Imágenes de páginas

N. A.C. I. Maison assurée contre House insured against fire.

GEOMETRICAL PERSPECTIVE.-XIII. l'incendie. Md Marchand. Dealer, shopkcoper, m.

At the foot of the enunciations of several of the problems, we Mde. Marchande, Dealer, shopkeeper, f.

have proposed a scale of some definito number of feet to the Müe Mademoiselle, Miss.

inch. Beginners, no doubt, will have found this convenient in YEE Monseigneur. My lord.

assisting them to determine the size of the drawing they may Mis. Marquis.

Marquis. Mise. Marquise. Marchioness.

be about to make. We hope by this time they clearly understand MM Messieurs. Messrs., Gentlomon.

that upon the scale depends not only the arrangement and proMme. Madame. Madam, Mrs.

portions of the parts of the drawing throughout its construction, Ms. Manuscript. Manuscript.

but also its requisite size upon the paper, to allow sufficient room N. B. Nota benè. Nota Bena.

to ensure a clear representation of all minor details. Therefore it N.-D. Notre-Dame. Our Lady.

matters little whether the scale is half an inch or one inch to N.-N.-E. Nord-nord-est. North-north-east,

the foot, so long as it is sufficiently large to admit of all that we 1.-.-0. Nord-nord-ouest. North-north-west.

wish to introduce. Most of the figures attached to our problems Nt. Négociant.

Morchant, m. Nte. Négociante. Merchant, f.

are upon a very small scale, for the purpose of economising No. Numéro. Number.

space; but we advise our papils to make their drawings from N. 8. Notre-Seigneur. Our Lord.

these figures on a larger scale. We have drawn Fig. 61 in the N. S. J.-C. Notre-Seigneur Jésus. Our Lord Jesus Christ.

proportion of 3 feot to an inch; a scale of a foot to 1 inch would Christ.

be better for copying it. This brings us to a difficulty which 0. Ouest. West,

is not unfrequently a stumbling-block to many young students 0.-N. Ouest-nord. West-north.

in geometrical drawing. We will make use of Problem XXXVII. 0.-8. Ouest-sud. West-south.

and its Fig. 61 to assist us in explaining it. It will be scen that P.S. Post-scriptum.

P. P. Révérend père.
Reverend father.

in the statement of the problem there are but two measurements S. Sud. South.

named; all the rest are referred to the scale of 3 feet to the inch, S. A. I. Son Altesse Impériale. His or Hor Imperial Highness,

from which the parts must be measured. The difficulty we 8. A. R. Son Altesse Royale. His or Her Royal Highness.

allude to is-How are the proportions of the other parts to be 8. A. S. Son Altesse Sérénissime. His Most Serene Highness,

obtained upon an increased scale ? First, the scale of 3 feet to & E. Sud est. South-east.

the inch must be made, and also another and corresponding 8. Em. Son Eminence. His Eminence.

scale of 1 foot to the inch; the parts of the Fig. 61 may be & Ex. Son Excellence. His Ercellency.

measured by the scale of 3 feet to the inch, and the same figures 8. G. Sa Grandeur.

His Grace (to a Bishop). S. H. Sa Hautesse.

His Highness (the Turkish Sultan). applied to the 1 inch scale for the drawing in hand. If these S, M. Sa Majesté. His or Her Majesty.

simple directions for making a drawing upon increased proporS. M. B. Sa Majesté Britannique. His or Her Britannic Majesty.

tions are exactly followed, it will save much time and space in S. M. C. Sa Majesté Catholique. His Catholic Majesty.

giving the stated measurements of every part of our subjeets ; S. M. I. Sa Majesté Impériale. His Imperial Majesty.

and as we have drawn them to a scale, the additional trouble S. M. R. Sa Majesté Royale. His Royal Majesty.

of making a scale to work from will be but trifling. We proS. M. S. Sa Majesté-Suédoise. His Swedish Majesty.

pose now to apply the rules and conditions of Problems XXXV. S. M. T. C. Sa Majesté Très-Chró. His Most Christian Majesty.

and XXXVI. The first relates to additional picture-planes; the tienne.

second to the use of the diagonal in perspective representation. S.M.T.F. Sa Majesté Très-Fidèle. His Most Faithful Majesty.

PROBLEM XXXVII. (Fig. 61).—Draw the perspective view of S. 0. Sud-ouest.

South-west. 8. P. Saint-Père.

The Holy Father.

a pedestal, as shown in the plan and elevation A and B. SS. PP. Les Saints-Pères. The Holy Fathers.

height of the eye to be at two-thirds of the height of the pedestal. S. S. Sa Sainteté. His Holiness,

Nearest angle, 1 foot within the picture, and 2 feet to the right of S.S. E. Sud-sud-est. South-south-east.

the eye ; one side is inclined to the picture-plane, at an angle S. S. O. Sud-sud-ouest. South-south-west.

of 350; other conditions at pleasure. Scals, 3 feet to an inch.

As there is no necessity to explain all the process of conKEY TO EXERCISES I LESSONS IN FRENCH.

struction from the commercement, we will merely refer to the EXERCISE 149 (Vol. III., page 29).

leading lines and their positions, with whatever additional in. 1. Does that arrangement suit you ? 2. It does not suit me, but it struction may be necessary for this particular class of subjects. suits our relation.' 3. Does not that displease the painter ? 4. Your ab two feet to the right of the eye; b c one foot within; e o conduct displeases him much. 5. Do you not fear abusing your the retiring diagonal line, o its VP and do its distance-point. friend's patience ? 6. I fear to abuse it. 7. Do you never think of Let the line of contact be drawn from e, the point of contact of your duties? 8. I think of them every day. 9. Have you thought of the diagonal line, because all the heights of the parts of the Four brother to-day? 10. I have thought of him, and have remembered his goodness. 11. Has he taken care of his father, and has he pedestal must be measured upon it and drawn towards its VP; obeyed him? 12. He obeys him constantly. 13. Has he never dis- that is, they are to be taken from the elevation, B, on the line en, obeyed him? 14. He has disobeyed him several times, but he grieves where all the lines of the mouldings are produced for this purfor his fault. 15. Do you not thank them for their kindness ? 16. I pose, and then transferred to the line of contact, e n, of the per. thank them with all my heart. 17. Has the saddler congratulated you spective view. It will be noticed that the horizontal projections for your success ? 18. He has congratulated me. 19. Have you not of the mouldings beyond each other are bronght down by perlaughed at our misfortune ? 20. We have not laughed at it; we never pendicular lines to the plan, A; these must be taken from the laugh at the misfortunes of others. 21. Do you not remember the plan, commencing at the outer angle, d, along the diagonal line, news which I have told you ?

and repeated upon the Pp thus :-Draw a line from do through EXERCISE 150 (Vol. III., page 29).

w to the pp in d, make d m equal to d m of the plan, and rule 1. N'avez-vous pas abusé de la complaisance de votre ami ? 2. Jo

from m back again to DO; from where this line cuts the n'ai pas abusó de sa complaisance, j'ai abusó de sa patience. 3. Votre diagonal, draw a perpendicular; this will give the near angle of conduite ne déploit-elle pas à vos parents ? 4. Ma conduite ne leur

the faces of the pedestal. Let this be considered as a rule, 5. Pourquoi n'avez-vous pas obéi à M. votre père ? 6. Je lui ai obéi. 7. N'avez-vous pas ri de mes erreurs ? 8. Je n'ai pas ri

that all the various projections of mouldings, of whatever kind, de vos crreurs. 9. Le jeune homme a-t-il ri des erreurs du peintre ? are brought down to the diagonal of the plan, and treated as we 10. Il n'a pas ri de ses erreurs. 11. Votre sellier a-t-il ri des malheurs have shown by the construction from m. The upper PP must be de votre cousin ? 12. Il n'a pas ri de ses malheurs. 13. Riez-vous drawn throngh n on the line of contact, and all the points of jamais des malheurs d'autrui ? 14. Nous ne rions jamais des malheurs measurement that have to be made upon it, together with all do notre prochain. 15. Vous souvenez-vous de la leçon que vous avez the lines to be drawn from these points, must be produced and apprise hier? 16. Je ne m'en souviens pas. 17. Cette demoiselle carried out precisely in the same way as when they are arranged ressemble-t-elle à sa mère ? 18. Elle ne resseinble pas à sa mère. 19. Avez-vous remerció votre ami de sa complaisance? 20. Je l'en ai upon and taken from the PP of the base. remercié. 21. Mme. votre mère vous a-t-elle défendu de lire ce livre ?

Our next consideration, which is also an important one, 23. Elle me l'a défendu. 23. Pourquoi ne pardonnez-vous pas à vos will be the use of half-distance points. It not unfrequently ennemis ? 24. Je leur pardonne de tout mon cmur. 25. Ne pensez

occurs that the lengths of the lines representing the object vous pas à vos devoirs ?

are so great that we are unable, from want of sufficient room on

plait pas.

the paper, to mark them on the PP for the purpose of cutting parallel with the HL) to meet the corresponding retiring lines of them off their respective vanishing-lines, guided by their true the opposite retiring wall; thus will be determined the further distance-point. When such is the case, we have recourse to the end upon which are fixed the folding doors A and B. How to use of half-distance points. Our pupils are aware how a distance find their vanishing-points and cut off their widths, we trust it point is found for any given vanishing-point. If the space on will not be necessary to repeat, but merely remark that vplis the al between the vp and its DVP be bisected, the middle point the vp for the door a, vp3 for the door B, and vp' for C. To thus found will be the half-distance point. To explain and illus- ascertain the vanishing-point for the retiring thickness of a trate the construction and application of this very useful prin- door, it will be found by drawing a line from E to the HL at a ciple in perspective, we have employed only a single line. right angle with the line of its VP; for example, vp3 is the VP

PROBLEM XXXVIII. (Fig. 62).-On reference to the figure, it for the retiring thickness of the door A. With regard to drawwill be seen that cd is the perspective view of a line at an angle ing the true position of the door at the side, there may be a of 35o with the PP, the real length of which is a b, from which difficulty not yet explained. Here is a case, which frequently lines are drawn in the usual way to the DVP, to determine c d on occurs, of a line or plane at an angle or inclination with some the vanishing-line. Find the half-distance point by the bisection thing else than the picture-plane. In the case before us, a door explained above, mark it } DVP, and draw from it a line through is stated to be at a given angle with its wall, whilst at the same c to n; take half the length of the given line to be represented, time the wall is at a right angle with the PP. The difficulty is and set it off from n to f, rule from f to } DVP. It will be seen how to find the yp for the door. The proposition states that it that the two lines from n and f pass through the same points is at an angle of 40° with its own wall. The difficulty will not c and d to the } DVP, which were originally found by the two be great if we know the angle to the Pp of the intermediate lines from a and b to the DVP. Sappose it were necessary to plane to which the given object is inclined; because, if the represent a line double, or of a greater length than a b; in this wall D (see Fig. 64) upon which the door swings is at a right instance we will take double the length to show the advantage of angle with the wall F, and c, the door, is at an angle of 40° with

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this principle of construction. Make f m equal to f n, and rule D, therefore c will be at an angle of 50° with F; but r is from m to the 1DVP, it will cut the vanishing line in e; ce will parallel with tho PP, therefore the door c will be at an angle of then be the perspective length of a line equal to twice a b. Our 500 with the PP. Consequently, we shall find the VP of the pupils will see that it is impossible, from want of space, to door (Fig. 63) by drawing a line from E at 50° with the pp, double the length of a b on the PP, and so carry a line from the producing vp. To find its distance from the corner of the extreme to the DVP; had there been sufficient room to mark room at n, mark the point e 5 feet from c, rule from e to DE, the full length, « would have been the line to the dvd to deter- and where this line cuts the line from a to ps will be found the mine the length of c e. As we shall have occasion to avail position of that side of the doorway upon which the door ourselves of the half-distance point in some of our futuro ques- swings: the heights of the doors are set off from o. lions, we advise our pupils to exercise themselves in this PROBLEM XL. (Fig. 65). —A box 6 feet long, 3 feet wide, and problem, employing various lengths of lines at various angles. 1 foot 6 inches high, inclined to the picture at an angle of 37o.

PROBLEM XXXIX. (Fig. 63). The interior of a room in parallel The lid is open and throun back at an angle of 45° with the perperspective; the retiring portion in view is 16 feet long, 19 feet pendicular. Thickness of wood, 2 inches. Depth of lid, 6 inches

. wide, and 12 feet high. Distance of the eye from the picture. Distance of the eye from the picture-plane, 6 feet, and its height plane 12 feet, and its height from the ground 4 feet. At the further from the ground 2 feet 6 inches. The nearest angle to touch the end are folding doors 10 feet high, and 4 feet wide ; also a single picture-plane. Seale, 1 inch to the foot. door at the side, the height and width of which are the same. The If the lid is at an angle of 45° with the perpendicular, it will door A is at an angle of 32° with the connecting wall, the door B be at the same angle with the horizon ; therefore, as vpe is the at an angle of 67°, and c at an angle of 40° with its wall

, and vp for the end of the box, the angle of inclination must be made 5 feet from the further corner of the room. In this case the Ps from ovp%. To cut off the retiring length of the lid, the line of will be the vp for the retiring walls on both sides; the width of contact must

be drawn from c n to h, and then from DVpå draw the room is marked off from a to b on the pp and ruled to the a line through the corner of the box joining the lid to e; make PS; the height is a d and bf; the depth to be represented, a b equal to the width of the box, and rule from 6 back again to viz., 16 feet, is set off from a toc, and a line from c to De will cut the dyp. For the depth of the lid draw from

DVP' to n on the off the length of the room in the point n on the line from a to line of contact; make n c equal to the depth 6 inches, and draw PS; from this point n a perpendicular line is to be drawn to re- back again as before. As the other parts of the construetion present the corner of the room, to meet the lines from d and f are the same which have been repeatedly explained in previous to the Ps; from this perpendicular draw lines across (that is, problems, we leave the remainder as an exercise for practice.

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Tensos, { Historical,




form, some calling it middle, others a passive voice. Very few,

if any verbs, are known to possess all the tenses of the three THE VERB-GENERAL EXPLANATIONS-THE SUBSTANTIVE

voices, as they might be formed analogically. What forms VERB


I AM. ,

really exist will appear as we proceed. IF we examine the proposition και στρατιωτης εστιν αγαθος, the

TENSES. soldier is good, we shall see that it consists of three parts :

The tense is that modification of the verb which indicates the otpat.wrns, the soldier, is what is termed the subject of the proposition; that is, it is that of which something is asserted or time of the action, whether, past, present, or future. declared. Agalos, good, is the attribute, or that quality which The tenses are divided into two classes, principal and historic. is asserted of the subject soldier. The word eotiv, is, which

i. Principal Tenses. connects the subject and attribute together (hence called the

1. Present,

λυω, I loose. copula), is the verb, so named because it is the principal word in

2. Future,

Avow, I shall loose. the proposition-without a verb there could be no proposition :

3. Perfect, λελυκα, I have loosed. its essential function is to affirm or declare something of the

ii. Historic Tenses. subject; thus, here it affirms of the soldier that he is good. The term predicate is applied by some grammarians to the attribute

1. Imperfect, elvov, I was loosing, I loosed. alone, by others to the copula and attribute together, thus :

2. Aorist,

ελυσα, I loosed.
Copula. Predicate.

3. Pluperfect, ele ukerv, I had loosed.
και στρατιωτης

αγαθος. .

Each of the historic tenses is formed from its corresponding

principal, thus :-

λυω, , λυσω, , λελυκα.

ελυον, , ελυσα, ελελυκειν. . 8 στρατιωτης

αγαθος. .

The exact manner of their formation will be explained by and Very often the verb forms by itself the predicate of a pro- by. At present observe that an action may be considered as now position, and contains both the copula and the attribute; that proceeding, hence the present tense; as proceeding in past time, is, the verb by itself makes the affirmation : thus Avw, I loose, hence the imperfect tense; as proceeding in time to come, where loosing is predicated or affirmed of the subject I. Here hence the future tense; as actually done in past time, hence the subject is a pronoun, and as the personal pronoun is not the aorist tense ; as having proceeded in past time, hence the used in Greek, except for emphasis, since the person intended perfect tense; and as having proceeded previously to some is marked by the termination of the verb, the subject may be other past act, hence the pluperfect tense. Accordingly the involved in and expressed by the word itself, as Auw, I loose. present tense properly signifies, as in Auw, I am loosening; and Accordingly, in Greek as in Latin, a verb may contain in itself the passive, Avonai, I am being loosened. Mark, also, that the the subject, the copula, and the predicate; in other words, it imperfect denotes both an act going on in the past, and a may comprise both predicate and subject.

continual and repeated act. The aorist, as the word signifies,

denotes an action as simply past, without any exact limitation; 1. λυω, I loose,

and so is called the indefinite (such is the meaning of the term) ,

Active. 2. λυομαι, I am loosed,

tense, or the tense of historical narrative. The perfect denotes ,

Passive. 3. λυομαι, I loose myself,

a past act which, in itself or in its consequences, comes down to ,


or near the present time. The pluperfect denotes an act done Here we have a verb in three forms; the first form is called and past, when another past act was proceeding, or was comthe active voice, the second form is called the passive voice, the pleted. There are some double form of tenses, as :third form is called the middle voice. In the active voice, the subject acts; in the passive voice, the subject is acted

Perfect active, 1st. τετυφα,

I have struck. upon; in the middle voice, the action comes back upon the

2nd. TETUTA, subject, that is, the subject is both acting and acted upon. It

Pluperfect active, 1st. ετετυφειν, ,

I had struck. is called middle because it stands in sense midway between


1st. active and passive, partaking of the signification of both.

Aorist active,

ετυψα, ,

I struck.

2nd. These varieties, it will be noticed, are varieties in both form


1st. and meaning. Thus Auw, the active, differs in form from Avonai,

Aorist middle,


I struck myself.

2nd. the middle. It differs also in signification; for while iuw sig.

1st. nifies I loose, avouai signifies I loose myself.

Aorist passive,

ετυφθην, ,

I was struck. Verbs in the active voice are either transitive or intransitive :



1st. they are called transitive when the action passes on to and acts

Future passive,

τυφθησομαι, ,

I shall be struck. upon something which is called the object, as Avw toy avoputov,

2nd. τυπησομαι, I loose the man, where the object avpwnov is acted upon by the A third future, or perfect passive future, is also found, as :subject of auw. In an intransitive verb the action does not pass

Third future passive, TETUĻouar, I shall have been struck. on to an object, as Darw, I bloom. It is obvious that an intransitive verb can have no passive voice. Some intransitive

Only few verbs have both the first and second forms : most verbs, however, are found with a middle voice, inasmuch as the verbs form their tenses according to either the first or the middle does not always denote an action done to oneself (like second forms. Pure verbs, or verbs having a vowel before the TUTTONai, I strike myself), but also an action done for oneself, final w, have only the first forms, and the student must not fall as rapaokevacouai deitvov, I prepare a meal for myself ; and it into the error supposing that all these forms of TUTTW are in is in this latter sense that some intransitive verbs may have a

actual use ; they are simply the forms the tenses would assume middle voice-e.g., verbs in -euw, as Bouleuw, I am a counsellor; according to the ordinary rules. The second perfect is some Bovlevouai, I am a counsellor for myself, I deliberate.

times erroneously called a perfect middle. In relation to numbers 2 and 3, as given above, it may be noticed that the English I loose myself and I am loosed are Mood is a grammatical term employed to point out the very nearly related in meaning. If I loose myself, clearly I am manner of an action. If I describe an act as simply taking loosed. The chief diference between the two is, that in the place, I use-former the action is restricted to one person, namely, the sub

(1.) The Indicative, as nuw, I loose, ject; while, in the latter, it extends to a second person—the

this person, that is, by whom the subject is wrought upon. The is the mood of independence and reality.

so called because it merely indicates or declares the act; difference, in consequence, is rather in the person than the act.

If I describe an act as dependent on some other act, 89 Accordingly, the form remains the same, being in both cases A douau. In other words, Avonai may have a reflex (or middle) dependent on a conjunction or a verb, I employ import, as I loose myself, or a passive import, as I am loosed.

(2.) The Subjunctive, as nuw, I may looson, Strictly speaking, there is but one form in the present tense. This is the mood of dependence, or of conception; so called Grammarians differ as to the name which they give to that because it implies dependence on another aot expressed or





-σα. .




understood ; that is, an act really performed or conceived of in



Inflexion. the mind. (3.) The optative mood, Avolue, has two leading uses :-(a) It

I have loosed. expresses a simple wish, as Avoiui, may I loose (hence its name, The stem is variable. Thus we have the stem or root of the derived from opto, I wish). R) In dependent sentences, it acts verb; the stem of the verb may in most verbs be found by 23 a subjunctive to an historic tense in the principal sentence. cutting off w, the personal-ending ; thus, Aww, Av-. In other words, when the act expressed in the principal sentence

Besides the stem of the verb, there is the tense-sten, thus, is in an historic tense, the place of the subjunctive in the de- elvoa: the first aorist, by dropping the personal-ending a, gives pendent sentence is supplied by the optative, as :

elvo, the tense-stem of the first aorist active; of this form, Principal. Subjunctive.

Favo, the e is the augment or prefix, the force of which is to
iva λυω, , I do this that I may loose. denote past time.

Of the form elvoa, the oa is the inflection or suffix of the first But, TOUTO ETOLOUV iva adolut, I did this that I might loose. aorist; and of the ra, the a is the ending of the first person If I express an act in the way of command, I use

singular. (4.) The Imperative, as Ave, loose thou.

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN GREEK.-XXII. These four moods are called finite, that is, definite or limited,

RECAPITULATORY EXERCISES FROM THE CLASSICS. because they all express the act under certain limitations or modifications.

1. Anacharsis used to say that it was better to have one friend of But if I express an act indefinitely, or in its abstract form, from Libya a large force into Sicily, 50,000 infantry, 6,000 cavalry, and

value than many friends of no value. 2. Hanno, the elder, brought over disconnected, that is, with person or number, I then employ the

60 elephants. 3. They relate that the Chinese live as long as 300 yea mood termed

and there is a story that the Chaldeans live beyond 100 years. (5.) The Infinitive, as Avelv, to loose.

Arganthonius, the king of the Tartessians, is said to have lived more Another modification of the verb is found in

than 150 years. 5. Plato died in the first year of the 108th Olympiad,

in the 81st year of his life. 6. A certain Demetrius used to say to Nero, (6.) The Verbal Adjective, Auteos, one who must be loosed,

You threaten me with death, but nature threatens you." 7. A witling which resembles the Latin participle passive in -dus, as amandus, being in difficulties, sold his books, and wrote home to his father, he must be loved; and accordingly, has a passive force.

saying, “Rejoice with me, father, for my books are now supporting

me.” 8. Anacharsis, the Scythian, being asked by some one what is THE PARTICIPLE.

at enmity to men, said, “ Themselves to themselves." 9. A witling who Participles are so called because they partake of the qualities

was selling his house, used to carry about a stone as a specimen of it. of the verb and the adjective; as expressive of the quality of 10. Being a judge, ever make the same decision touching the same cirthe verb they denote action, as expressive of the quality of the cumstances, doing nothing for the purpose of favour. 11. Have a adjective, they denote modification: for example, Boulevwv avnp, care for your own soul. 12. Be willing to please all, 13. Above all a counselling man, that is, a counsellor.

things reverence yourself. 14. It is the easiest thi of all to deceive oneself. 15. My good friend, be not ignorant of yourself. 16. Iphi

crates was the son of a currier, though very distinguished; he used to In Greek, as in English, there are three persons : 1st, the say to a man of noble birth, “My family starts with myself

, but your speaker, I; 2nd, the person spoken to, thou; 3rd, the person family ends in yourself.” 17. Thales, being asked what was most spoken of, he. The persons in Greek are in general indicated common, answered, "Hope; for they who have nothing else, have that."

19. The Nile bears by personal-endings, that is, changes in the termination of the 18. As the habit of each is, such is his life.

itself from the Ethiopic mountains until it empties itself into the sea, verb; for example :

after twelve hundred stadia. 20. Twice five are ten. 21. Thence he 1st Person, 2nd Person. 3rd Person,

marches two stations five parasangs to the river Sarog, the breadth of Av-w, I loose; Av-els, thou loosest; Xu-el, he looses. which is three plethra. In the English terminations, -est, -es, we have an example of

EXTRACTS FROM THE NEW TESTAMENT. these person-endings.

1. But Jesus said, “Make the men sit down." And there was much NUMBERS.

grass in the place. So the men sat down, in number about five

2. Many of those who heard the word believed, and the As in nouns so in verbs, the Greek has three numbers, the thousand. singular, the plural, and the dual. The singular number de heard the voice of many angels round the throne, and the beasts and

3. And I saw and

number of the men became about five thousand. notes one single object; the plural denotes more objects than

the elders, and the number of them was ten thousand times ten one; and the dual denotes precisely two objects. The dual, thousand and thousands of thousands, saying with a loud voice, however, is seldom used, unless it is required to specify the Worthy is the Lamb that was slain to receive power, and wealth, and number two. For the first person of the dual there is in most wisdom, and strength, and honour, and glory, and blessing. 4. Let of the tenses no special form; its place is supplied by the form him that hath understanding count the number of the beast, for it is of the first person plural.

the number of a man, and his number is six hundred threescore and

six. 5. But John endeavoured to prevent him, saying, I have need to CONJUGATIONS.

be baptized of thee, and dost thou come to me? 6. Bear one another's The term conjugation denotes peculiarities of formation in burdens

, and thus fulál the law of Christ. 7. For this is our boasting, number, person, tensa, mood, and voice. These peculiarities in the witness of our conscience, that in simplicity and sincerity of heart, Greek have been brought under two heads, and so two con

not in fleshly wisdom, but in the grace of God, we have dealt with jugations have arisen: these are, the first conjugation, con

the world, but more abundantly with you. 8. If there be any consolation sisting of verbs of which the first person singular ends in w

in Christ, if any comfort of love, if any fellowship of the Spirit, if any

bowels and mercies, fulfil ye my joy, that ye be likeminded, have the (this class comprehends the great bulk of the Greek verbs); and same love, being of one accord, of one mind. Let nothing be done the second conjugation, comprising the verbs of which the first through strife or vainglory, but in honesty of mind let each esteem person singular ends in ui: for example :

others better than himself. Let not every man look on his own, but First conjugation, Av-w, I loose.

also on the things of others. Second conjugation, (097-41, I place. Most grammarians subdivide these two classes, making five LESSONS IN BOTANY.-XXXVI. conjugations of verbs in w, distinguished from each other by the

SECTION CX.-PAPAYACEÆ, OR PAPAYADS. letter which precedes the w (called the characteristic letter), and four of verbs in ui, distinguished by the vowel which precedes dentated; petals hypogynous, five-joined into a funnel-shaped

Characteristics : Flowers diæcious; calyx very small, five

body in the staminiferous flowers, remaining free in those bear. PREFIXES, SUFFIXES, AND STEMS.

ing pistils merely; stamens ten; ovary uni-locular or five-celled ; In order to represent the two ideas-namely, existence (or placentă parietal; berry pulpy; seed albuminous ; trees of affirmation) and attribnte-which enter into the signification of tropical America with a milky juice. the verb, three essential elements are employed: first, the The papaw-tree, or Carica papaya (Fig. 269), is a tree with stem ; second, the suffix or inflections; and, third, the prefix or cylindrical trunk, simple, and bearing at its summit a terminal augment. for example :

tuft of palmi-lobed leaves. This tree has been known to grow

the tito

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