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PAGE ALGEBRA, LESSONS IN:

Precession of the Equinoxes

Nutation Simple Equations 18, 55, 109

Solstitial Solation of Problems

155

Points - Colures — LatiMiscellaneous Problems in

tude and Longitude-AltSimple Equations

azimuth Instrument

182, 214 Involution, or Raising of

Problems with the Globes 401 Powers

246 | BOOKKEEPING, LESSONS IN : Binomial Theorem

232 Simple Equations

Two
The Journal

6, 66 Unknown Quantities 314

The Ledger

67, 138, 202 Three Unknown Quantities 346

Foreign Trade

236, 291 Problems in Two, Threo,

Cash Book.

362 or more Unknown Quan.

BOTANY, LESSONS IN : tities

375, 410

CVI. Thymelaceæ or Daph. The Key to the Exercises giveu nads

15 in any Lesson in Algebra will CVII. Loranthaceae

15 be found at the end of the CVIII. Hydnoraceæ, Rafflenext Lesson.

siaceæ, Cytinaceæ, Apo

danthacea, and BalanoARCHITECTURE,LESSONS IN: phoracer

16 Domestic Architecture in

CIX. Nepenthaceæ, or Ne.
penths

16 England.

CX. Papayaceæ, or Papayads 27

CXI. Begoniaceæ, or BegoARITHMETIC, LESSONS IN :

niads

28 Miscellaneous Examples 15 CXII. Euphorbiacea,

or The Metric System 69 Spurgeworts

28

CXIII. Cannabinacex, or \* The Key to the Exercises given

Hempworts

29 in any Lesson in Arithmetic

CXIV. Loganiaceæ

65 will be found at the end of the next Lesson.

CXV. Apocynaceæ, or Dog-
banes

65 ASTRONOMY, LESSONS IN:

CXVI. On Endogenous
Plants

135 Objects and Early History CXVII. Cyperaceæ, or Sedge of the Science Early

Tribe

137 Astronomers : Thales,

CXVIII. Juncaceae

and Hipparchus, Ptolemy 17

Aracex, the Bullrush and Early Astronomical Instru.

the Arum Tribe

137 ments - History of the

CXIX. Palmaceæ, or the Science (continued)-Co.

Palm Tribe

137 pernicus and his System cxx. Cryptogamic Plants 232 -Tycho Brahe-Kepler. 81

CXXI. Mosses 232, 303, 367 History of the Science (con

tinued)-Kepler's Second CHEMISTRY, LESSONS IN : and Third Laws-Galileo

Gold-Platinum

42 -Invention of the Tele

Testing, etc,

100 scope-Newton-Law of

Organic Chemistry

143 Universal Gravitation . 158

The Components of the Ani. Results of Newton's Laws

mal Frame

204 Foundation of the

Milk - The Excretions Royal Observatory

Food - Vegetable Cor. Flamsteed-Halley-Cal.

ponents.

241 culation of Orbit of

Fermentation

309 Comets-Bradley-Bode's Alcohol and its Derivations 379 Law-Discoveries of Her. schel

212 CIVIL SERVICE PAPERS: General Appearance of the Introduction

45 Heavens in Different Lati.

Treasury

46 tudes - Meridian Pole

Home Office

46 Star-Great and Little

Foreign Office

46 Bear-Planets. 279 Colonial Office

47 The Sun and Moon-Mo

The Admiralty

111 tions of the Earth-Its

Audit Office

169 Figure-Flattening at the India Office

170 Poles-Proofs that tho

Duchy of Lancaster Office 170 Earth is Round - How

Poor Law Commission 170 supported in Space - R.

Board of Trade .

170 tional and Sensible Hori.

Woods and Forests

170 ZODS 337 Office of Works .

170 Dip of the Horizon-Effects War Office.

171 of the Atmosphere - Re- Privy Council Office

171 fraction-Twilight-Great

British Museum .

229 and Small Circles-Equi

Charity Commission

229 noctial - Ecliptic-Decli

Civil Service Commission 229 nation-Right Ascension 382 Houses of Parliament 229

PAGE

PAGE Copyhold, Enclosure, and Props. XIII.-XX. (Euc. I. Tithe Commission

1-21) Ecclesiastical Commission 297

XXI.-XXVIII (Euc
Emigration Office

298
I, 1-32)

270 The Lunacy Commission 298

XXIX. XXXVI. The Mint

298

(Euc. I. 1-40) 309 National Debt Office 298

XXXVII. XLIV. Patent Office

(Euo. I. 1–48)

398 Paymaster General's Office. 364

ELECTRICITY : Record Office

364 General Register Office 364

How Generated Different Science and Art Department 36+

Theories Conductors

and Non - conductorgCOMMERCE, NATURAL HIS- Pith Ball and Gold Leaf TORY OF:

Electroscopes

129 Introductory

1 15

Induction Torsion ElecI. What is meant by Raw

trometer-Distribution of Produce, etc. .

145

Electricity on a Surface . 175 II. Our National Home :

Cylinder-Electrical Machine its Climate, Soil, and Con.

- Plate Machine - Arm. sequences resulting there.

strong's Hydro-Electric
from, etc.

193
Machine.

209 III. The Effect of Geology

Illuminating Effects Inon the Industry of the

terrupted Conductors British People 225, 257, 289 Leyden Jar

273 IV. The United Kingdom

Spotted Jar-Jar with mov-
Ireland Raw Produce,

able Coatings – Leyden
Mineral, Vegetable, Ani.

Pane-Electric Pendulum mal

321

- Battery Electrome. V. The United Kingdom

ters-Harris's Unit JarGreat Britain-Raw Pro

Effects of Shock

311 duce, Mineral, Vegetable,

Electrified Pith Balls
Animal

321, 353

Dancing Figures – ElecVI. British Fisheries . 385

tric Bells – Effects of a VII. European Analogues

Point - Electric Aura of Great Britain

336

Electric Flyer-Lichten.

berg's Figures-Chemical COMPARATIVE ANATOMY :

Effects-Electrophorus . 369 Pteropoda ---Cephalopoda 39 FRENCH, LESSONS IN: Vertebrata - Fishes

104

XCIX. Examples illustraAmphibia-Reptilia

199

ting the various Uses of
Birds.
Mammalia.

the Principal Conjunc-
327
tions

21 Mammalia--Classification

C. A List of the usual Ab-
Conclusion

404

breviations employed in ENGLISH, LESSONS IN:

French

23 Latin Stems

35 PART II. FRENCH GRAMMAR: French Stems

86
Introduction

74 Diverse Stems

141

$S 1. Parts of Speech 74 The Celtic Element

186

2. Cases of Nouns 74 PART II. INFLECTION :

3. The Noun or SubNouns, their Origin and

stantive.

74 Classes

250, 294

4. Gender of Nouns 74 The Articles

294

5. Rules for determinGender

348, 411

ing the Gender by Number

411
the Meaning

74

6. Rules for determin. ENGLISH LITERATURE, LES.

ing the Gender by SONS IN:

the Termination 75, 115 Introduction

7. Nouns Masculine in Literature in England be

one acceptation and fore the Age of Chaucer . 117

Feminine in another 115 Chaucer and his Times 148,

8. Formation of

the 196, 253

Plural of Nouns 116 The "Canterbury Tales" 253

9. Plural of Compound From the Death of Chaucer

Nouns

116 to the Elizabethan Period 299 10. Nouns which have The Elizabethan Age

no Plural

116 Poetry

351

.1. Nouns which have The Elizabethan Age

no Singular in the Spenser

395

sense here given 166

12. Proper Names 166 EUCLID, EXERCISES IN :

13. The Article

166 Props. I.-IV. (Euc. I. 1-8) 47

14-1. The Adjective

166 VI.-XII. (Euc. I.

14-2. Qualifying Adjec1-16)

tives

166

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$S 15. Gender and Number

of Adjectives

218

16. Formation of the

Feminine of Adjec-

tives

218

17. Formation of the

Plural of Adjectives 218

18. Agreement of Adjec-

tives with Nouns 219

19. Determining or De-

terminate Adjec-

tives

219

20. Demonstrative Ad.

jectives.

219

21. Possessive Adjec-

tives

22. Numeral Adjectives 219

23. Variations of the

Cardinal Numbers. 266

24. Miscellaneous Ob-

servations on

the

Cardinal Numbers. 266

25. Observations on the

Ordinal Numbers 266

26. Rules

266

27. Numeral Nouns 267

28. Fractional Numerals 267

29. Ordinal Adverbs

30. Indefinite Adjectives 267

31. The Pronoun

268

32. The Personal Pro-

nouns

318

33. Remarks on the Per.

soual Pronouns

319

34. Possessive Pronouns 355

35. Remarks on the Pos-

sessive Pronouns 365

36. Demonstrative Pro-

nouns

355

37. Remarks on the De

monstrative Pro-

nouus

365

38. Relative Pronouns

365

39, Remarks on the Re-

lative Pronouns

356

40. Indefinite Pronouns 366

41. Remarks on the In-

definite Pronouns 366

42. Verbs

396

43. Different Sorts of

Verbs

391

44. Conjugations

396

45. Moods and Tenses 39+

46. Use of the Auxiliary

Verbs Avoir and

Étre

394

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS

IN FRENCH :

Erercises Page Exercises Page

119, 150 23 152, 153 220

151

167 15+

268

FRENCH, CORRESPONDENCE

IN:

Letters 1-5

53

6-9

9.9

10-13

14-16

195

17--21

227

22-30

31--34

350

FRENCH, READINGS IN :

Jacopo

L'Ânon

5

GEOGRAPHY, LESSONS IN:

Construction of Map of

Africa, etc.

16

Table of Latitudes

and

Longitudes of Places in

Asia

37

North America

92, 167

Chief Political Divisions of

North America

214

South America

316

Chief Political Divisions of

South America

373

PAGE

PAGE

PAGE

GEOLOGY, LESSONS IN : GREEK, LESSONS IN :

MUSIC, LESSONS IN:

Fossils

The Verb-General Explana.

Exercises.--"Honest Fel.

61

The Vegetable Kingdom-

tions - The Substantive

low"_"Auld Lang Syne" 55

Classification of Rocks

Verb ειμι, I am

113

“Murmur, Gentle Lyre"-

Igneous Rocks

177

Conjugaticn - Preliminary

Modulation-Transition-

The Metamorphic System 239

Notions

90 “Melcombe

Mental

Fossiliferous Strata-Cam-

Verbs in w-The Pure Verb

Efects of Transition 193

brian Group--Laurentian

Avw, I loose (Active Voice) 122 Exercises. " Oberlin

Group-Silurian System. 202

Paradigm of the Regular

“Delabore"

" Edg-

Verb Aww, I loose (Middle

Upper Silurian

161

ware"

337

Voice)

151 The Dead March in «

GEOMETRICAL PERSPEC. Paridigm of the Regular

Boyce's Chant

TIVE:

Verb, Aww, I loose (Pas.

Minor Tunes

32

sive Voice)

156

Problems XXXVII.-XL. . 23

OUR HOLIDAY:

General Conspectus of the

XLI.

Rowing

87

31, 111, 137

Greek Verb

173

XLII.- XLIV.

Bowls

133

171

The Tenses of the Greek

Prisoners' Base

2-30

XLV. - XLVIII.

Verb, Active Voice. 221, 233

(Perspective of

Archery

239, 313

The Tenses of the Greek

Shadows). 209

PNEUMATICS

Verb, Passive and Middlo

ILIX.LI.

321

The Barometer (continuiel)

Voioe

258, 307

LII.

392

-How used to foretell

The Augments

354

changes in tho weather-

GERMAN, LESSONS IN:

Verbs, Pure, Impure, and

Self-Registering Baro-

Liquid Uncontracted

meter How used to

XCV.-XCVIII. Idiomatic

Verbs

Phrases.

12, 63

measure heights--Spren.

The Key to the Exercises

10

gel Pump

XCIX. Exaınples Illustrat.

in any Lesson in Greek

Cominon Pressure Gauro-

ing the various uses of

will be found at the end

some Conjunctions and

Safety Tube Atmospheric

of the next Exercise.

Adverbs.

Railway Blowin, Ma.

68, 102 GREEK, READINGS IN :

C. Exercises in Speaking

chines Ventilation of

Xenophon

77

Minos

78

and Writing German 171

Euripides

131

Ventilation Wind

Its

PART II. GERMAN GRAMMAR:

Demosthenes

162

$$ 1. Etymology

237

pressure and effects

Sophocles .

251 Trade Winds- MODSOODS

2. Derivation and Com-

Æschylus

920

--Land and Sea Breozes-

position

237

Thucydides

331

97

3. Parts of Speech

Simooms, etc.

239

4. The Article

233

HISTORIC SKETCIIES:

RECREATIVE NATURAL

5. Nouns

233

The Grande Monarque

1 HISTORY:

6. Gender

238

Russia and Peter the Great 75 The Autelopes

59

7. Rules for Determin.

The Rise of Prussia and the

The Ape Family Orang-

ing Gender . 239

Seven Years' War . 110 outang - Chimpanzee

8. Gender of Compounds

The Sicilian Vespers

191

Gorilla

95

and Foreign Words 285

Ancient Eyypt .

223 British Pearls and Pearls

9. Derivation of Nouns. 285

The Persian Power

Shells

152

10. Suffixes used in form.

Arthur, King of Britain 310 Nightshades

18+

ing Nouus

285

The Italian Republice 338 Some Land, Sea, and Fresh-

11. Examples.

235 | ITALIAN, LESSONS IN:

water Shells, Worms, and

12. Declension of Com.

The Article-Nouns declined

Tube-dwellers

mon Nouns

286

with and without the

295, 335, 36)

13. The Old Declension 286 Article

29

The Cocoa-nut Palm.

14. The New Declension, 334 Decleusion of Nouns with RECREATIVE SCIENCE:

15. Observations on the

Article, etc., preceding 63 The Sources of Light. 161

Declension of Com. The Preposition di, its use,

Artificial Illumination

mon Nouns

33

etc.

93 The Nature and Measure.

16. Foreign Nouns. 331 Exercises for Practice-Col-

ment of Light - Photo-

17. Foreign Nouns of the

loquial Exercises 126, 157

metry

215

Old Declension 33 + The Particle a

189 The Roflection of Light and

18. Foreign Nouns of the

The Particle da

Deceptions with Plane

New Declension 335 Exercises, etc.

293 and Concave Mirrors 218, 277

19. Foreign Nouns partly The Preposition in

339 Refraction, Lenses, and

of the Old and

The Preposition con

403 Magnifying Power .

partly of the New * The Key to the Exercises given The Prism or Refracting

Declension

335

in any Lesson in Italian will Instrument, and Dis-

20. Declension of Proper

be found at the end of the coveries made with the

Nouns

377

next Lesson.

Spectroscope

311

21. Proper Nouns in the LATIN, LESSONS IN :

Amusing Optical Instra-

377 Deviations in the Second

ments illustrating the

22. Proper Names of

Conjugation

3, 58

Laws of Reflection and

Cities, Countries, Deviations in the Third

Refraction - The Camera

eto.

378

Conjugation 106, 150, 205, 231

Obscura

23. Observations

Deviations in the Fourth SHORTHAND, LESSONS IN:

24. Adjectives

378

Conjugation

274 Exercises

25. Suffixes used in form. Irregular Verbs . 322, 371 General Rules for Writing

ing Adjectives 379

The Key to the Exercises given -Consonant Outlines

26. Examples

378

in any Lesson in Latin will be List of best Outlines-Con.

27. Declension of Adjec-

found at the end of the next tractions-Phraseography 84

tives

378

Lesson.

Panctuation, etc.-- Report.

28. Declinable Adjectives 378 LATIN, READINGS IN:

ing-Advantages of Short:

29. Rule for Adjectives. 378

Cæsar

43

hand

Virgil

82

History of Shorthand.

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN

Sallust

124 Conclusion

GERMAN :-

Horaco

, 181 UNIVERSITIES, THE:

Erercises. Page. Erercises. Paje. Livy,

211 Cambridge.

137-140. 135 | 112-1-46 287 Cicero

301 Dublin

141

1+7

Ovid.

358 London

262, SSI, 3.3

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POPULAR EDUCATOR.

HISTORIC SKETCHES.—XXXVI.

strength, and therefore were not taken into account by states

men), was not yet completely carried out, and the French nobles THE GRAND MONARQUE.

were only too glad to make an opportunity of trying to assert LOUIS XIV. was called the "Grand Monarque" much in the their independence, not to say their existence. Mazarin had to same way that our Elizabeth was called “good Queen Bess." keep them in check, though he did so in a way different to that The circumstances attendant upon the reigns of both were adopted by his brother cardinal, and he had at the same time exceptional and grand in their character, and around both to devise means for utilising their forces for the royal use, for sovereigns was assembled such an array of men as, both for concentrating within the focus of the crown the rays which ability and conrage, were not to be equalled more than once in were straggling and divided all over France. Then there were a century. Louis shone in a light borrowed from those who foreign nations to be dealt with. The Thirty Years' War was were the ministers of his greatness, and without whose help he over, and had left the nations weak and weary of restlessness, could not have stood for a week. Great and stirring events, and glad at heart to welcome a season of quiet and repose. springing many of them from the brains of his sagest coun- Sweden was exhausted, so were all the lesser states of Ger. selors, brought these men into conspicuous notice, and the many; even Austria panted for rest. Yet there was that spirit sheen of glory derived from them was reflected on to the head of restlessness, which is ever the outcome of wars and of great of the king, who was the visible representative of their efforts. national disturbances, to be grappled with, and in the case of Another reason, perhaps, might be adduced to show why Louis Austria it was formidable enough. There was just strength himself was called “the Great.” It had been the policy of the enough left in that large though disjointed empire to feel anxious French royal family, ever since Louis XI. tried to "deliver the to display itself in that panacea for national domestic troubles, crown from wardship,” to diminish the power of the lords, a foreign war; and there was the memory of the substantial aud to concentrate all real power in the king. Many kings help which France had given to Austria's enemies to suggest, if blundered at the work, others were not able to enter upon it ancient rivalry did not suggest it, the direction that a foreign at all; but in the minority of Louis XIII. Cardinal Richelieu war should take. This spirit Cardinal Mazarin had to meet and adopted the idea as the leading feature of his policy, and to counteract, for it did not suit his purpose, nor that of the carried it out so thoroughly that by the end of his adminis. cause he had in hand, to come to blows in any way or with any tration there was scarcely a family in France of any distinc power where he had not evidently the preponderance. He was tien that had not learned a lesson of bitter experience in unwilling to dissipate, on the chance of gaining success, an statecraft under the teaching of the cardinal-king. Cardinal atom of that power which, with a little more care,

little more Mazarin, the ruler of France during the minority of Louis XIV., husbanding, he knew must one day be crushing. Spain was followed, as will be seen, in the same direction, the result being already showing symptoms of that decadence and weakness that whatever individuality had remained in France was nos which were afterwards so fully developed, and which formed so utterly extinct, so that any and all glory that presented itself great a contrast to what she had once been. There was nothing was certain to centre in the person of the king.

seriously to be feared from her. Besides, the French ruler had Let us see what the events were which warranted so proud a ulterior views about Spain which were afterwards carried out by title as that of Grand Monarque, and then see how the light in his pupil, when he was able to announce, having placed his which the king shone proved so intense and intolerable, that, grandson on the Spanish throne, that there were no longer any like the lime-light, which burns to its own destruction, it scorched Pyrenees. him op, and made him a laughing-stock who before had been a Holland was as yet too recent from the deadly struggle out of bero.

which she had come only just alive—the struggle for existence When Louis XIV. ascended his father's throne he was only which she had had with Spain-to be troublesome to France. five years old. A regency was necessary, and one was ap. Prussia as yet was not, save in the germ; and Italy was not pointed, at the head of which was Cardinal Mazarin, the subtlest united, and could not threaten. England alone was very for. and least scrupulous politician in Europe. Fearful lost the king midable. Under the guidance of the Lord Protector, Cromwell, should by wisdom find him out, the cardinal took measures to she suddenly emerged from the ranks of the second-rate powers prevent him becoming wise, and kept him purposely in ignorance of Europe, and appeared more powerful than she had been since of even the rudiments of education. Amusements and occupa- the days of Henry V. and Agincourt. To the surprise of the tions which could please a lad without instructing him, young statesmen of Europe, the voice of England was once more heard Lonis had in abundance, and a natural liking in him for things -not in tones of entreaty or of diplomacy, but of command; and elegant and splendid was studiously developed and pandered to even those states which refused to recognise her ruler were comin every possible way. Louis was taught to consider that his pelled to recognise the strength that ruler wielded, and were dominions and all that they contained were created for his own afraid to be disobedient to her word. Spain insulted England, will and pleasure to work on, so that it was no wonder when he and English commanders swept off the sea the remnant of grew up, and had had some experience of the way in which men Spanish naval power which the men of Elizabeth had spared. were governed and policy was managed, that he should be the The Dutch, jealous of the rise of their great commercial rivals, author of the maxim, “L'état c'est moi!” (I am the state !) took occasion to make war, and were but too glad, after a series Upon this maxim, or what was tantamount to it, the young of sanguinary conflicts, to take the first occasion of making man's education was based—the idea that several millions of peace. Most of the nations of Europe had to learn by ex. people lived simply to do his will, and that all the resources of perience that the power they had of late years—since the house those people were his to do as he liked with, being uppermost ; l of Stuart came to the throne-affected to despise, was a veritable tho idea that there were duties correlative with this entire de- power again, one not to be trifled with, one quite able and votion never being once mooted.

willing to asssert itself and to enforce respect. Cardinal Mazarin Cardinal Mazarin had no doubt a difficult task to perform alone of all the rulers had the wisdom to see what the new when he acceded to power. The policy of Richelieu, that of republic and her chief meant; he alone had the foresight to weakening the nobles in order to concentrato power on the endeavour betimes to secure their friendship. Peace with Engking (the people as yet were not, or rather, knew not their land was necessary to all his plans ; peace must therefore be

79

VOL. IV.

secured at any cost. When Cromwell assumed the dictatorship, the same place was instantly noticed, the Spanish envoy to Paris Mazarin was not only quick to acknowledge his government, but was dismissed summarily from the country, and Louis's fathersent a special embassy over to London to congratulate him, and in-law, the king of Spain, was offered the alternative of an to express his regret that state affairs should prevent his coming apology or war. The former was chosen, and the power of over in person to testify his regard " for the first man of the Spain was shown to be but weakness. Then the hitherto age." Everything was conceded by Mazarin to the English de- omnipotent court of Rome was humbled by the wisdom of mands, and though these occasionally rose higher than ralers in the French counsels, and all nations, including the German general would stand, compliance was given to them, and so the empire, surrounding France were laid under obligations which neutrality of England was purchased.

left it impossible for them to dispute the first place with her. Cardinal Mazarin's one grand idea as regarded home policy The Netherlands, with the Rhine frontier, had ever been an was to establish absolute monarchy, and his one grand idea as object of ambition and envy to the French. They hoped and regarded foreign policy was to humble the house of Austria. looked for an occasion of wresting them from the Spanish, and So well did he succeed by his arts and statecraft in the former, uniting them with the French crown. The occasion presented and so well by the arms of the great Condé and Turenne in the itself in 1667. Philip IV. of Spain died, and Louis claimed tho latter, that by the time Louis was old enough, or thought him. Spanish crown in right of his wife, Maria Theresa, who was the self so, to steer the ship himself, he was to all intents and daughter of Philip by the sister of Louis XIII. He was not at purposes an absolute king, independent of parliaments, and of the moment prepared for a campaign in the Peninsula, but the troublesome state councils, and in a position to give the word of Spanish Netherlands and Franche Compté he thought he might command to any single state in Europe. The civil wars, called easily manage. His claim being refused, he put a splendid the wars of the Fronde, which had desolated a large portion of army in motion, took nominal command of it himself, and France, and had shaken civil society to its foundation, were over proceeded literally to walk over his ground. He had but to in the year 1654, and their effect had been only to increase the appear before the gates of cities, in order to gain admission ; power in the king's hand.

and when he had done so, allowing his engineers and artillerists Cardinal Mazarin died in 1661, a year after the restoration of to fortify them, he put strong garrisons within them, and thus our Charles II., and Louis, then in the twenty-third year of his became master of all Flanders. Franche Compté and Alsace age, at once took upon himself individually the cares of governo followed, and the latter provinces were secured to him by the ment. For years the people, who had been accustomed to be peace of Aix-la-Chapelle. From this time till 1678, when ruled by a prime minister whom they detested, welcomed the the peace of Nimeguen was signed, there was a succession of idea of personal government by the king himself most en. wars on the north and north-eastern frontiers of France, out of thusiastically, and were loud in their expressions of admiration which Louis gained a certain amount of military glory, and for a young king who devoted himself to the real business of upon which he spent a great deal of money. His private er. government, and set bounds to the power of his ministers, whom penditure was at the same time enormous; the magnificence and he also required to give daily accounts of their stewardship to costliness of his palaces, his entertainments, his establishments, himself. For some little time past he had insisted that instruc- exceeding the bounds as yet reached by any Western prince. tion should be imparted to him, and Mazarin, seeing that the France was beginning to feel the weight of her splendid king, end of his own reign must be at hand, allowed him to have his whose ambition soared and whose extravagance increased as the way. The slight training which Louis' considerable natural country became less and less able to support the expense of powers thus received was turned to the best account, and them. those who laughed, and put their tongues in their cheek, and All went well, however, with the French arms. Louis XIV. said sneerful things, when they saw the king begin to be en- dictated in Europe; his word was law till the day when the gaged in actual business, were confounded and alarmed when Prince of Orange became William III. of England, and proposed they saw him persevere in doing it. The idlers, fools, and non- to himself the task of setting limits to the French power, com. workers, finding that their master meant business, gave up their mensurate with those which had been set by Cromwell. To this posts, and gave place to better men.

end William worked unceasingly, so soon as the state of things The immediate result was that the finances of the country, which in his new kingdom allowed of his interfering actively in foreigu had got into dire confusion, were established on a sound basis ; affairs. Louis refused to recognise him as king, and osten. the troops, who had become more or less demoralised under a tatiously maintained the fugitive James as king at St. Gersystem of administration where there was no visible head, were mains, where he lived upon his bounty. This refusal, coupled brought under discipline, and order was restored generally in the with other causes of disturbance, brought about a war in which affairs of the kingdom. Soon began to be seen the fruits of the all the malcontents of the Continent- the Dutch, the Netherlabour given by Richelieu and Mazarin ; soon appeared, in the lands, the smaller German states which were threatened by foreign as well as the domestic policy of France, the effect of one France-ranged themselves on the English king's party. A active will at the head of affairs. Aided by men who would have wasting war, which still further reduced the resources of France, done honour to any country and any age, in every department and which seriously retarded the general progress of Europe, of government, Louis shone with brilliant light from the first was carried on, the result being that the allies, though generally moment of his ruling for himself. His armies were commanded beaten by the able French commanders, always showed front by men who had covered themselves with military glory, and again immediately after a defeat, and snatched the benefit of who were second to none of all the generals in Europe ; his results from the victor's hand. Sometimes actual victory finance ministers were the first who attempted to frame their crowned the indomitable efforts of William, and in 1697, after budgets on a scientific basis, and with a due regard to the eight years of strife, all sides were glad to consent to the peace interests of the people as well as of the government; his of Ryswick, by which William was acknowledged to be the king lawyers were men of the profoundest erudition, and skilled in all of England, and by which Spain, France, Holland, England, and knowledge pertaining to their profession; his clergy were of the Germany were set at one. The terms to which France consented most eloquent and influential that had been seen anywhere for a were too restrictive to ensure permanent peace. She only wanted hundred years; and, under the genial influence of a court in repose, breathing space, time to recruit her exhausted resources; which elegance and magnificence were the order of the day, art and when in 1702 the king of Spain died, the “Grand Monarque" and literature flourished, and the physical sciences made ad claimed for his grandson, regardless of the consequences, the vances such as had not been made under any other king before. Spanish crown, which he had expressly agreed should never be

Surrounded thus by all that was splendid in genius and in joined with that of France. experience, it is no wonder that Louis XIV. was as a star in Then came the War of the Succession. William III. was Europe. The only power which had erewhile kept France, under dead in 1702, but his spirit survived in the ministers and Mazarin, in check, was England, and England had passed from generals who remained. The English government of Queen the hands of the strong man who made her great into the hands Anne put itself at the head of the allies, who determined to put of one who made her contemptible, and who actually stooped to a curb on the ambition of the “Grand Monarque.” On the 4th of the infamy of accepting a pension from France as the price of May, 1702, war was declared, and under the command of generals non-interference in her plans. First, the

Spanish branch of the like John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough, and Prince Engene house of Austria came under the lash of Louis. An insult to the of Savoy, the allied armies entered on some of the most glorious French ambassador in London by the Spanish ambassador at campaigns that have ever been pursued. The battles of Blez.

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