« AnteriorContinuar »
the model for the great building in Hyde-park, and then and all who have studied the subject, expect a great inof the present Crystal Palace at Sydenham. His design crease in the productivenes of industry from the advance for the erection of a building to be constructed of glass of the co-operative movement. and iron, for the Great Exhibition of 1851, was accepted by the Royal Commissioners, after 233 plans had been rejected. For his public service on this occasion he was
Torrespondente. knighted. In 1853 he commenced the building of the Crystal Palace, which was completed and opened to the public in June, 1854. In tho same year Sir Joseph
ON THE WEAR AND TEAB OF STEAM BOILERS.-SIR, off red himself as a representative for Coventry, in place - Anybody who chooses to read my two “ doubleof his friend Mr. Geach. He was elected without oppo- barrelled ” letters—each barrel of which seems to be resition, and retained his seat till a few weeks ago. Shortly garded by Mr. Clark as a modern form of the horns of a after his election he tendered to the Government a prac-dilemma-will find convincing proof that Mr. Clark has tical suggestion to send out a corps of navvies to perform again been drawing upon his memory for his discoveries, civil work at the siege of Sebastopol, then going forward. and upon his imagination for his claims. The ostrichThe proposal was accepted, and was entrusted with the like style of defence that consists in ignoring statement organisation of the Army Works Corps—duty which and argument alike, and the lady's reasoning of continued he discharged with great credit. In politics he was a iteration, can be of no avail to my respected neighbour Liberal, and a consistent supporter of Lord Palmerston's with those who will give themselves i he trouble of reading administration. He followed the profession of an archi my "double-harrelled” epistles, as they are termed by tect and civil engineer from the time when he constructed Mr. Clark. Just, however, as even a Colt's revolver is of the great glass building in Hyde-park; but he did not no use against the hide of a rhinoceros, 80 will no "doublerelinquish his position at Chatsworth. He was happy in barrelled" epistle-perhaps not even a round robin—be of the constant esteem of the late Duke of Devonshire, who, any effect against Mr. Clark's own tough cuticle. I must some time before his own death, handed to him a life confess, however, that this is quite indifferent to myself. policy for £20,000, upon which he charged himself to pay Mr. Clark's little weaknesses on the subject of steam the premiums for Sir Joseph's benefit. Sir Joseph Paxton boilers are pretty generally known by this time. « That's was an industrious writer on horticulture, and connected my thunder-that my explanation of explosions,” are with several literary enterprises. He was a Fellow of the perennial cries with the sage of the Adelphi, as of yore Horticultural Society, 1826 ; of the Lindæan, 1833 ; and with Dennis the actor. Like another great man, he in 1844 he was made, by the Emperor of Russia, a Knight delights in fighting for ideas—and for ideas which he of the Order of St. Vladimir. The Silver Medal of the may annex, but certainly has never discovered.
Mr. Society of Arts was presented to him in 1840, for a com- Clark's practised and boa-constrictor-like powers of munication respecting his invention of a machine for the literary deglutition are indeed fully recognised. The purpose of making sash bars, the account of which is publicity, in fact, of the existence of Mr. Clark's little given at page 87, vol. 53, of the Society's Transactions. self-delusions on this score forms my protection. This He was elected a member in 1850, and was a Vice-Presi- will probably be the case even with that majority of your dent at the time of his death.
readers who do not care the value of an old bolt for either Mr. Clark or myself, therefore I must say that,
for my own part, I do not so much regret his asserNotes.
tion that I have borrowed ideas from him without acknowledgment as my implied belief in the unscientific
and mistaken twaddle which M: Clark dignifies with the THE CO-OPERATIVE PRINCIPLE IN FRANCE. The title of explanations of the pitting and furrowing of steam Builder states that the chief instances of application of boilers. In the one sentence by which Mr. Clark attempts principles of co-operation in the building trades are to be to explain piiting, he is seemingly unaware of the existence found in France. ' Somewhere about twenty-three years of such an action as chemical affinity; and in his “ exago, M. Leclaire, the house painter, whose experiments planation" of furrowing he has never dreamt of that id connection with painters' work have often been men. action of internal Auid pressure which tends to form a tioned by us, described in a pamphlet the system adopted perfect cylinder. As regards pitting, all Mr. Clark's in his establishment, and gave the reasons that led him explanation is contained in one single sentencema to establish it. At present the concern is a partnership, sentence, by the way, which he in'roduces with the consisting of M. Leclaire himself, M. Defournaux, and remark “that we are aware that electrical and galvanic the Socié'é de Secours Mutuels, of which all persons in action are adduced in . explanation "" (of furrowing and the establishment are memlers. In the first year the pitting). · But these words," continues Mr. Clark, "have men who worked 300 days inade each 300 francs ( £12) iwo meanings—they mean electricity and galvanism, and as the profit, or beyond the wages, which were 4 francs a they inean igorance and mystery.” We see here, as day. Improvement in the habits and demeanour of the plainly as anything writren can be plain, that Mr. Clark workmen was immediately manifest. M. Chevalier, in expressly repudiates galvanisnı as accounting for pitting. 1848, stated, on the authority of M. Leclaire, " that the We now come to that single pregnant sentence which, like increased zeal of the work people continued to be a a Delphic oracle, contained everyting yet in ihe womb full compensation to him, even in a pecuniary sense, for of the future. Instead of " ignorantly” having recourse the share of profit which he renounced in their favour ;' to galvanism, Mr. Clark says—" The pitting of the metal and in 1857. M. Villiaumé gave similar testimony. The is readily explained by the presence of chemical agents passing of the Limited Liability Act first made similar in solution in the water, and the known inequality of associations possible in this country. Of successful asso. substance of iron plates and bars, in consequence of which ciations of operatives alone there are in Paris upwards of the metal is gradually but unequally separated and disone hundred. The chief of these associations is that of solved, and probably a weak galvanic circuit may be
Its adiount of business done from 1852 to established between the iron shell and the bra-s tubes, 1858, both years inclusive, has increased from 45,5306. accelerating the process of dissolution.” Only in that in the former year to 1,231,4611, in the latter, and its portion of the sentence which I have italicised is there profits from 1.0001. to 130,000f. It lately paid 56 per cent. io be found any attempt at explaining the irregular pock as the dividend of the year on the capital. M. Villiaumé marks of pitted plates ; the latter portion is, as I have remarks that intemperance greatly decreases amongst the shown, copied from Professor Tyndall, and could, in any members of the different associations, as well as every case, only account for an equally spread corrosion. What thing of the nature of coarseness and rudeness. Mr. Mill, Mr. Clark says, neither more nor less, is, that some
spots of the metal are softer than others--an isolated Chimnies, preventing downward draft in-1471-E, Myers and d.
Stodard. physical fact that could not, per se, explain why any softer
Circular saws-1475-W. T. Hamilton. or harder spot should be sooner dissolved than any other. Coke, ovens for the manufacture 08—1435–J. Gjers. He simply says, that some portions are easier dissolved Cotton, hydraulic presses for packing-1280-E. T. Bellhouse and W, than others, from being softer than others. In fact,
Cotton, rollers used in preparing-1439-W. E. Newton.
Furnaces-1451_M. Cohen. the strain of the steam pressure" at the joints, which is Furnaces—1469-P. Young. quite a different explanation from that which ascribes Furniture, construction of vans for transporting-1495–F. Hazeldine furrowing to the mechanical tendency to produce a correct
Gas burner-1437-G, Bray.
lloops, &c., manufacture oi-1425-J. Ramsbottom. circle, and to the furiherance of corrosion in the absence irou, manufacture of—1310–J. Bennett. of that protecting coating of incrustation which is con Knitting machines-1445-W. Clark. tinually being broken off by the mechanical action. Il Lamps-1422-C. E. Moller. dely Mr. Clark to show that either of these points, Lime, manufacture of–1467—P. A. le C. de Fontainemoreat.
Lathes, rests for ornamental turning-1441–T. H. Hoblyn. amongst others, have been even alluded to by himseli. Locks, keys of - 1485-S. Grafton. As to the explanations 1 give of the deterioration of stay: Locking screws-1473–F. A. Paget.
-J. Calvert. bolts, the best joke is that they are quite distinct from Machines, reaping and mowing—1371-W. Manwaring. that of Mr. Griggs, published five years before its assimi Machines, rotauive-1447-J. Å. Heinrich. lation by Mr. Clark. Rghtly or wrongly, I import novel Oils, purifying animal and vegetable-1453–8. Sequelin. elements into the matter. I can only suppose that Mi
Pendants, sliding gas-1381-G. H. Brookes. Clark has not done me the honour to read what I have Railway trains, communication between passengers and guard of
1493-I. Rogers. written, and that, misled by a strange self delusion of Sail cloth, printing upon–1006–J. Isherwood. which he has given previous proofs, he has claimed the Screw gills --1419 -- T. Bean lavd. explanations from the mere fact of their dealing with ships, apparatus for steering - 1394–J. Martin.
Ships' bottoms, paints applicable to–1489–T. Spencer. steam boilers.-I am, &c.,
F. A. PAGET. Ships, machine for loading and discharging cargoes from149-4. 18, Adam-street, Adelphi, w.C.
Elliott and R. P. Clark. [This correspondence must end here.-ED.]
Spherical form, machinery for turning bodies of a—1459–T. Bourne
Spinning machinery-1483-M. Meisel. ATMOSPHERIC RAILWAYS.--Sir,— The atmospheric rail. Steam boilers, composition for preventing incrustation of–1324–W. way proposed to be laid down along the banks of the steam boilers, furnaces of—1372–T. Moldea, J. Newsome, sed J. Thames is neither more nor less than the invention of the
Akeroyu. late Mr. Vallance, the well-known banker at Brighton. Steam bammers—1491 – P. Pilkington. Thirty or forty years ago that gentleman laid down an Telegraphic supports—1390-C. and A. Varley. experimental vacuum railway of one quarter of a mile in Trimming, manufactnre of720-J. P. Booth.
Tires, cast-steel railway-1455-J. M. Rowan. length, of the full size, and carried passengers up and Tubes, apparatus for cleaning the interior of—1479–J. Hare. down for some time very succes-fully. The only difference Weaving, looms for - 1427–0. Welsh. in detail between the present plan and the former is, that whales, rocket guns for the capture of—550-T. W. Roys and G. A
Lilliendahl. the exhaustion is intended to be applied at one end only, Writings, &c., producing copies of—1457—R. A. Brooman. and pressure for the return trip, a variation that will not ultimately be found to answer, the object in the present
INVENTION WITH COMPLETE SPECIFICATION FILED. plan being evidently to avoid the expense of an exhauster Gas burner--1494—11. Monier. at each end. In practice, however, there is a very great Ordnance, fuses for rifled—1552–G. Haseltine. difference between exhaustion and compression. In the
PATENTS SEALED. former case the action seems to be instantaneous, while in 3082. R. H. Johnson. the latter the effect is unaccountably retarded, owing per. 3103. C. P. Coles.
3123. W. Cotton.
3133. W. Brookes. haps to the elasticity of the atmosphere combined with 3104. S. Hood.
137. Z. Eastman. the friction in the tube. Under the compressed system it 3107. 4, F: J. Claudet. 3147. H. F. McKillop. has been found that if the pipe of communication be suffi- 3119. F. A. Chevallier.
3178. H. Edmonds.
3252. L. P. E. Max. ciently long, the most powerful forge blast will not blow 3120. G. Brown. out a lighted rushlight placed at the further end.-1 am,
3121. J. White. &c., HENRY REVELEY.
From Commissioners of Patents Journal, June 13th,
PATENTS SEALED. MEETINGS FOR THE ENSUING WEEK.
3108. J. A. Pols.
21. J. Knowles. 3118. R. A. Brooman.
44. B. Dolson, W. Slater, 1 Moy. ...Asiatic, 8,
3122. W. McNaught.
• R, Halliwell.
3125. M. J. Haines. TUES....Statistical, 8. 1. Mr. Lubbock, “On the Statistics of the 3126. J. L. Norton and W. Aing.
77. H. Chamberlain. Clearing House." 2. Mr. Levi, ** The Economic Con
82. J. F. Spencer. worth,
107. J. B. Hill. dition of the Highlands and Islands of Scotland."
3134. R. A. Brooman. WED.... Meteorological, 7. Annual Meeting.
127. J. Young. 3136. H. L. llall.
164. R. Mallet. Geological, 8.
3158. G. Leach. R. Society of Literature, 4).
180. W. Clar. TEURS...R. Society Club, 6.
3163. J. P. Llagostera. Annual Meeting.
228. J. Hamilton, jun.
3210. T. Whitley. Zoological, 4.
| 248. B. Dobson. Sat.......R. Botanic, 31.
3213. J. Wolstenholme.
291. A. Murray. 3219. J. Dodge.
443. E. B. Wilson. 3227. W. H. Preece and A. Bed. 476. A. Sharp
borough. 3250. T. Bouch.
5. J. F. Parker & J. Tanner. Patents.
PATENTS ON WHICH TAK STAMP DUTY OP 250 HAS BEEN PAID 1708. A. V. Newton.
1760. C. A. Tyler.
1723. A. Knowles. From Commissioners of Patents Journal, June 9th.
1714. J. Lovegrore.
1732. J. B. Ingle. GRANTS OF PROVISIONAL PROTECTION. Buttons, manufacture of-1110-T. Greaves and J. S. Wright.
PATENTS ON WHICH THE STAMP DUTY OF £100 HAS BEET PAID Carpets, manufacture of_1499-W. Edwards.
1292. J. Bunnett. Casting, apparatus for making coics for-1429-D. Law & J. Bennett. ( 1305. P. Dumont.
178, J. Snell and W. Renton,
538, P. A. le Comte de Fa
1739. W. Holland.
1321. G. Bartholomers,
Meeting-Prizes for Art Workmanship 519 Colonies :—Water Consumption in Mel- Meetings for the Ensuing Week.
Finearts:-English Taste & Art-Pompeii 528 Notes:-Commercial Education in France Registered Designs ...
By Rent, Rates, and Taxes......
206 13 8
126 10 11
84 18 10
Journal, including Stamps and Distribu-
1,576 15 7
Prince Consort's Prize
26 5 0
0 4 6
164 8 8
1,108 18 7
498 10 6
83 4 0
129 12 11
Annuity to Mrs. Cantor.
2 4 6
5 0 0
41 17 8
Labourers' Cottage Prize
226 16 0
2,000 0 0
105 12 0
12 10 4
365 8 10
£4,500 0 0 Consols, liable to a charge of £200 once in five years.
100 0 0
liable to the Award of a Medal
388 1 4 New 3 per cente., liable to the Award of a Medal.
SEYMOUR TEACR), } Auditors.
Society House, Adelphi, June 21st, 1865.
Proceedings of the Sociely. The foregoing statement is published in this week's Journal, in accordance with Sec. 42 of
FOURTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE. the Society's Bye-laws, which provides that, at the Annual Meeting, the Council shall render
The Fourteenth Annual Conference of the to the Society a full account of their proceed- Representatives of the Institutions in Union, ings, and of the receipts, payments, and expen
and the Local Educational Boards, with the diture during the past year ; and a copy of such Council of the Society, was held at the Society's statement shall be published in the Journal of House on Wednesday, the 14th inst, at je the Society, on the Friday before such General o'clock, noon. William Hawes, Esq., F.G.S. Meeting
Chairman of the Council, presided.
At the conclusion of the Secretary's Report ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING.
to the Council, read to the Conference, and pub
lished in the last number of this Journal (see The One Hundred and Eleventh Annual General Meeting, for the purpose of receiving the p. 506), the Chairman laid before the Confer. Council's Report and the Treasurers' Statement tions for 1866, and called attention to the fol
ence the proposed Programme of the Examinaof Receipts, Payments, and Expenditure during the past year, and also for the Election of Ofi lowing subjects proposed for the consideration
of the Conference :cers, will be held, in accordance with the ByeLaws, on Wednesday, the 28th of June, at 4
1. The establishment of organising teachers among the o'clock.
Institutes, on the plan adopted in the East Lancastire
Union. The Council hereby convene a Special Ge- 2. Is any modification of the present scheme of Elemenneral Meeting of the Members of the Society to tary Examinations, by rendering it more adapted to the ballot for members, such meeting to take place capacities of class pupils in Mechanics" Institutes, desirable. at the close of the Annual General Meeting.
3. The advantages of local prizes to successful candi.
dates, at the Society of Arts Examinations, as a stimulus By order,
to local competition. P. LE NEVE FOSTER, 4. Whether any special inducements can be held ont Secretary.
to lead soldiers to avail themselves of the Society's ExSociety's House, Adelphi, June 21st, 1865.
aminations? (See the correspondence with H.R. H. the Commander-in-Chief of the Army, Journal p. 498.)
5. The propriety of adding to the Society's ExaminaPRIZES FOR ART-WORKMANSHIP. tions the subject of “ Practical Gardening," in accordansa The Council have much pleasure in publishing with a proposal made to the Council by the Royal Hortithe following letter:
cultural Society, who have expressed their willingness to
otler prizes in this subject. DEAR SIR, --Referring to your letter of the 10th of tion of their members ?
6. How can Institutions promote the Physical Edura. January last, soliciting the co-operation of the Worshipful Company of Plasterers, London, in offering prizes for made to promote the efficiency of Institution Classes ?
7. How may Popular Readings and Entertainments be Art-Workmanship, I have now the pleasure to inform you that the Plasterers' Company have resolved to offer of the Institute, with a view of healthful recreatiou for
8. The advantage of Garden Allotments, as a feature through the Society of Arts one prize of £10 and a second the members. of £5 for modelling. I send on the other side the particulars of the subject ticultural Shows, Building Societies, Penny Savings Banks,
9. Should Institutes promote the establishment of Herselected, and also the conditions, subject to which the and similar movements towards the social amelioration of prizes are offered, and I should feel much obliged if you the people? would kindly make the same known as extensively as 10. The advantages and disadvantages of subscriptious possible. I am, dear Sir, yours faithfully,
to Institutes being paid by weekly or other small amounts.
H. MOTT. The Chairman said it was now his duty to ask the Con P. Le Neve Foster, Esq., Secretary to the
ference to enter upon the consideration of the various Society of Arts, Adelphi.
subjects which had
been referred to in the report, and also
those which had been suggested for discussion. Before The Worshipful Companv of Plasterers, London, offer the proceedings went any further he could not help ex. (subject to the general conditions of the Society of Arts) a pressing bis regret that on account of ill health they were prize of £10 for the best floriated bracket or truss in the deprived of the presence of Mr. Chester, who hadi for so Italian Renaissance style-dimensions, 14 inches on the many years taken a most active part, and had been of the beam, 12 inches on the wall, and 8 inches on the face greatest possible service, in the system of Examinations --to be designed and modelled by the competitor, or the which was now carried out by the Society. He almo designer and modeller may co-operate in the produetion, regretted that he should be obliged to ask their indulgence when £5 will be awarded to each.
in allowing him to leave the chair before the business was Five pounds will be given for the next best model, or concludert. He then called on the Secretary to slate the £2 106. each to designer and inodeller.
alterations it was proposed to make in Artizans' apprentices and students may compete for THE PROGRAMME OF Examinatious, ELEMENTABY ASD these prizes, but not master tradesmen, Masters in Schools
FINAL, FOR 1866. of Art, or those training for Masters in the Central School of the Department of Art.
The SECRETARY stated that, looking at the small To be delivered at the Society of Arts by the 14th
number of candilates that in each year had taken December, 1865.
Nautical Astronomy, Astronomy, and Agriculture,
17th June, 1865.
it was proposed to omit these subject from the next Mr. H. COLE, C.B., said he should be happy to second Year's Examinations. As regarded the Elementary the resolution, for the purpose of discussing the question. Euminations it was proposed, with reference to the The first part of it seemed to imply that the Institutions Junior Grade, that only one of the special subjects would rely upon gratuitous help for the greater part of should be compulsory, instead of two as hitherto; and as their teaching, but would look to an organising teacher regards females, that needlework alone should be com- once a fortnight or so for the remainder. The principle of pulsory. As regards the Senior Grade, the English the resolution seemed to be that halfa loaf was better than History would this year include general English History, no bread, but that a whole one was better still. He (Mr. wita special attention to the reign of George III. The Cole) objected to reliance on gratuitous services, and Svipture Examinations would be in the facts of St. wished to make an announcement as to some a diMitthew's Gospel. Liberty was given for the Boards to tional assistance which the Department with which he hold the Examinations at any time after 3 o'clock, had the honour to be connected was disposed to afford ia instead of 4 o'clock as hitherto.
reference to certain subjects, and of which he hoped MeThe Conference then proceeded to discuss
chanics' Institutions would avail themselves. A Minute of * THE ESTABLISHMENT OF ORGANISING TEACHERS AMONG
Council had recently been passed which enabled any THE INSTITUTES, ON THE PLAN ADOPTED IN THE East Mechanics' Institution, or any Evening Class connected LANCASHIRE Union."
with a National or other kind of school, to have a drawingHir. Lawton (Lancashire and Cheshire Union) said ing anybody's leave; but if they liked to establish
class-which of course they could have without askthe syetem referred to was the employment of two such a class, and employ a certificated teacher in gentlemen devoted entirely to the working of a district what was called the second grade," which was comprising about 12 Institutions. The district was schoolmaster's certificate, or, if they preferred it, a divided between them, and they each visited a separate teacher of the third grade,” they might then get paid school every night in the week, taking charge of the for the work which they accomplished. There were no claskes, giving lessons, and taking the general super-conditions as to the number of nights which the class need vision of the school for the evening. In addition to this, meet during i he year ; it was only a question of examithe organising teachers in East Lancashire held science nation similar to that conducted by the Society of Arts, Certificates, and it was understood that wherever they visitet for elementary work, science classes were always they would have to work papers, which would be examined
once in a year. When a class required to be examined, conducted by them after the elementary classes were finished, so that the Institutions in the district had the in London; and for every paper worked in the second benefit of their assistance both for elementary and for grade, or in that grade of drawing, they might get scientific teaching. The plan was a very expensive one to little geometry, and to do a little free-hand drawing, and
ten shillings; 80 that if a clever artizan chose to learn a work. It was certainly doing great service, but it pressed drawing from a model, and in perrpective, his teacher heavily on the Institutions that adopted it, inasmuch as they had to pay £15 a year for the services of the organi ing each paper. Further than that, if the Institution thought fit
might demand from the department £2, or ten shillings for teachers, in addition to the expense incurred in providing to employ a teacher having a third grade certificate, their ordinary teaching power. The system sketched out for adoption in the course of next year in the Lancashire which was an art-teacher's qualification, and would unite and Cheshire Union was a modification of this scheme. I which might be preferred, and through the School of Art
with any local school of art, the nearest, or any other Instead of engaging gentlemen to devote themselves would send up papers of a higher grade than those perexclusively to the Union both day and night, it was formed in the presence of an examiner, and which would proposed to distribute the Institutions into groups. be judged of without reference to time, and solely with There would perhaps be a group of five; one gentle; reference toquality, then they might obtain fifteen shillings man would take charge of special subjects at the central lostitution on behalf of the district; the meinbers of for such work as was satisfactory, with the chance of com the different Institutions would aitend the central In- peting for gold, silver, and bronze medals. This matter sitution on the same terms as the members of the was one which touched both the teaching of night central Institution itself; the elementary work would classes and the resolution under discussion. The minute be conducted by the teachers belonging to the several had been laid before Parliament, and there was every Institutions without a visit of a special teacher; and con
reason to believe that it would come into operation during requently, with a much less burden pressing upon them,
the coming year. the Institutions would be able to have elementary had proposed was to encourage Local Unions to do more
Mír. Blake said the object of the resolution which he teaching, and a special teaching power at the central Institution at a much less cost than they would have to in practical teaching than they had hitherto done. Bepay for the services of a visiting agent for one night.
cause they could not employ paid teachers it was thought Mr. BARNETT BLAKE (Yorkshire Union) said that very
there was no good to be done, whereas the fact was, that great expense was certainly involved by the Institutions, a great deal might be done by gratuitous teachers probecause only a very small number could be served by one
perly directed by an occasional visitor. teacher. The maiter had been brought under discussion would be able to testify that, in Lancashire, a great deal when Sir Jam-s Kay Shuttleworth was present, and it was
of good was done by the services of an occasional visitor. then considered most advisable, instead of attempting to do
Mr. Lawtos did not consider it a healthy sign that so little at so great a cost, to employ one agent for the whole they were asked to encourage a system of gratuitous district comprised within the Union, inasmuch as, though
teaching. each Institution might not be so much benefited as by the could only yet gratuitous teachers they would do well to
Mr. Blake said what he meant was that when they system pursued in East Lancashire, yet the advantage have a competent man to look after them-a system which really obtained would be spread over a much larger area. The resolution which he wished to propose on the subject
was often adopted. was as follows:-
Mr. Lawtox was quite willing to acknowledge the
great benefit derived from voluntary teachers under paid " That when ten or twelve Institutions sufficiently near will teachers, but it was very necessary to remember that they join in the employment of a competent teacher, to visit each Institution one evening in a fortnight, the instruction in ought in all their institutions to have paid teachers. He evening classes may be well carried on with gratuitous aid': would give one instance from his own neighbourhood,
as and that in districts where the Union of a larger number of an illustration of a system which he thought would be Institutions is necessary to supply funds to obtain the ag
found to work well. They had five institutions within a Malance of an organising master, much advantage may be diameter of about two and a half miles; he would suggest gaiaed."
that those institutions should engage their own teachers