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twenty feet in the space of three years. Its staminiferous Numerous species are cultivated in the hot-houses of Europe, of flowers are in long multi-floral racemes. Its pistils are almost which the scarlet begonia (Fig. 270) is the most magnificent. sessile. Fruit about the size of a little melon, a delicious article SECTION CXII.-EUPHORBIACEÆ, OR SPURGEWORTS. of food, either in its raw state or cooked. The milky juice of Characteristics : Flowers diæcious and generally without calyx the stem and leaves contains a fibri.

or corolla; sepals free or joined, nous matter, which has the singular

ordinarily valvate in æstivation; property, that on pouring a few

ovary usually three-celled; uni- or drops of it into water, and steeping

bi-ovulate; carpels joined with a in this water for the space of a few

central styliferous axis; fruit capminutes raw meat, the latter be

sular, with dry or fleshy epicarp secomes remarkably tender. The

parating in valves; seeds pendent; same result is obtained by envelop

embryo dicotyledonous, straight, in ing the meat in leaves of the tree,

the axis of a fleshy albumen. or even by suspending it from the

The greater number of this spetree; but in any case the meat must

cies contain a milky, acrid, and be eaten immediately after cooking,

poisonous juice, which often holds otherwise it rapidly spoils.

dissolved, in addition to other prinSECTION CXI.-BEGONIACEÆ, OR

ciples, a peculiar elastic substance, BEGONIADS.


and occasionally colouring matter. Characteristics : This natural or

The seeds are oily, the root is some

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blister. The manchineel tree also bears tempting-looking fruit, apostrophe on gl' before im-pil-ghi. The reason of this is, that from which an agreeable odour is exhaled, but even a small the plural gli only requires the apostrophe before words comportion, if eaten, is certain death.

mencing with the vowel i, and never before words commencing Castor oil is expressed from the seeds of one of the Euphor. with the vowels a, e, o, and u; which is clearly a necessary biacee, the Ricinus communis, or castor-oil plant (Fig. 272). usage to maintain the squeezed sound of the word gli (Llyce) in

The genus Manihot contains two important species, both these cases. For, otherwise, glán-ge-li would bo pronounced, especial objects of cultivation in many parts of America on according to the rales explained in the fifth pronouncing account of their feculent root. The Manihot Aipi, or sweet table, gláhn-jai-leo. Even Italians themselves are occasionally cassava, is eaten by the natives after being roasted in hot liable to commit the fault of placing the apostrophe on the gli cinders; animals eat it raw. The Manihot utilissima, or bitter before a, e, o, and u; but the difference caused in the pronuncassava, contains in its root a juice charged with prussic acid, ciation manifestly shows the grossness of this blunder. or a material which readily produces this acid by decomposition. The article la can only be used before words of the feminine Nevertheless, the natives where the tree grows derive an gender which begin with consonants. The plural is le. For abundance of nutritive matter from this vegetable, much of example :which is exported under the name of tapioca.

La -vo-la, the table.



Le td-vo-le, the tables.

Le má-dri, the mothers. Characteristics : Flowers diæcious ; perianth of staminiferous

The article la must have the apostrophe l' when it comes Aowers, calyciform, perianth of the pistilliferous flowers reduced before words of the feminine gender commencing with a vowel.

For example: to a bract; ovary uni-locular, one or two-styled; ovule single, pendent, curved ; fruit a small nut or achenium ; seed exal.

L' a-ni-ma, the sonl.

L'ér-ba, the herb or grass. Le á-ni-me, the souls.

L'ér-be, the herbs or grasses, buminous, bent back ; stem herbaceous; leaves stipuled, opposite, or occasionally the superior ones alternate.

The reader will have observed that I have not placed an The genera Cannabis and Humulus compose this small family. apostrophe on the le before the plural a-ni-me, while the le has Hemp (Cannabis sativa), a native of Persia, has leaves palmate the apostrophe before the plural êr-be. The reason is, that it is or dentate in segments. The individual on which the stamini. a common usage only to place the apostrophe on the plural le ferous flowers grow has a more withered aspect and sooner dries before words of the feminine gender commencing with the vowel up than the other, to which the appellation female hemp is

For example :commonly applied. The male individual is that from which the L' es-pe-riên-ze, the experiences; l'e-re-si-e, the heresies. substance_ hemp is obtained. The common hop (Humulus But before feminine words commencing with the other vowels, lupulus, Fig. 273), is a well-known plant, having & climbing the le is not commonly used with an apostrophe. For example; angular stem and cordate, lobed leaves. Its achænium and its le á-ni-me, the souls ; le in--gne, the banners, signs; le ô-pe-re, bracted calyx are studded with glands containing a bitter aro

the works; le-u-sán-ze, the usages. matic substance, slightly narcotic in quality, and on which the

It is obvious that the six words above mentioned, constituting virtues of the hop depend. It is termed by chemists humuline. the three articles in the singular and plural, il, lo, la, i, gli, and

The counties of England in which the hop is chiefly cultivated le, must frequently meet monosyllables, and therefore occasion are Kent, Surrey, and Sussex. It is also grown in smaller quan. dissonance. As harmony is å marked characteristic of the tities in Worcestershire and Nottinghamshire. Pillows stuffed language, some means must be found to correct this. This is with the hop-blossom are sometimes used to procure sleep.

effected by contractions, in which letters are changed, omitted, or added according to laws dictated by the conveniences of

pronunciation, by custom, and by harmony. The monosyllables LESSONS IN ITALIAN.-X.

referred to are di, of; a, to; da, from, by; con, with ; per, for, THE ARTICLE-NOUNS DECLINED WITH AND WITHOUT through; su, upon; and the important contractions (to be THE ARTICLE.

committed to memory) to which they are subject, when in THERE are three articles in the Italian language, il and 6 combination with the articles il, lo, la, i, gli, and le, are the for the masculine, and la for the feminine gender, equivalent to

following :the English definite article the.

For di il write da. For da i write dai. For con l' write coul'.

déi. * The article il can only be used before those masculine words

con gli ,

-gi. del-lo.

col-la. which begin with a consonant, excepting always s impure ; i.e.,

di l' dful'.


col-le. s followed by another consonant. The plural is i. For ex.


sul. ample :

di la dil-la,

Il giar-di-no, the garden.
n si-gnó-re, the gentleman.

di le

súl-lo. I giar-di-ni, the gardens. I si-gnó-ri, the gentlemen.

in i mời.$

sull. ai.t

ndilo. The article lo, without the apostrophe, can only be used

su gli sú-gli. al-lo.

nell'. before those masculine words which begin with the s impure.


súl-le. The plural of lo is gli. For example :

a gli


pel. Lo spi-ri-to, the spirit. Lo stra-niê-re, the stranger.

Gli spi-ri-ti, the spirits.
Gli stra-nie-ri, the strangers.


-gli. The only exception to this rule is the very frequent use of the


col-lo. article lo after the preposition per, for, through, before words not The reader will remark that I only give three contractions of beginning with the s impure; as, for example, per lo món-do, the word per. For this reason, that per, generally speaking, is for the world ; per lo giar-di-no, for or through the garden ; per not contracted with an article commencing with

the letter 1, and lo pas-sa-to, for the past.

in such cases, it is customary to place per and such an article Many grammarians of great authority have even emphatically separately; as per lo pas--to, for the past; per la ci-sa, for proscribed the use of per il in the place of per lo. As, however, the house ; per le so-rél-le, for the sisters. cultivated persons and the best writers have never ceased The letter s in the word cása, although placed between two occasionally to use the combination per il, its correctness and vowels, has the sharp, hissing sound, as well as in the words allowableness will at once be admitted, for the usage of a co-sa, thing, and co-si, thus, before commented on. language is a safer guide than the caprice of grammarians. With regard to the word con, with, it may be remarked that,

The article lo is also used before all masculine words that begin with a vowel; but in such a case the apostrophe must be • It is useful, with regard to pronunciation and orthography, to bear used thus, I'. For example :

in mind the difference between these three words : déi, of the (pl.); L' án-go-lo, the angel.

-i, gods (the plural of Di-o); and De-i, dey (of the Barbary States). L' im-piê-go, the office or

† It is, for the reasons stated in the previous note, useful to mind employment.

the difference between di, to the (pl.), and á-j, tutors. Gli án-go-li, the angels. Gl' im-pié-ghi, the offices or

Mind the difference between dui, from or by the (pl.), and dá-i, employments.

tbou givest. The reader will remark that I have placed no apostrophe § Mind, also, the difference between néi, in the (pl.), and névi, moles after gli, the plural of lo, before án-ge-li, while I have used the upon the body), patches (on the face).


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when it comes in connection with an article commencing with | Italian nouns: I. with and withont an article; II., with some 1, it is optional to contract it; it being equally correct to say important words frequently preceding them. These tables are con lo' or cól-lo scét-tro, with the sceptre; col or con l' in-gán-no, so important that they must be committed to memory. But let with the deceit; con la or cól-la si-gno-ra, with the lady ; con le me first remark, that it will be sufficient for our present purpose or col-le bréc-cia, with the arms.

to lay down this fandamental rule with regard to the formation Once for all, being obliged for the greatest part to divide the of the plural of Italian nouns :syllables as they are divided in Italian spelling, I must em. All Italian nouns, masculine and feminine, change their final phatically warn the reader not to read the combination cc (when vowel into i in the plural ; as, il -dre, the fatker; i pa-dri, not followed by h) as though the first c was a k (the Englishman the fathers ; È po-é-ta, the poet; i po-e-ti, the poets; il cér-20, would naturally do so), but to read the whole combination as the stag; i cêr-vi, the stags; la -dre, the mother; le má-dri, though it was ttch, gliding with great rapidity from one syllable the mothers; la -no, the hand; le -ni, the hands. to the other. I must refer, on this point, to my remarks and The most important exceptions from this rule are feminine tables on pronunciation.

nouns terminating in A, which form their plural by changing A Two important prepositions, tra and fra, between, among, can into E; as, la so-rel-la, the sister; le so-rél-le, the sisters. likewise be contracted with the article, but in a special way, and

I.-NOUNS DECLINED WITH AND WITHOUT AN ARTICLE. with modifications which must be stated separately. If tra and fra are to be contracted with an article com.


il l-bro, the book, mencing with l, the letter I must be doubled, ll; as, for example,

Gen. di It-bro

del li-bro, of the book. fral-le mon-ta-gne, between the mountains; trál-le -e so-rel-le,


al li-bro, to the book, between the two sisters; frál-lo scri-gno e la -via, between the


il li-bro, the book. chest and the chair,

Abl. da li-bro

dal li-bro, from the book. Whenever tra or fra is to be joined to the article i, the latter


nel 16-bro, in the book. is omitted, and an apostrophe placed in its stead. For example:

com lí-bro

col li-bro, with the book. fra' cu-gi-ni, between the cousins; tra' fra-têl-li, between the

pel li-bro, for the book. brothers.


sul l-bro, on the book. The words tra and fra are never contracted with the article

Plural. gli. For example: fra gli a-mi-ci, between the friends; tra gli


ill-bri, the books.

Gen. in-fe-li-ci, between the unfortunate.

di It-bri

dei (de') l-bri,t of the books. Dat.

When tra or fra stands before il, the letter i of the article is

ai (a') li-bri, to the books.

i li-bri, the books. commonly not heard in pronunciation, and in writing the

Abl. da libri

dai (da') li-bri, from the books. apostrophe is used in its place. For example: fra 'l sói-no,

in li-bri

nei (ne') li-bri, in the books. during the sleep; tra 'l si e 'l nó, between yes and no, hesi.

con 16-bri

coi (co') l-bri, with the books. tating.


pei (pe') Il-bri, for the books, The so-called indefinite article uno, masculine, and una,


sui (su') li-bri, on the books. feminine, will be hereafter explained.

Singular. In Italian, as in English, the nouns have no terminational Nom.

schiếp.po lo schióp-po, the gun. alteration in either number; that is to say, all cases are alike.

Gen. di schióp-po dèl·lo schióp-po, of the gun. Strictly speaking, therefore, they cannot be said to have any


schióp-po ál-lo schiớp-po, to the gun. declensions. All changes in Italian nouns denote only a dif


schióp-po lo schióp-po, the gun. ference in gender or in number. For example: pás-se-ro, sparrow,

ALI, da schióv-po dal-lo schióp-po, from the gun.

schióp-po not only denotes the object sparrow, but also that it is a male;

nel-lo schióp-po, in the gun.

con schiốp-po cól-lo schiop-po, with the gun. and pás-se-re (female), sparrows, not only denotes the feminine,

per schióp-po per lo schióp-po, for the gun. but the plurality of number. The article in Italian, as in

schióp-po súl-lo schióp-po, on the gun. French, Spanish, and English, does not in itself denote the case,

Plural. but is a word that distinguishes one noun as a determined


schióp-pi gli schióp-pi, the guns. object from another noun of the same class. It is on this

Gen. di schióp-pi dé-gli schióp-pi, of the guns. account a fixed principle of the language never to place the


schióp-pi á-gli schióp-pi, to the guns. article before a noun, when the latter is used in its general and


schióp-pi gli schióp-pi, the guns. indeterminate signification. The article il, lo, and la, are in

Abl. da schióp-pi dá-gli schióp-pi, from the gung. themselves is indeclinable as the noun itself. They only change

in schióp-pi né-gli schióp-pi, in the guns. according to the gender and number of the noun; and when the

con schiop-pi có-gli schióp-pi, with the guns. Italians desire to denote cases, they must, on this account, like

per schióp-pi pé-gli schióp-pi, for the gues, the English, place before the articles certain words, which are

schióp-pi sú-gli schióp-pi, on the guns. the substitutes of those inflections by which, in the Greek,


a-nel-lo Latin, and German languages, the cases are expressed. The

l' a-nel-lo, the ring. Gen,

d' a-nel-lo English have only two such signs of cases—the words of and

dell' a-nel-lo, of the ring,

Dat. ad a-nél-lof all' a-nel-lo, to the ring. to. The Italians have three : di, for the second case, or genitive; a, for the third case, or dative; and da, for the sixth case,

* Instead of the plurals i, dei, ai, dai, some old writers used the or ablative. These three words, di, a, and da, are used in the plurals li, delli, alli, dalli; but this is no longer usual. singular as well as in the plural, before masculine nouns as well + The plurals dei, ai, dai, nei, coi, poi, sui, are frequently marked as feminine. In the first case, or nominative, and in the fourth with the apostrophe for the sake of harmony, thus : do', a', da', re' case, or accusative, the Italian noun has, as well as the English, co', pe', su'; especially when coming before several words all of which no case sign before it, and both these cases are sufficiently dis

terminate in i. For example, a ca-gió-ne de' mól-ti sub-i pec-cu-ti, on tinguishable by the place which they take before or after the account of his many sins. verb, for which reason they require no special distinguishing and pronunciation of Italian words, frequently requires that to the

I Harmony, which has had so much influence on the formation mark. For example A-les-sán-dro vin-se -rio, Alexander conquered Darius ; added; as, ad o-no-re, to honour; ad a-mi-co, to the friend; for o

case-sign a, when it comes before a vowel, the letter d should be Car-lo per-cuô-te il -ne, Charles strikes the dog ; il prín-ci-pe onore, and a amico. d-ma la các-cia, the prince likes the chase ; Pid-tro lôg-ge le The laws of harmony, likewise, frequently require the mark of the gaz-zét-te, Peter reads the newspapers.

apostrophe on the case-sign di, when it comes before words com. I must once for all, and emphatically, warn the reader, mencing with a vowel; as, cú-po d' 6-po-ra, masterpieco; sé-għod because I am obliged, in the case of the double g (99), to place u-mil-td, sign of huinility. the first g in one syllable, and the second g in the next, not to

The case-sign da, on the other hand, is never marked with the rrad (when the gg is not followed by h) the first g like g in the apostrophe, but always written in full, in order to avoid the inevitable English word get, to which mistake many readers will be ambiguity of confounding the case-sign di with it whenever it is

marked with the apostrophe, and the dissonance of two vowels in this Daturally liable ; but I must refer, with regard to the pronun- case coming together must be tolerated; because, as I have already ciation of the g (99), to the lessons on pronunciation.

remarked, perspicuity is a more urgent law than harmony in these I shall now subjoin two tables illustrating the declensions of contractions.



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l' a-nc-lo, the ring.


da a-nél.lo dall a-nél-lo, from the ring.
in a-nililo nell' a-nil-lo, in the ring.

ROWING.-I. coll' a-nél-lo, with the ring.
per a-nello per i a-nil-lo, for the ring.

As a useful art, as well as a popular pastime, rowing deserves a e-nel-lo sull' a-nel-lo, on the ring.

very high place among physical exercises. To be able to per.

form an efficient part in the management of a boat may Plural. Nom. Q-nd-li gli a-nél-li, the rings.

frequently be of the greatest service; and even if no such Gen. di al-nél li -gli a-nel-li, of the rings.

opportunity should ever arise, the time is well spent that gives Dat. ad e-nelli á-gli a-nél-li, to the rings.

power to enjoy so cheerful and healthy a recreation. Acc. a-nelli gli a-nel-li, the rings.

Before teaching the learner how to row, we must describe the Abl. da a-nel-li -gli a-nél-li, from the rings. instruments of rowing. These are, of course, the boat, and the in G-né né-gli a-nél-li, in the rings.

oars or sculls by which it is propelled. A scull is much the con a-nelli có-gli a-nd-li, with the rings.

same thing as an oar, the difference being that it is shorter and per a-néluli pé-gli a-nel-li, for the rings.

lighter, and therefore more manageable in the hands of the su a-nelli sú-yli a-nél-li, on the rings.

When he takes an implement in each hand, he uses a Singular.

pair of sculls; but when he rows with one implement only, Nom. cá-sa la -sa, the house.

some one else taking one on the opposite side, he uses an oar. Gen. di -sa del-la cá-sa, of the house,

The description of one will apply equally to the other. Dat. ci-si ál-la cá-sa, to the house.

The oar consists of three principal parts—the handle, the Acc. cá-sa

la cá-sa, the house. Abl. da

shank, and the blade. The blade is the wider portion, which is cá-sa

dál-la cá-sa, from the house.
in cá-sa
nél-la ca-sa, in the house.

dipped into the water; the shank is the middle part, divided cá-sa

cól-la ca-sa, with the house. from the handle by a small piece of leather, which is fixed to the per c-sa per la ca-sa, for the house.

undermost side, and known as the button. The handle is again cá-sa súl-la cú-sa, on the house.

divided technically into two portions--the extremity, which is Plural.

grasped by the hands, and the part between the grasp and the Nom. -se & cá-se, the houses.

button, which is called the loom. Gon. di co-so de-lo cá-se, of the houses.

Boats are of several kinds, according to the variety of purDat. cá-se al-le cá-se, to the houses.

poses to which they are devoted. The different parts of all Acc. cise le cá-so, the houses.

boats, however, go by the same names, so far as they correspond ABI, da ca-se

dal-le cá-se, from the houses. with each other. For convenience of description of these parts, in nel-le cá-se, in the houses.

we will take as the representative of its kind the boat depicted
col-le cá-se, with the houses.

in the illustration.
per cá-se
per le cá-se, for the houses.

Here again we have three principal parts—the bous, the mid-
súl-le cá-se, on the houses.

ships, and the stern. The bows are the narrowest and foremost Singular.

portion, just behind the stem or cutwater, the position of which Nom. ár-te l' ár-te, the art.

is sufficiently designated by the name. The stern is the hind. Gen. ár-te dell' ár-te, of the art.

most portion of the boat, and the midships are the intervening Dat. ad ár-te all' ár-te, to the art.

space between the stern and the bows. Acc. ár-to l' ar-te, the art.

Immediately under the Abl. da ár-te dall' ár.te, from the art.

stern is the rudder by which the boat is guided, and the part of
in ár-te
nell' ár-te, in the art.

the boat to which it is affixed is called the stern post.
con ár-te
collár-te, with the art.

The boards of which the sides of the boat are composed are
per dr-te
per l' ár-te, for the art.

known as the strakes, and the lower strakes are called garboards. 846 ár-te sull' ár-te, on the art.

Immediately under the garboards, and projecting from the Plural.

bottom of the boat, is the keel. The pieces of wood which cross Nom. ár-ti le ár-ti, the arts.

the boat between the strakes are known as the timbers. Those di ár-ti del-le ár-ti, of the arts.

immediately at the bottom of the boat, in the midships, are the Dat. ad ár-ti al-le ár-ti, to the arts.

bottom-boards; those in the bow are the bow-sheets; and the Acc. ár-ti le ár-ti, the arts.

planks in the stern are the stern-sheets. Abl. ár-ti dál-le ár-ti, from the arts.

Now as to the various portions of the midships, in which the in ár-ti nél-le ár-te, in the arts.

rowers sit and perform their office. The seats themselves are con ár ti cól-le ár-ti, with the arts.

called the thwarts, and the wooden fastenings by which they are per le ár-ti, for the arts.

fixed to the sides of the boat are the knees. The thwarts in ár-ti súl-le ár-ti, on the arts.

river boats are usually provided with small mats for the conSingular.

venience of the rower, which are tied underneath the seat to Løn-dra, London.

Nom. Al-bőr-lo, Albert. G.n. di Lón.dra, of London.

prevent them from slipping. In front of each rower, at the Gen. di Al-bér-to, of Albert.

bottom of the boat, is a movable plank, which is fixed in a Lón-dra, to London.

Dat. ad Al-bér-to, to Albert.
Lón-dra, London. Aco. Al-bér-to, Albert.

vertical or slanting position, so as to form a resting place for ALL. da Lón-dra, from London, Abl. d Al-bêr-to, from Albert.

his feet. On the upper side or wale of the boat, in front of in Lón-dra, in London.

in Al-bér-to, in Albert.

each rower, are projecting pieces of wood called the rowlocks, con Lin-dra, with London

con Albér-to, with Albert. the oars or sculls being passed between them. The piece per Lin-dra, for London.

per Al-bér-to, for Albert. nearest to the rower, when his oar is placed in the water, is Singular.

known as the thole, and the other as the after-thole, or stopper. Vit--ria, Victoria. Nom. Gib-re, Jupiter.

The two together keep the oar in its place on the side of the Vit-tó-ria, of Victoria. Gen. di Gib-ve, of Jupiter.

boat, and form a fulcrum for the leverage by which the boat Vit-tó-ria, to Victoria. Dat. Gio-te, to Jupiter.

is propelled. Between the two pieces of wood which form the Aee.

Vit-16-ria, Victoria. Acc. Giô-ce, Jupiter. rowlock, a piece of leather, called the filling, is inserted. This Abl. da Vit-tó-ria, from Victoria. Abl. da Gió-ve, from Jupiter. gives a resting place for the oar, the button of which is placed Vit-tó-ria, in Victoria.

in Gió-ve, in Jupiter. against the thole when in position. con Vit-tó-ria, with Victoria. cm Gió-ve, with Jupiter.

The coxswain, or man who steers the boat, when such aid is per Vit-tó-ria, for Victoria. per Gió-ve, for Jupiter, Som,

required, is seated in the stern-sheets, with his face towards the Di-o, God.

Abl. da Di-o, from God. Gn. di D1-0, of God.

rowers. He guides the rudder by means of the yoke-lines, or in Di-o, in God. D(-0, to God.

cords which pass one on each side of the stern from the yoke,

con Di-o, with God. Acc. Di-o, God.

which is a piece of wood crossing the top of the rudder. The per -o, for God.

rope at the bows, usod to fasten the boat, is the painter. It is obvious that proper names of gods, persons, towns, and Such are the various parts and appliances of a boat, although other localities, require no article in the singular, because their every kind of boat does not possess them all, like the boat in individual signification renders any other more precise deter- our illustration. But it will be necessary for the reader to bear mination or distinction by means of the article superfluous. these names in mind, or to become familiar with them by



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an oar.

frequent reference, as when he commences rowing he will con. difference that they are out-rigged with iron rowlocks. In this stantly hear them referred to.

form they are usually called out-rigged gigs or wager-boats. We have next to mention the principal varieties of boat, as In boats larger than pair-oar, the rower who is seated nearest found upon our rivers. These are chiefly wherries and skiffs, the bow is called either“ bow” or “No. 1;" the next to him gigs and out-riggers. The two former are old-fashioned boats, is "No. 2,” and so on according to the number of rowers. The used by watermen for the carriage of passengers and goods, and oarsman nearest the stern of the boat is known by the name do not require detailed mention. Gigs and out-riggers are the of stroke, as it is by his stroke, or movement of the car vessels chiefly

through the used by ama6

water, that teurs. One

the others reform of the 19

gulate theirs. gig is seen in


He should the centre il

therefore be lustration; the

3 8

the most skil. chief charac

ful oarsman of teristics of all

the party, able gigs being the The Boat.—1, the stem ; 2, the bows; 3, the midships; 4, the stern; 5, the rudder; 6, the rowlocks; not only to straight wale 7, the thwarts, or seats ; 8, the stern-sheets; 9, the bow-sheets.

row steadily, and the almost 2


but to time upright stern.

his movements In appearance

with the the gig is a THE CAR.-1, the handle ; 2, the loom; 3, the button; 4, the shank; 5, the blade.

greatest uni. much smarter

formity. vessel than the wherry, and it is gradually superseding the latter, The duty of steering, or guiding the head of the boat

, is even for watermen's uses, on our chief rivers.

usually assigned to a coxswain, who faces the stroke, and, as Gigs are of all sizes, from pair-oared to eight-oared boats, the before mentioned, holds a yoke-line in each hand, by which to number of seats for the rowers in the boat giving it its particular influence the rudder. He is also useful, in practice especially, designation. Thus a boat with two seats is called a pair-oared in calling the attention of either of the men to any irregularity boat, each of the rowers taking one

in his stroke, by which the geneoar; but the wale has four rowlocks,

ral uniformity is affected. In his in pairs opposite each other, so that

absence the oarsmen must guide the rowers may, if they prefer it,

their own course by an occasional take a pair of sculls each instead of

glance over the shoulder, and a A gig with three seats is

stronger stroke, or perhaps a cessacommonly termed a randon, and is a

tion of the pull, on the one side very useful boat for a learner to

or the other, as the position may repractise in. The first and third of

quire. the rowers use each a single oar,

When taking his seat in a boat, while the occupant of the centre

the learner should first observe seat handles a pair of sculls; and

that the thwart is firmly fised, the learner who takes his place in a

and that the mat upon it is serandan boat has thus an opportunity of becoming familiar with curely tied to that part of it which is farthest from his rowthe use of both the oar and the sculls.

lock. Out-rigged boats are used chiefly for racing purposes. They according to the length of his legs, so that when seated his feet

He has next to adjust the position of the stretcher owe the name to the fact of the rowlocks being supported on an rest firmly against it, and give a purchase to assist the free iron framework which is rigged outside the boat. This altera movement of the loins. The heels should be together, and the tion enables

toes parted; the boat to be

the knees bent, both narrower

and about a and lighter in

foot from each its construc

other. The tion than in

back should the ordinary

be straight method, and at

and the whole the same time

position easy, gives more le

but upright

. verage in pro

The oar should pelling it. The out-rigger pro

with the han per, as used by

dle in both a single sculler

hands, and for racing purposes, is depicted in our

the button illustration. It

against and inwill be ob

side the thole. served that the dimen

hand—that is, sions of the central part of the boat, called the "box," are merely suficient from the rowlock-should grasp the handle nearly, but not quite

, to afford the sculler a seat; the remainder of the upper surface at the extremity; the inside hand taking its hold two or three is covered with canvas, and the stem and stern are tapered off inches away from the other. The thumb of the outside hand to mere points. Thus the vessel altogether is calculated to cleave may be either above or below, but that of the inside may be the water with great rapidity. The length of such a boat as under the handle, and the entire grasp of the car should be firm this is usually about thirty feet, and its width amidships little without tightness. more than a foot.

We must reserve for another paper onr instructions how to Racing boats, accommodating from two to eight oars, are now proceed, and the mode of practice to secure efficiency as an commonly constructed somewhat in gig fashion, but with the oarsman.




now be taken

placed in the rowlock with

The outside

that farthest

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