melted with potash it becomes ammonia and boracic except his person, fell into the victor's hands. Charles strained acid, thusevery nerve to retrieve his loss. He procured money from
2BN + 3(H,OK,0) = 36,0 + B,0, + 2NH,, Flanders and Brabant, melted church bells to make cannon,
and when heated in a current of steam it is resolved into and hired troops from anywhere to assist him ; but it was not
ammonium borate. till many weeks after his defeat that he was able to take the field, and then it was to make a gambler's last desperate throw. SILICON (SYMBOL, SI; COMBINING WEIGHT, 28). In May, 1476, he laid siege to Morat, the key of Berne and the In combination with oxygen as silica it is one of the chief comdoor to Switzerland. He pressed the garrison hard that the por ants of the earth's crust. The element may be insulated by were about to surrender, when the Swiss army came to their submitting a mixture of equal weights of potassium and the relief. A furious battle ensued, in which rivers of blood were fuosilicate of that metal to a red heat in a platinum crucible. spilt, and in the course of which many valiant souls of heroes Silicon and potassium fluoride are the result, and the latter is were freed from the trammels of the flesh. The work of Granson washed out by water. and Neuchatel was finished here. The Burgundian army was Thus obtained, it is a brown amorphous powder. When atterly destroyed, for the Swiss refused to give quarter. Charles heated in oxygen it becomes silicic acid. ded, and from that day forth abandoned his warlike intentions No acid affects it except hydro-fluoric, by which action the against the cantons. Not they theirs against him. In January terfluoride of silicon is formed, as was noticed, in the etching of of the following year (1477) they joined the Duke of Lorraine in glass. resisting an attack which Charles was making on his province, The "graphatoid” and crystal forms of silicon have been oband on the 4th of that month they had the satisfaction of again tained. beating their enemy at the battle of Nancy, where also the
Silicic Acid (SiO2
silica, or silex).—It corresponds in its comduke’s dead body “larded the plain."
position to carbonic dioxide (CO). It is found pure in quartz, In the year 1499 the independence of the Swiss cantons was when it appears as rock crystal; it is nearly pure in flint, formally recognised by the emperor, and since that time it was chalcedony, agate, opal, etc., and it constitutes the main ingreDever impeached till Napoleon overran the country, as he did dient of all sandstones. Silex can only be fused by the oxyall other countries in Europe, and revolutionised its institutions. hydrogen blow-pipe. Water has no action on it; but with The political constitution now in force is that which was settled steam at a high temperature, it seems to be dissolved. This in 1830, when the lesser cantons were admitted to equal rights accounts for the concretions of silex in the throats of furnaces. with the greater, and certain medixeval privileges and customs However, it can be rendered soluble. If rock crystal be beated which savoured of injustice and obsoletism were swept away. to redness, and then suddenly cooled in water, it can be easily