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whereas the Canadian group are more closely connected with Made up the account sales of Sugar per the Ballarat, as

the metamorphic rocks. Since they are largely developed in per A. S. B. fol. 1:

North Wales, the term “ Cambrian" has been applied to them, The Insurance, etc., being .

£6 13 0

as Cambria was the ancient name of that part of the Princi. The Brokerage paid Knight and Co.

2 6 9 The charges for Duty, etc. .


pality. The American rocks of this group have been studied

3 5 The Commission on £234 at 2 per cent.

4 13 4 chiefly by Sir W. E. Logan, and from the fact that their chief The net proceeds due to Nathan Herschell, Esq.

83 37 development occurs in the neighbourhood of the St. Lawrence,

they have been termed Laurentian. This sub-system is thus

£234 00 | tabulated :30th,

CAMBRIAN GROUP. Made up the account sales of Coffee per the Wellington,

1. Upper Cambrian rocks (the primordial zone of Barrande). as per A. S. B. fol. 2:

2. Lower Cambrian rocks (Longmynd group). The Insurance, etc., being .

£22 16 9 The Brokerage paid Knight and Co.

6 16 7

The charges for Duty, etc.

59 18 1
1. Upper Laurentian.

1 2. Lower Laurentian.
The Commission on £676 at 2} per

0 The net proceeds due to John Henderson, Esq.

569 16 1 The Laurentian Rocks are known to occupy an area of 200,000

square miles, and frequently they attain a thickness of 30,000 £676 5 6

feet, the upper group being 10,000 and the lower 20,000. The 30th,

rocks are stratified, yet crystalline gneiss, mica-schist, quartzite, Took out of Cash for Potty Cash

£10 0 December 1st.

and limestone are all represented. As yet, the upper group has Received for Drawback on Goods per the Tigris

£215 12 0

afforded no fossils; whereas, in 1859, Sir W. Logan discovered 2ud.

an organic remain in the lower Laurentian. This is the oldest Received from Dawson and Hancock for Scotch Linen

0 o fossil as yet discovered. It appears to be a foraminifer, and 3rd.

bears a similarity to the well-known nummulite; it has been Receired for Drawback on Goods per the Racer

£182 o called the Eozoon Canadense. 4th.

The Lower Cambrian or Longmynd group is composed of Received in Cash for Bill No. 622, S. Stone


sandstones, which are found in the Longmynd hills to be some 623, B. Hulme

6,000 feet thick, and of the Llanberis slates. The sandstones 621, W. Alexander

576 10 4th.

are often rippled, proving that once they were the shores of a Paid Bill No. 143, H. Green and Co.

£600 0

sea which were left dry at low water. The rocks bear evidence 9th,

of the existence of myriads of annelides, of which there appear Received in Cash for Bill No. 628, W. Currie .

£60 0 to be four or five species. The slates are about 3,000 feet thick, 629, J. Overton.

100 0 0 and are developed on the coast of Ireland, directly opposite 10th.

Anglegea. Here are found the oldest fossils in Europe, two Received for freight of Goods per the Victoria


o zoophytes to which Professor E. Forbes gave the name of Old. 15th.

hamia. In Fig. 28 and Fig. 29 are drawn the two species, OldReceived for Interest on Exchequer Bills

£500 0 0

hamia antiqua and 0. radiata. The whole thickness of the 19th. Paid Bill No. 146, T. Gurney.

L300 0

o Longmynd group is about 10,000 feet. 21st.

The Upper Cambrian contains the Tremadoc slates, which lie Received in Cash for Bill No. 630, W. O'Callaghan.

£350 00 upon the Lingula flags, these latter being 6,000 feet thick, while 21th.

the slates are but 2,000. The group bears evidence of a great Paid Andrew Lloyd balance of account.

£116 11 o advance in life, both as to the number of species as well as 26th.

their superior development. That remarkable crustacean, the Received for Exchequer Bills transferred

£1297 12

Trilobite, so characteristic of the Silurian system, begins to 26th, Received of T. Ellis and Sons

appear; while in the upper part of the group the Bellerophon

£132 10 26th,

orthoceratite and the Theca find representatives. Paid Samuel Morley balance of account.

£960 15 0

Mons. Barrande in 1846 gave to the world his laborious 26th.

researches on the geology of Bohemia, which he had studied for Received of Fox, Tennant, and Co. balance of account . £73 15 0 ten years. The result is, that these Bohemian strata have been 27th.

found to correspond with the Cambrian. Barrande termed the Received in Cash for Bill No. 632, W. Coles

£260 o lowest group “Primordial," because he believed that in these 27th.

rocks the earliest indications of life were found; but, as this is Paid Thomas Brown and Co. balance of account

£260 0 0

not the case, the term is gradually becoming obsolete. Many 27th. Paid Peter Hutchinson and Co. balance of account

geologists hold that the Cambrian rocks were deposited at a £32

time when the first creations of life took place upon the earth. 28th. Received of Richard O'Brien and Co. balance of account £138 17

But suppose that the metamorphic action had extended through 30th,

the Silurian and Devonian strata, obliterating all traces of Took out of Cash for Petty Cash

£200 o organic remains, then the carboniferous system would have 31st.

been the first in which fossils were found; and in Ireland there Due to Schofield, Halse, and Co. for Interest, less post.

is a large area, covered by sandstones which belong to this ages, etc.

£18 10

o period, utterly destitute of fossils. It would have been argued 31st. Received in Cash for Interest on our deposits

that at the time of the deposition of these sandstones there £116 11

was no life upon the earth, and that the creation of life took

place at a subsequent period. How fallacious would the reaLESSONS IN GEOLOGY.--XIV.

soning prove! And it may be that the Cambrians occnpy much

the same position as the yellow sandstones of Ireland in our We now enter upon the fossiliferous strata. Hitherto, all supposition. The metamorphic rocks beneath may have once attempts to discover signs of organic remains in the igneous been very fossiliferous strata, which have undergone a total and metamorphic rocks have failed, and this fact at present alteration and all traces of organisms obliterated, and for some rises as a well-defined wall of demarcation, separating all the reason or other the Cambrian group were deposited in such a lower rocks from the first great system, the Silurian. Before position as to preclude the burying of many organic remains. wo enter upon that well-defined series of rocks, so ably described Yet it must be confossed that this supposition is hardly credible; by Sir Roderick Murchison in his “Siluria,” we must notice a because, had the carboniferous strata, as above supposed, been small group which occupies an intermediate position between the first to contain fossils, we should have suddenly fonnd ourthe metamorphic system and the Silurian.

selves in the midst of a highly-developed flora and fauna, This sub-system, if we may so use the word, has been whereas in the Cambrians only very low types of life are found. described as existing in England, in Bohemia, and in Canada. The Oldhamia, for example, for å long time was believed to The Bohemian and English rocks are of the same period, be of a vegetable origin. Every appearance seems to indicate

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that this period was the dawn of life. Yet it may have been pyramid of eyes, so that it could survey the waters on all sides otherwise.

of it, above as well as around. This highly-developed eye is an THE SILURIAN SYSTEM.

argument against Darwin's theory of development, for in the We now enter upon the true sedimentary strata. The meta- very earliest of the fossiliferous strata we should surely find morphic action has not penetrated to this system, and the beds very crude organs, the uncouth fore-elders of those highlyare preserved to us in the condition in which they were deposited, organised senses which the animals of our epoch of life possess; save that they have been tilted and upheaved by igneous agency and yet it is not so, for one of the very earliest creatures posfrom beneath. The term Silurian was selected by Sir R. Murchi. sesses as fine an eye as any which has succeeded it, a very plain son because the system is typically exhibited in North Wales, indication of the power of a Creator. The trilobite, which is throughout the territory anciently occupied by the tribe of the found chiefly in the Llandeilo rocks, is the Asaphus tyrannus Silures. They are most favourably placed for examination, (Fig. 31), and is therefore considered characteristic of these since they have been “set on edge," so that as you walk along beds. The Ogygia Buchi is also a feature of the period. The a line in an easterly or westerly direction, you pass over the trilobites have been closely examined by M. Barrande, who disexposed edges of the successive strata. The different series of covered that they underwent metamorphoses as our present the system and their sub-divisions are as follow :

crustaceans. He traced them, from their escape from the egg, UPPER SILURIAN

through all their 28

changes until they

arrived at the adult I. Ludlow Series.

form; and, as these -1, Downtown sandstones ; 2, Ay

changes are many,

it is not to be wonmestry limestones;

dered at that fre3, Lower Ludlow shales.

quent mistakes are 36

made in supposing II. Wenlock Series.

a fossil which is -1, Wenlock lime

only a young trilostone; 2, Wenlock

bite to be something shale; 3, Woolhope


else. limestone; 4, Upper

The Graptolites Llandovery grits

30 and shales.

are Hydrozoa, and

they appear in very LOWER SILURIAN

different forms,

some of which are III. Llandeilo

represented in our Series.—1, Lower


illustration. The Llandovery sand.

didymograpsus stones and slates ;

(Figs. 32 and 32a) 2, Caradoc band.

and diplograpsus stones; 3, Bala


(Figs. 33 and 33a) beds ; 4, Llandeilo

do not appear and Lingula flags;

above the lower 5,"Bottom rocks.”


34 the didymoROCKS.

37 grapsus is enlarged. Sir Charles Lyell


Arms are extruded adds a third divi.

out of the lateral sion to the Silurian

tubes, which were strata, which he

joined to the main terms the Middle

trunk of the grapSiluria, and in it

tolite, which was he places the upper

in the long tube and lower Llando

of which 31 very series, which

the Bhort consists of the Tar

branch. annon shales, the


In Fig. 35 is reMay Hill sandstone,

presented another Pentamerus limestone, and the Llandovery slates, the aggregate of the hydrozoa of the lower Siluria—the Rastrites peregrinus, measuring about 2,600 feet in thickness; but, as a very definite having spines projecting from it like the teeth of a rake. line of division is wanting, we have divided the middle Silurian Resting upon the Llandeilo series are the Caradoc sandbetween the upper and lower.

stones and Bala beds. These, not including the trap rocks The Llandeilo series is so named from a town in Carmarthen. which are interstratified with them, attain the thickness of shire, about which the rocks are exhibited, where they reach a 9,000 feet. Caer Caradoc, where the sandstone shows itself, is a thickness of nearly 1,500 feet. Here we meet plentifully with mountain in Shropshire. The rock is very shelly, and contains fossils ; in such abundance, indeed, do some species occar--as many fossils. The Trinucleus Caractaci is found throughout the graptolites—that some geologists ascribe the dark colour of this sandstone ; it is a beautiful trilobite, which has six rings in the slates which lie on the top of the series to the carbon the thorax, the three bosses very prominent, and two long con. derived from these animals.

tinuations of the head, which will be figured in some of the But the most characteristic fossil of the Silarian period is the upper Silurian trilobites. The Strophomena grandis (Fig. 36) trilobite (Fig. 30), a crustacean with which those early seas and the Orthis vespertilio (Fig. 37) are also characteristic fossils must have swarmed. They evidently had a jointed body, and of the Caradoc beds. At Bala, in Merionethshire, a limestone probably could spring like our shrimps. There are many var of this age occurs very fossiliferous. In it the trilobite life rieties, each bed of the system possessing some, if not peculiar to reaches its maximum. It yields fossil star-fish, and the Echinoitself, yet which predominates in that locality. However much sphærites balticus (Fig. 38) and others of the Cystidæ lately they may differ in other respects, they have all one feature in classed with the Radiata. The mouth of the creature was at the

- they are all three-lobed, hence their name; that is, top, and it was fixed to the rock by a stem which was attached their body is divided into three lobes by the penetration of á at the opposite side to the mouth; but this stem is never found ridge down the centre ; this is very evident from the figures. still adhering. The Bala limestone is about 30 feet thick. The trilobite possessed a wonderful eye ; indeed, it seems a Lower Llandovery Beds are grey and brown grits and con.





glomerates with dark shales. They occupy the whole of Cardi. Names of towns ending in CHESTER, CASTER, CESTER.-Instances : Dor. ganshire and parts of Glamorgan and Radnor. They contain chester, Porchester, Lancaster, Doncaster, Gloucester, Worcester, Leicester, many fossils common to the Bala beds beneath and to the upper

Cirencester. Silurian above. They are about 1,000 feet thick.

These endings come from either the Roman castra or the Saxon Of the life of the lower Silurian wo may thus sum up. Of caester, according as the one or the other may be considered as that of the flora we are ignorant, save with regard to a few the original word; not improbably the Saxon caester is a derivasea-weeds. Of the fauna several classes have representatives. tive from the Latin castra or castrum. Castrum in Latin, 23 These seem to appear simultaneously, and all indicate that the caester in Saxon, denotes a fort, a fortification, a castle, an rocks in which they are embedded are of marine formation. encar pment; hence a military settlement, and so a town or The lower Silurian fossils belong to the classes Zoophyta, Bra- city; for many of our towns were at the first military settlechiopoda, Conchifera, Gasteropoda, Cephalopoda, Echinoder. ments. mata, Annelida, and Crustacea.

Names of touns and villages ending in WICH or WICK. – Instances : Greenwich, Woolrich, Harwich, Norwich, Nanturich, Berwick, Keswick,

Wich or wick denotes an inlet or creek formed by the bend of LESSONS IN ENGLISH.-XLI.

a river; then the land so enclosed, and then the collection NOUNS: THEIR ORIGIN AND CLASSES (continued).

of abodes fixed there, and so a fortification, a village, or town. PROPER nouns may be distinguished as names of places and

The ending SHIRE.-Instances : Yorkshire, Cardiganshire, Devonshire,

Lancashire, Cheshire. names of persons. Names of places were originally descriptive; they described the places to which they were assigned. The Shire, connected with the German scheren (Saxon, scir), to Bible furnishes such names in abundance : for instance, a place cut, to cut of, to divide, denotes a division of a country, a large in the Wilderness of Sinai was denominated Kibroth-hattaavah, district ; thus, Yorkshire is the district which belongs to the that is, graves of lust, from an historical event recorded in the city of York, and of which that city is the (provincial) capital. book of Numbers xi. 34. Names of places have, to the un. The ending sex. -Instances : Essex, Middlesex, Susser, Wesser, learned, ceased to be descriptive, because the terms have lost

Sex is the remainder of the old Saxon term Seaxe, Sare their meaning. Those who would know the meaning of tho (German, Sachse), signifying Saxons; so that Sussex means the names in English topography must study the Teutonic and the south Saxons, etc. Celtic languages, which contain the original elements out of

The endings BOROUGH, which those names were formed.

BURG (German, BURG, Q castle), EURI.-Io. Some instances have been stauces : Peterborough, Queenborough, Edinburgh, Sudbury, Bury. given-I add two or three. Orc, the name given to the Orkney islands in the Welsh Triads, signifies that which is extreme, so

Borough, softened into burg and bury, is the German burg that Orkney is the extreme or last country, the Ultima Thule. (Greek, purg), a fortified place, a town ; borough, considered as a Ramsgate means the gate or pass leading into Ram, or Ruim, Burg or bury also signifies a bosom, that is, a vale environed with

municipality, is a derived and comparatively recent application. the British name for the Isle of Thanet. Canterbury is a cor. ruption of the Anglo-Saxon Cantwara lyrig, the forts or strong. hills; hence the use of the word in relation to places situated as holds of the Cantware, that is, the men of Kent. Cant itself is Bury in Lancashire. comes from Caint, which, in Welsh, means a plain or open

The ending or prejix HAM.-Instances : Higham, Hampstead, Hampton, country; and it was probably the old Welsh name for the slip

Oakham. of open land lying between the Weald and the Thames. The Ham, still continued as a separate word in the diminutive word Winchester is a hybrid, that is, a cross between the British hamlet, denotes a dwelling, and hence a village. and the Latin. Chester is the Latin Castra, a camp, and de- The ending MIXSTER.-Instances : Westminster, Exminster, War. notes a Roman station. It is frequent in our names of places; minster. c.9., Manchester, Dorchester, Chester. The first syllable Win is Minster is a Saron word signifying a monastery or settlement the Welsh Gwent, which like Caint (probably the same word) of monks; hence its application to some of our cathedrals; as signifies an open country. It seems to have been a name given | York Minster, to several districts in this island. Monmouthsluire is still called

THE ARTICLES. Gwent by the Welsh, and was called Went by our English chroniclers as late as the 10th century. The Welsh name Gwent form a diminutive (articula), and, according to its etymology or

The word article, coming from the Latin artus, a joint, is in was softened by the Anglo-Saxons into Winte, whence came derivation, signifies a little joint. The articles may have been Winceaster, or Winchester. as descriptive, Thus

Paris is the capital of the French empiro. nouns, are the points or pivots on which discourse turns. Names of places, as being proper nouns, aro distinctive as well called “little

joints,” because of their smallness as articulations,

or because, being small, they, as limiting the application of But is there another Paris in the world ? The descendants of British colonists, who settled years ago in North America, have the demonstrative pronoun this, for “the man

The article the does not essentially differ from what is called

and "this unsparingly given the names belcnging to the old country to man" are phrases of kindred import. Indeed, the appears to places of recent foundation in the new country. In so doing be an abbreviated form of this (from the Saxon, thes, as in they havo caused many of our names of places to lose their these), being softened down from this into thie (thic is still distinctiveness. The namo Boston once denoted the town in Lincolnshiro so called. The name was distinctive. Another into the. In the Anglo-Saxon, the article the is connected in

common among the peasantry of the south), and thae Scotch Boston has sprung up in Massachusetts. Now, then, when we use tho term, we aro obliged to add some distinctivo epithet, origin as well as signification with this and that (that). and call the one Boston in England, and the other Boston in the German ein, the Greek en, the Latin unus, the French un, and

The article an (a before a consonant), the same with the United States. Unless such an epithet is added, confusion must the Scotch ane (ae), in all of which the n is a radical letter, ensue. I have known a letter travel over a large part of England

denotes unity. in scarch of the right Broughton, whore lived the person for whom it was intended.

From these etymological statements we are led to the exact

import of the articles. In English there are two articles. Of I subjoin some examples of the meaning of names of places in England.

these tho one-namely, the-is called the definite article ; the Names of towns ending in molti and forn.-Instances : Plymouth, article points out one object, as an apple, a man, thus limiting

other--namely, an-is called the indefinite article. The indefinite Tynemouth, Yarmouth, Portsmoutit; Oxford, Stratford, Romford, Salford. the noun to a single object of its kind. Such a limitation at

The ending mouth denotes the mouth of a river, or the point first sight seems very definite ; but an or a, whilo it indicates whero a river falls into the sea ; thus Tynemouth is the mouth one, leaves it uncertain, that is undetermined (or indefinite! of the river Tyne. Portsmouth, the mouth of the Port, origi- what one is meant. The office of determining what object is nally denoting the projecting land forming the narrow opening moant belongs to the definite or determining articlo the. For by which ships pass from the sea (Spithead) into the harbour. example, " I saw a man."

" What man?” Ford, the German furt, signifies the part of a river or stream, you and I met yesterday.” which, from its being shallow, may be forded, or passed dry- A has the same origin as one.

But a differs from one : " foot.

do not signify exactly tho game.

The man whom


” and “

one man


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A ewer.

A use.

A unit.

A usurer.

man is one man as contrasted with the man, that is, some par- | meaning would be wholly changed by converting the singular ticular man; and one man is a man as contrasted with many noun into a plural one; as, The horses are noble animals,” men. A simply indicates one of a class of objects, e.g., a book, that is, the horses in question. a horse, a needle ; one indicates a single object as the opposite A, the article, must not be confounded with a, the old prepo. of several. These statements may be illustrated in an example: sition or particle ; for example :"I bought a book.” “Yes, but not the book you wanted.” “I

“They go a begging to a bankrupt's door."-Dryden. bought one book.” “Indeed! I thought you had bought many." Nor must an, the other form of a, be confounded with an, the "No, I bought but one."

old conjunction; for example :The differs from this as being less demonstrative without

“Nay, an thou'lt monthe, I'll rant as well as thoa.”-Shakspeare. being less definite. The declares, this points out; the is the declaration of the tongue, this is the

declaration of the finger: day," a doubt has been expressed whether the an and the a aro

In such phrases as “ four miles an hour," "twenty leagues a “I have sold the table." The table! what table ?"-The table you mentioned.” “What! this table ?”—“ Yes."

the article or the preposition. I incline to the opinion that an, The undergoes no change by inflection, remaining the same

e, in such cases is the article. This seems probable from the whether the noun is singular or plural, masculine or feminine, fact that an, not a, stands before a noun beginning with a the subject or the object.

vowel, or an h not pronounced; for the preposition a is in

variable ; for example :-An, for the sake of euphony, drops the n before a consonant, or consonantal sound ; thus we say an empire and a kingdom.

"Every one cut off a piece and fell a eating." By a "consonantal sound ” I mean a sound which has more The meaning of " four miles an hour" is not “ four miles an or or less the force of a consonant. Thus h when aspirated, as in in hour,” which has no sense, but four miles in an hour, that is, horse, is a consonantal sound. U (pronounced you) as in uni- four miles in one hour, four miles each or every hour, the article versity, is a consonantal sound. Consequently we say being used distributively, as in the phrase "a guinea a head,” horse," a university,” as well as a tiger,” a school.” Ithat is, a guinea to every head or person. give a list of

The form a iany

is found in Shakspeare :

"A care-craz'd mother of a many children.” WORDS, THE INITIAL LETTER OF WHICH HAS A CONSONANTAL

“A many" is still very common in the north of England in A European. A universal (custom). A usurper.

instances where it is now more usual to say a great many."
A university.
A utilitarian.

“Many a," as in
A uniform.
A usage.
A utopian (theory).

“Full many a gem of purest ray serene," A union.

A humorous (story). is customary and good.
A useful (instrument). A humour.

Some have denied to an and the the honour of being a A unitarian.

A usual (hour). A horseman. A united (company).

separate part of speech, alleging that the article is merely an So we also say “such a one” and “ a once beloved friend.” An adjective. Thus they say that in the chair and mahogany chair,

the and mahogany perform the same functions, namely, they is required before what is called a silent h, that is h which is qualify chair. But the two words qualify chair with a difference, not aspirated ; for example :

the one indicating what the chair is made of, the other denoting An BEFORE WORDS BEGINNING WITH A SILENT h.

some particular chair of whatever material it may consist. An heir. An hospital ?

Au honest (man). Surely there is a material differenco of meaning between these An herb? An hostler.

An humble (friend). three forms of words : green chair, a green chair, and the green Au honour. An hour.

An honourable (man). chair. At least the article qualifies the qualifier as well as the In regard to some of these words usage is not strict or uniform. object qualified, inasmuch as it tells us that a single green chair In those that I have marked with a note of interrogation, the is meant, or the particular green chair in which some one sat. initial h is aspirated by some authorities, whose practice in this There is consequently solid grounds for studying the article particular seems to be increasing in prevalence. When the h is apart from the adjective, and, if only for that purpose, there is aspirated, of course not the full form an, but the shortened a good reason for giving the article a specific namo. form a, is required.

The adjectives formed from some nouns in which the h is Aspirated, drop the aspirate, and so take on instead of a; thus RECREATIVE NATURAL HISTORY. we say, “ a history," but“ an historical narrative;' “ a heretic,"


TUBE-DWELLERS (continued). A common noun, when taken in its widest sense, admits no article ; for example :

Not far from the homes of these sea rock-borers we shall, by

dint of a little searching about, find, on some fragment of “The proper study of mankind is man."-Pope.

broken shell or detached stone, a mass of coiled up, twisted, A noun is also without the article when it is used in a general and irregular-looking white tubing, like liliputian tobacco-pipo sense, and in cases when the word some may be supplied; as :

stems, or tiny ram's horns. Each of these minute dwellings will "To buy food are thy servants come."--Genesis.

be found to hold an inhabitant (Serpula contortuplicata), whose A may denote a class, and the may denote tho particular class; beautiful scarlet fringe-like gills, or cilia, wave and undulato

as the fresh sea-water flows over it, bearing the microscopic "A bird which I saw in America sang the sweetest of all the songs clements on which it subsists. It is deeply interesting to trace I have ever heard." “What bird ? "-"The yet unnamed species the gradual increase in the capacity of these tubes from their described in my new work."

first appearance in the form of hollow pipes, no larger than a 4, though denoting a single object, may stand before a nonn hair, until, by the untiring industry of the little tube-dweller of multitude, provided the idea of unity predominates ; thus we within, the length and capacity of his twisted mansion increases say " a hundred men,” that is “a band of a hundred men," a until at length it becomes as we see it represented in Fig. 1; hundred men considered as a total. So “a few days” means a and here we have an example of the fixed form of tube, certain indefinite period. There is a difference between " few needing no shield beyond its own natural calcareous walls. people" and "a few people; “few people” says that the Should fortune favour our search among the rocks and rockpeople in question were not numerous ; a few people” declares pools, we shall probably find some fragment of broken spar or that there was present a company, in opposition to their being piece of wood which, sea-borne, has voyaged from afar to be present no persons at all; e.g., few people were at the play.” cast up by the tide at last. On examining this we shall find it * Few ? None.” “Oh, I beg your pardon, there was a few." perforated in every direction by tubular orifices, the dwelling

4, prefixed to the name of an eminent personage, denotes one places of the Teredo navalis. On looking closely we shall perof a class; thus, “a Nero" is a person as cruel as the emperor ceive that each tube has a lining to it, but that the lining differs so called. The is also used before such names in the plural in character according to the position it occupies in the interior number; e. 9., The Neros, thank God, are not numerous.” of the tube. Within an inch of the mouth of the canal or

The is put before a noun in the singular, when a particular orifice, it will be found to consist of a viscid paint-like mucus. species is intended; as, The horse is a noblo aniinal.” The Beyond this distance, and extending inwards, the tube will be




found smoothly and beautifully lined with a white hard china- sea surrounding its abiding-place. That this is the case will like material, which chemical analysis has shown to consist of appear probable when we take into consideration that the body ninety-seven parts of carbonate of lime and three parts of of the living animal and the shell covering it will be found of animal matter. The thickness of this hard crust or shell has equal bulk and greater specific gravity than the woody substance been computed at th of an inch. The external orifice might, which is removed in making the tube. Here again we are of without careful search, escape observation, as it is generally opinion that it is not alone the boring shell which cuts away hidden by marine growths which usually flourish in situations and removes tho solid timber. The Teredo giganteo, & species favourable to the well-being of the teredo, and is much smaller found in the Eastern seas, although living in a shell constituted than the inte

exactly like that rior of the tube.

of the Teredo In fact, the

navalis of our outer portion of

own coaste, the pipe is but

bores his tabe barely largo

in soft mad, enough to give

where the 80passage to the

called boring two small tubu.

or centre - bit lar processes in

mode of operawhich the crea

tion is perfectly ture may be said


needless. Alto be equally

thongh it is dif. divided. Figs.

ficult to ascer2 and 3 show

tain precisely the teredo both

by what train in its shell and

of laws the out of it. Many

shell-bearing of these worms

borers effect measure

their marvel much as eight

lously curious inches in length,

excavations, it and when in

is easy enough their tubes ap

to convince onepear to


self of the pletely fill them.

alarming extent They, however

to which the diminish consi

ravages of these derably in size

never-wearying, when removed

indefatigable, from the tim

yet destructive ber, from their

creatures throwing out a

tend. There considerable quantity of

doubt that the sea-water from

Teredo navalis their internal

has been introorgans. When

duced from exposed to light

warmer cliand air, at the

mates into our head of the

seas. However worm are found


that may be, his two concave

acclimatisation shell-like sub

has been fully stances, united

achieved, and he by a strong ligament, and to

Although insigo taese shells the

nificant in diboring powers 3

mensions, it of the worm

would be diffihave been at

cult to find tributed Sir

any Everard Home, in speaking of

ated things the proboscis


which of the teredo,

the same a says, that as this proboscis has no ori.

valuable profice there is reason to believe that it adheres to the wood, acting as a much-dreaded “ship-worm” (Teredo navalis). Ships, boats, centre-bit , while the

animal is at work with the shell, and thus piles, dock-gates, and submarine wood-work of all kinds are the canal in the wood is perfectly cylindrical. It has not hopelessly ruined by it; and although fabulous sums of money unfrequently been asked whether the teredo bored into wood are from time to time expended in order to check his ravages, in order to feed on it. Our observations have led us to the little can be done to control them. conclusion that it derives no nourishment whatever from the timber it is engaged in penetrating, but rather that, like the allies at

the conclusion of the Crimean war, was constructed at

The magnificent floating dock at Sebastopol, destroyed by the sheltering tube in which to dwell, whilst its support is drawn as were required to undergo repair, etc., might, by being caused from amongst the countless myriads of organisms which fill the I to float in fresh water, escape the destruction caused by the


appears little

now abounds.

creature amongst cre

ce nises

mount of de struction to

perty as the

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