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PAGE ALGEBRA, LESSONS IN:
Precession of the Equinoxes
Nutation Simple Equations 18, 55, 109
Solstitial Solation of Problems
Points - Colures — LatiMiscellaneous Problems in
tude and Longitude-AltSimple Equations
182, 214 Involution, or Raising of
Problems with the Globes 401 Powers
246 | BOOKKEEPING, LESSONS IN : Binomial Theorem
232 Simple Equations
6, 66 Unknown Quantities 314
67, 138, 202 Three Unknown Quantities 346
236, 291 Problems in Two, Threo,
362 or more Unknown Quan.
BOTANY, LESSONS IN : tities
CVI. Thymelaceæ or Daph. The Key to the Exercises giveu nads
15 in any Lesson in Algebra will CVII. Loranthaceae
15 be found at the end of the CVIII. Hydnoraceæ, Rafflenext Lesson.
siaceæ, Cytinaceæ, Apo
danthacea, and BalanoARCHITECTURE,LESSONS IN: phoracer
16 Domestic Architecture in
CIX. Nepenthaceæ, or Ne.
CX. Papayaceæ, or Papayads 27
CXI. Begoniaceæ, or BegoARITHMETIC, LESSONS IN :
28 Miscellaneous Examples 15 CXII. Euphorbiacea,
or The Metric System 69 Spurgeworts
CXIII. Cannabinacex, or \* The Key to the Exercises given
29 in any Lesson in Arithmetic
65 will be found at the end of the next Lesson.
CXV. Apocynaceæ, or Dog-
65 ASTRONOMY, LESSONS IN:
CXVI. On Endogenous
135 Objects and Early History CXVII. Cyperaceæ, or Sedge of the Science Early
137 Astronomers : Thales,
and Hipparchus, Ptolemy 17
Aracex, the Bullrush and Early Astronomical Instru.
the Arum Tribe
137 ments - History of the
CXIX. Palmaceæ, or the Science (continued)-Co.
137 pernicus and his System cxx. Cryptogamic Plants 232 -Tycho Brahe-Kepler. 81
CXXI. Mosses 232, 303, 367 History of the Science (con
tinued)-Kepler's Second CHEMISTRY, LESSONS IN : and Third Laws-Galileo
42 -Invention of the Tele
100 scope-Newton-Law of
143 Universal Gravitation . 158
The Components of the Ani. Results of Newton's Laws
204 Foundation of the
Milk - The Excretions Royal Observatory
Food - Vegetable Cor. Flamsteed-Halley-Cal.
241 culation of Orbit of
309 Comets-Bradley-Bode's Alcohol and its Derivations 379 Law-Discoveries of Her. schel
212 CIVIL SERVICE PAPERS: General Appearance of the Introduction
45 Heavens in Different Lati.
46 tudes - Meridian Pole
46 Star-Great and Little
46 Bear-Planets. 279 Colonial Office
47 The Sun and Moon-Mo
111 tions of the Earth-Its
169 Figure-Flattening at the India Office
170 Poles-Proofs that tho
Duchy of Lancaster Office 170 Earth is Round - How
Poor Law Commission 170 supported in Space - R.
Board of Trade .
170 tional and Sensible Hori.
Woods and Forests
170 ZODS 337 Office of Works .
170 Dip of the Horizon-Effects War Office.
171 of the Atmosphere - Re- Privy Council Office
British Museum .
229 and Small Circles-Equi
229 noctial - Ecliptic-Decli
Civil Service Commission 229 nation-Right Ascension 382 Houses of Parliament 229
PAGE Copyhold, Enclosure, and Props. XIII.-XX. (Euc. I. Tithe Commission
1-21) Ecclesiastical Commission 297
270 The Lunacy Commission 298
XXIX. XXXVI. The Mint
(Euc. I. 1-40) 309 National Debt Office 298
XXXVII. XLIV. Patent Office
(Euo. I. 1–48)
398 Paymaster General's Office. 364
ELECTRICITY : Record Office
364 General Register Office 364
How Generated Different Science and Art Department 36+
and Non - conductorgCOMMERCE, NATURAL HIS- Pith Ball and Gold Leaf TORY OF:
Induction Torsion ElecI. What is meant by Raw
trometer-Distribution of Produce, etc. .
Electricity on a Surface . 175 II. Our National Home :
Cylinder-Electrical Machine its Climate, Soil, and Con.
- Plate Machine - Arm. sequences resulting there.
209 III. The Effect of Geology
Illuminating Effects Inon the Industry of the
terrupted Conductors British People 225, 257, 289 Leyden Jar
273 IV. The United Kingdom
Spotted Jar-Jar with mov-
able Coatings – Leyden
Pane-Electric Pendulum mal
- Battery Electrome. V. The United Kingdom
ters-Harris's Unit JarGreat Britain-Raw Pro
Effects of Shock
311 duce, Mineral, Vegetable,
Electrified Pith Balls
Dancing Figures – ElecVI. British Fisheries . 385
tric Bells – Effects of a VII. European Analogues
Point - Electric Aura of Great Britain
berg's Figures-Chemical COMPARATIVE ANATOMY :
Effects-Electrophorus . 369 Pteropoda ---Cephalopoda 39 FRENCH, LESSONS IN: Vertebrata - Fishes
XCIX. Examples illustraAmphibia-Reptilia
ting the various Uses of
the Principal Conjunc-
C. A List of the usual Ab-
breviations employed in ENGLISH, LESSONS IN:
23 Latin Stems
35 PART II. FRENCH GRAMMAR: French Stems
74 Diverse Stems
$S 1. Parts of Speech 74 The Celtic Element
2. Cases of Nouns 74 PART II. INFLECTION :
3. The Noun or SubNouns, their Origin and
4. Gender of Nouns 74 The Articles
5. Rules for determinGender
ing the Gender by Number
6. Rules for determin. ENGLISH LITERATURE, LES.
ing the Gender by SONS IN:
the Termination 75, 115 Introduction
7. Nouns Masculine in Literature in England be
one acceptation and fore the Age of Chaucer . 117
Feminine in another 115 Chaucer and his Times 148,
8. Formation of
the 196, 253
Plural of Nouns 116 The "Canterbury Tales" 253
9. Plural of Compound From the Death of Chaucer
116 to the Elizabethan Period 299 10. Nouns which have The Elizabethan Age
.1. Nouns which have The Elizabethan Age
no Singular in the Spenser
sense here given 166
12. Proper Names 166 EUCLID, EXERCISES IN :
13. The Article
166 Props. I.-IV. (Euc. I. 1-8) 47
14-1. The Adjective
166 VI.-XII. (Euc. I.
14-2. Qualifying Adjec1-16)
strength, and therefore were not taken into account by states
men), was not yet completely carried out, and the French nobles THE GRAND MONARQUE.
were only too glad to make an opportunity of trying to assert LOUIS XIV. was called the "Grand Monarque" much in the their independence, not to say their existence. Mazarin had to same way that our Elizabeth was called “good Queen Bess." keep them in check, though he did so in a way different to that The circumstances attendant upon the reigns of both were adopted by his brother cardinal, and he had at the same time exceptional and grand in their character, and around both to devise means for utilising their forces for the royal use, for sovereigns was assembled such an array of men as, both for concentrating within the focus of the crown the rays which ability and conrage, were not to be equalled more than once in were straggling and divided all over France. Then there were a century. Louis shone in a light borrowed from those who foreign nations to be dealt with. The Thirty Years' War was were the ministers of his greatness, and without whose help he over, and had left the nations weak and weary of restlessness, could not have stood for a week. Great and stirring events, and glad at heart to welcome a season of quiet and repose. springing many of them from the brains of his sagest coun- Sweden was exhausted, so were all the lesser states of Ger. selors, brought these men into conspicuous notice, and the many; even Austria panted for rest. Yet there was that spirit sheen of glory derived from them was reflected on to the head of restlessness, which is ever the outcome of wars and of great of the king, who was the visible representative of their efforts. national disturbances, to be grappled with, and in the case of Another reason, perhaps, might be adduced to show why Louis Austria it was formidable enough. There was just strength himself was called “the Great.” It had been the policy of the enough left in that large though disjointed empire to feel anxious French royal family, ever since Louis XI. tried to "deliver the to display itself in that panacea for national domestic troubles, crown from wardship,” to diminish the power of the lords, a foreign war; and there was the memory of the substantial aud to concentrate all real power in the king. Many kings help which France had given to Austria's enemies to suggest, if blundered at the work, others were not able to enter upon it ancient rivalry did not suggest it, the direction that a foreign at all; but in the minority of Louis XIII. Cardinal Richelieu war should take. This spirit Cardinal Mazarin had to meet and adopted the idea as the leading feature of his policy, and to counteract, for it did not suit his purpose, nor that of the carried it out so thoroughly that by the end of his adminis. cause he had in hand, to come to blows in any way or with any tration there was scarcely a family in France of any distinc power where he had not evidently the preponderance. He was tien that had not learned a lesson of bitter experience in unwilling to dissipate, on the chance of gaining success, an statecraft under the teaching of the cardinal-king. Cardinal atom of that power which, with a little more care,
little more Mazarin, the ruler of France during the minority of Louis XIV., husbanding, he knew must one day be crushing. Spain was followed, as will be seen, in the same direction, the result being already showing symptoms of that decadence and weakness that whatever individuality had remained in France was nos which were afterwards so fully developed, and which formed so utterly extinct, so that any and all glory that presented itself great a contrast to what she had once been. There was nothing was certain to centre in the person of the king.
seriously to be feared from her. Besides, the French ruler had Let us see what the events were which warranted so proud a ulterior views about Spain which were afterwards carried out by title as that of Grand Monarque, and then see how the light in his pupil, when he was able to announce, having placed his which the king shone proved so intense and intolerable, that, grandson on the Spanish throne, that there were no longer any like the lime-light, which burns to its own destruction, it scorched Pyrenees. him op, and made him a laughing-stock who before had been a Holland was as yet too recent from the deadly struggle out of bero.
which she had come only just alive—the struggle for existence When Louis XIV. ascended his father's throne he was only which she had had with Spain-to be troublesome to France. five years old. A regency was necessary, and one was ap. Prussia as yet was not, save in the germ; and Italy was not pointed, at the head of which was Cardinal Mazarin, the subtlest united, and could not threaten. England alone was very for. and least scrupulous politician in Europe. Fearful lost the king midable. Under the guidance of the Lord Protector, Cromwell, should by wisdom find him out, the cardinal took measures to she suddenly emerged from the ranks of the second-rate powers prevent him becoming wise, and kept him purposely in ignorance of Europe, and appeared more powerful than she had been since of even the rudiments of education. Amusements and occupa- the days of Henry V. and Agincourt. To the surprise of the tions which could please a lad without instructing him, young statesmen of Europe, the voice of England was once more heard Lonis had in abundance, and a natural liking in him for things -not in tones of entreaty or of diplomacy, but of command; and elegant and splendid was studiously developed and pandered to even those states which refused to recognise her ruler were comin every possible way. Louis was taught to consider that his pelled to recognise the strength that ruler wielded, and were dominions and all that they contained were created for his own afraid to be disobedient to her word. Spain insulted England, will and pleasure to work on, so that it was no wonder when he and English commanders swept off the sea the remnant of grew up, and had had some experience of the way in which men Spanish naval power which the men of Elizabeth had spared. were governed and policy was managed, that he should be the The Dutch, jealous of the rise of their great commercial rivals, author of the maxim, “L'état c'est moi!” (I am the state !) took occasion to make war, and were but too glad, after a series Upon this maxim, or what was tantamount to it, the young of sanguinary conflicts, to take the first occasion of making man's education was based—the idea that several millions of peace. Most of the nations of Europe had to learn by ex. people lived simply to do his will, and that all the resources of perience that the power they had of late years—since the house those people were his to do as he liked with, being uppermost ; l of Stuart came to the throne-affected to despise, was a veritable tho idea that there were duties correlative with this entire de- power again, one not to be trifled with, one quite able and votion never being once mooted.
willing to asssert itself and to enforce respect. Cardinal Mazarin Cardinal Mazarin had no doubt a difficult task to perform alone of all the rulers had the wisdom to see what the new when he acceded to power. The policy of Richelieu, that of republic and her chief meant; he alone had the foresight to weakening the nobles in order to concentrato power on the endeavour betimes to secure their friendship. Peace with Engking (the people as yet were not, or rather, knew not their land was necessary to all his plans ; peace must therefore be
secured at any cost. When Cromwell assumed the dictatorship, the same place was instantly noticed, the Spanish envoy to Paris Mazarin was not only quick to acknowledge his government, but was dismissed summarily from the country, and Louis's fathersent a special embassy over to London to congratulate him, and in-law, the king of Spain, was offered the alternative of an to express his regret that state affairs should prevent his coming apology or war. The former was chosen, and the power of over in person to testify his regard " for the first man of the Spain was shown to be but weakness. Then the hitherto age." Everything was conceded by Mazarin to the English de- omnipotent court of Rome was humbled by the wisdom of mands, and though these occasionally rose higher than ralers in the French counsels, and all nations, including the German general would stand, compliance was given to them, and so the empire, surrounding France were laid under obligations which neutrality of England was purchased.
left it impossible for them to dispute the first place with her. Cardinal Mazarin's one grand idea as regarded home policy The Netherlands, with the Rhine frontier, had ever been an was to establish absolute monarchy, and his one grand idea as object of ambition and envy to the French. They hoped and regarded foreign policy was to humble the house of Austria. looked for an occasion of wresting them from the Spanish, and So well did he succeed by his arts and statecraft in the former, uniting them with the French crown. The occasion presented and so well by the arms of the great Condé and Turenne in the itself in 1667. Philip IV. of Spain died, and Louis claimed tho latter, that by the time Louis was old enough, or thought him. Spanish crown in right of his wife, Maria Theresa, who was the self so, to steer the ship himself, he was to all intents and daughter of Philip by the sister of Louis XIII. He was not at purposes an absolute king, independent of parliaments, and of the moment prepared for a campaign in the Peninsula, but the troublesome state councils, and in a position to give the word of Spanish Netherlands and Franche Compté he thought he might command to any single state in Europe. The civil wars, called easily manage. His claim being refused, he put a splendid the wars of the Fronde, which had desolated a large portion of army in motion, took nominal command of it himself, and France, and had shaken civil society to its foundation, were over proceeded literally to walk over his ground. He had but to in the year 1654, and their effect had been only to increase the appear before the gates of cities, in order to gain admission ; power in the king's hand.
and when he had done so, allowing his engineers and artillerists Cardinal Mazarin died in 1661, a year after the restoration of to fortify them, he put strong garrisons within them, and thus our Charles II., and Louis, then in the twenty-third year of his became master of all Flanders. Franche Compté and Alsace age, at once took upon himself individually the cares of governo followed, and the latter provinces were secured to him by the ment. For years the people, who had been accustomed to be peace of Aix-la-Chapelle. From this time till 1678, when ruled by a prime minister whom they detested, welcomed the the peace of Nimeguen was signed, there was a succession of idea of personal government by the king himself most en. wars on the north and north-eastern frontiers of France, out of thusiastically, and were loud in their expressions of admiration which Louis gained a certain amount of military glory, and for a young king who devoted himself to the real business of upon which he spent a great deal of money. His private er. government, and set bounds to the power of his ministers, whom penditure was at the same time enormous; the magnificence and he also required to give daily accounts of their stewardship to costliness of his palaces, his entertainments, his establishments, himself. For some little time past he had insisted that instruc- exceeding the bounds as yet reached by any Western prince. tion should be imparted to him, and Mazarin, seeing that the France was beginning to feel the weight of her splendid king, end of his own reign must be at hand, allowed him to have his whose ambition soared and whose extravagance increased as the way. The slight training which Louis' considerable natural country became less and less able to support the expense of powers thus received was turned to the best account, and them. those who laughed, and put their tongues in their cheek, and All went well, however, with the French arms. Louis XIV. said sneerful things, when they saw the king begin to be en- dictated in Europe; his word was law till the day when the gaged in actual business, were confounded and alarmed when Prince of Orange became William III. of England, and proposed they saw him persevere in doing it. The idlers, fools, and non- to himself the task of setting limits to the French power, com. workers, finding that their master meant business, gave up their mensurate with those which had been set by Cromwell. To this posts, and gave place to better men.
end William worked unceasingly, so soon as the state of things The immediate result was that the finances of the country, which in his new kingdom allowed of his interfering actively in foreigu had got into dire confusion, were established on a sound basis ; affairs. Louis refused to recognise him as king, and osten. the troops, who had become more or less demoralised under a tatiously maintained the fugitive James as king at St. Gersystem of administration where there was no visible head, were mains, where he lived upon his bounty. This refusal, coupled brought under discipline, and order was restored generally in the with other causes of disturbance, brought about a war in which affairs of the kingdom. Soon began to be seen the fruits of the all the malcontents of the Continent- the Dutch, the Netherlabour given by Richelieu and Mazarin ; soon appeared, in the lands, the smaller German states which were threatened by foreign as well as the domestic policy of France, the effect of one France-ranged themselves on the English king's party. A active will at the head of affairs. Aided by men who would have wasting war, which still further reduced the resources of France, done honour to any country and any age, in every department and which seriously retarded the general progress of Europe, of government, Louis shone with brilliant light from the first was carried on, the result being that the allies, though generally moment of his ruling for himself. His armies were commanded beaten by the able French commanders, always showed front by men who had covered themselves with military glory, and again immediately after a defeat, and snatched the benefit of who were second to none of all the generals in Europe ; his results from the victor's hand. Sometimes actual victory finance ministers were the first who attempted to frame their crowned the indomitable efforts of William, and in 1697, after budgets on a scientific basis, and with a due regard to the eight years of strife, all sides were glad to consent to the peace interests of the people as well as of the government; his of Ryswick, by which William was acknowledged to be the king lawyers were men of the profoundest erudition, and skilled in all of England, and by which Spain, France, Holland, England, and knowledge pertaining to their profession; his clergy were of the Germany were set at one. The terms to which France consented most eloquent and influential that had been seen anywhere for a were too restrictive to ensure permanent peace. She only wanted hundred years; and, under the genial influence of a court in repose, breathing space, time to recruit her exhausted resources; which elegance and magnificence were the order of the day, art and when in 1702 the king of Spain died, the “Grand Monarque" and literature flourished, and the physical sciences made ad claimed for his grandson, regardless of the consequences, the vances such as had not been made under any other king before. Spanish crown, which he had expressly agreed should never be
Surrounded thus by all that was splendid in genius and in joined with that of France. experience, it is no wonder that Louis XIV. was as a star in Then came the War of the Succession. William III. was Europe. The only power which had erewhile kept France, under dead in 1702, but his spirit survived in the ministers and Mazarin, in check, was England, and England had passed from generals who remained. The English government of Queen the hands of the strong man who made her great into the hands Anne put itself at the head of the allies, who determined to put of one who made her contemptible, and who actually stooped to a curb on the ambition of the “Grand Monarque.” On the 4th of the infamy of accepting a pension from France as the price of May, 1702, war was declared, and under the command of generals non-interference in her plans. First, the
Spanish branch of the like John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough, and Prince Engene house of Austria came under the lash of Louis. An insult to the of Savoy, the allied armies entered on some of the most glorious French ambassador in London by the Spanish ambassador at campaigns that have ever been pursued. The battles of Blez.