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NOTES AND QUERIES:
Medium of Intercommunication
LITERARY MEN, GENERAL READERS, ETC.
“When found, make a: agte of.—CAPTAIN CUTTLE.
FIFTH SERIES. – VOLUME ELEVENTH.
PUBLISHED AT THE
OFFICE, 20, WELLINGTON STREET, STRAND, W.C.
BY JOHN FRANCIS.
LONDON, SATURDAY, JANUARY 4, 1879.
Persian Empire. Wherein are related many straunge and wonderfull accidents: and also the Description and
conditions of those Countries and People he passed by : CONTENTS.- No 262.
with his returne into Christendome. Written by William NOTES :-William Parry's Narrative of Sir Anthony Sherley's Parry, Gentleman, who accompanied Sir Anthony in his
Travels, 1801, 1-Twelfth Day-Manus Christi, &c., 3-Lady Trauells. London Printed by Valentine Simmes for A Hamilton and the "Secret History"-The Family Names
Felix Norton. 1601.” of the Princess de Talleyrand, 4-Celts and Saxons-Motto for an Index, 5-Banker Poets-Devon Provincialisms-Milk The company started from Venice in May, 1599, and Water-A Survival-Brass at Cuxton, Kent-A Cure for
and the circumstances in which the travellers Hydrophobia, 6-Arms of Cyprus, 7.
reached Cyprus may account for their gladness in QUERIES:_Major André - Bacon on “Hudibras" - The
departing from it :Society of Jesus in India -Decoys, 7-Dr. S. MusgraveWelsh Proverbs - Portia -- Grist-Mills-An Irish Bishop “Hauing spent those twelue dayes as aforesaide in Butler-Periwig-Wells Family-The Evil Eye in Morocco- Candia among those merry Greekes, we eftsoones imBraham's “Entusymusy,” 8 - Varia - Abp. Sheldon
barked our selues for Ciprus, to which we were some Edward Longshanks-spinhola-The Fleet Prison-"How Lord Nairn was Saved -Miss Porter's “Scottish Chiefs"
nine dayes passing: where (as the saying is) the Italians Smollett s * Adventures of an Atom"-"Briefe an Pilatus" (with whom we passed to Zant) did our errand (like Title of Book Wanted-Authors Wanted, 9.
knights errand) against our coming. They made reporte
to the Turkes inhabiting the same lle, that we were all REPLIES :-Elizabeth Blunt, 9-Ancient Monuments of the pirats, and that they should do wel to lay hands on vs, Moreton Family, 11-Epigram on Beau Nash, 12-Rev. R.
and to carry vs to the great Turk, their emperor, because, Benn, 13-Tokens for the Sacrament-The Parish Bull"Nobody and Somebody "More Family. 15-The «un. besides that, we were pirate, and came into Turky but as known acre" of Newbury-The Beaumonts of Folkingham- spies. Wherevpon the Turkes laid handes vpon vs, euen ** Quod tacitum Velis"--Henry Andrews, Almanac Maker, vpon our first arriuall, threatning to haue brought vs to 6- Isabella Daughter of Edward III.--Territorial Title of Constantinople : howbeit they staied vs in Ciprus two a Peer, 17-Renton Family-Rosemary c. Mint-Trin. Coll. daies, in which time they were indifferently well Tumblin_ The Blossoms"_“Statutes"-Abp. Stuart - Bp. laualified in hope of money we promised them, and which Shipley-Weather Lore - "The Fair One with the Golden Locks "_"Piece "_Yankee, 18-Watch-case Verses-“A
| they had to their full contentment ere we parted from house to let " Milton's "Paradise Lost," 19.
them.”—P. 11. NOTES ON BOOKS:-Pascoe's “Dramatic List” — Home's
From Cyprus Sir Anthony and his company "Songs of a Wayfarer."
passed over, in a ten-ton boat, to the Syrian shore, Notices to Correspondents, &c.
and in due time reached Aleppo. At the latter
houses, and feasted (for the most parte) while wee there Notes.
continued....... Leauing heere awhile to prosecute our
iorney, I will speake somewhat of the fashion and disWILLIAM PARRY'S NARRATIVE OF SIR
position of the people and country, whose behaviours in
point of ciuilitie (besides that they are damned Infidells ANTHONY SHERLEY'S TRAVELS, 1601.
and zodomiticall Mahomets) doe answer the hate we In 1601 William Parry published a short
christians doe iustly holde them in. For they are, account of Sir Anthony Sherley's travels through
beyond all measure, a most insolent, superbous and in
sulting people, euer more prest to offer outrage to any a part of Asia Minor and Persia. Parry, who was christian, if he be not well guarded with a Janizarie or one of Sir Anthony's company, returned to Eng- Janizaries. They sit at their meat (which is serued to land in the middle of September, 1601, and on them vpon the ground) as Tailers sit vpon their stalls, November 11 succeeding the following entry
crosse-legd; for the most part passing the day in banquetappears in the Stationers Registers (Mr. Arber's
ing and carowsing vntill they surfet, drinking a certaine
liquor which they do call Coffe, which is made of a seede Transcript, vol. iii. p. 195):
much like mustard seede, which wil soone intoxicate the "11 Nouembris (1601).
braine, like our Metheglin. They will not permitte any * William Aspley ffelix Norton Entred for their Copye
christian to come within their churches, for they holde under the handes of master ZACHARIAN PASFEILD and
their profane and irreligious Sanctuaries defiled thereby. the wardens A booke Called A true Discourse of Sir
They haue no vse of Belles, but some priest, three times ASTHONY SHERLYES travayles
nyles &c. [by WILLIAM in the day, mounts the toppe of their church, and there
&c. [by WILLIAM PARRY] vj"."
with an exalted voyce cries out, and inuocates Mahomet
to come in post, for they haue long expected his second The tract was included by Mr. Collier in his |
ded. by Mr. Collier_in his comming. And if within this sixe yeeres (as they say) he privately-printed Illustrations of Early English come not (being the vtmost time of his appoyntinent and Popular Literature (2 vols., 4to., 1862-64), and it promise made in that bebalfe) they haue no hope of his is from this source that the extracts now given
crivon comming. But they feare (according to a prophecie they have been taken.
| haue) the Christians at the end therof shal subdue them Its contents are at present of all, and conuert them to christianitie....... The country considerable interest when that part of the world is aboundeth with great store of all kinds of fruit, whereoccupying so much public attention. For the sake upon (for the most parte) they liue, their cheefest meate of completeness the contents of the title-page may
being Rice. Their flesh is Mutton and Hennes; which be quoted :
Muttons haue huge broade fatte tailes. This meate
most commonly they haue but once in the day, all the “A new and large discourse of the Trauels of girl rest they eate fruite as aforesaide. They eate very little Anthony Sherley Knight, by Sea and ouer Land, to the beefe, vnlisse it bee the poorest sort. Camels for their carriage they baue in great abundance, but when both and Persia. In a lengthened communication to them and their horses are past the best, and vnfit the Times of July 25, 1878. Mr. Grattan Geary for carriage, the poorest of their people eate them."-Pp. 15-17.
states that in the immediate vicinity of Erbil The next stage further inland involved the
(Arbela) “are fountains of petroleum which have
been running ever since Alexander the Great's travellers in some trouble :
time.” “From Aleppo we set forwards in the middest of
That it is to this excellent and useful August, accompanied with our English merchants three
illuminant Parry refers in the following extract is dayes, to wit, vntill we came to a town called Beerah | beyond doubt :or Birrah, by which runnes the most famous riuer “Neere vnto a towne called Backo, in Persia, there Euphrates, parting Mesopotamia and Syria; where we issueth out of the earth, in the manner of a water-spring, rested sixe or seauen dayes. wbilest boates were pre- a certaine kind of oyle in great abundance, which they paring for ys and other Turkish merchants: that being (from all parts of the Persian dominions) do fetch vpon done, we parted from our merchants, and betooke our Camels, Kine and Asses, to burne in lamps, which are selues to the saide riuer of Euphrates, on the which we the lights they vse in their houses.”—P. 37. were some three and twenty dayes passing downe the The reception which Sir Anthony Sherley and his game. In which time we came by a castle called Racca, where we were to take in fresh meate, and men to row. I.companions received from the rersian monarch and
companions received from the Persian monarch and But loe ! there happened that a Turke, being in one of his subjects was of the most flattering description. the boats in our company, discharged his peece towards In returning home, which they did by the way of the shoare at randon, where he most vnhappily slew the Caspian Sea, our countrymen passed through a Turke of the towne (the bullet entring his braine) ; by
Russia, and without further extending these
Russi reason whereof our boate, aswell as the rest was stayed, and we constrained to make satisfaction for the mans
s extracts I shall conclude with the following :death: which cost sir Anthony for his company some “But the day before wee left Muscouia, it was my hundred crownes. Which being payed, and wee dis- fortune to see the King and his Queene in cerimonious charged, we held on our course from thence some two or and triumphant manner passing out of the Citty three dayes passage ; where we were eftsoones stayed by | [Moscow), with a great Image and a huge Bell to offer the King of the Arabs, there liuing vpon the rivers side to a certayne Friery, some thirty miles off, which was in tents : before whome we were brought, whose handes performed in this sorte. First, all the morning diuers we kist; and demaunding what we were, and what troupes of horse passed out of the Citty, to stand ready businesse we had in those partes, we replied we were to receiue him at his comming out of the gate. About Engliehmen and Merchants by our trades, comming for midday, the King setting forwards, his guard formost, traffike into those partes of the world. Wherevpon this all on horsebacke to the number of fiue hundred, all clad good king tolde vs that he must needes see our mer- in stammel coats, riding in ranke, three and three, with chandize, which we (God wot) durst not contradict; and bows and arrowes, and swords girt to them, as also so he borrowed (without a priuy seale, or bill of his hand) hatchets under the one thigh. After the guarde were some thirtie yardes of cloth of siluer votill our returne. ledde by twenty men twenty goodly horses, with very That being done, we had licence to departe to our boate. / rich and curious saddles, and ten more for bis sonne and In whose campe we sawe nothing but a multitude of heire apparant, beeing a childe of twelue yeeres of age. cammelles, mules, asses, horses, sheepe and goats: from After which was ledde, in like sorte, twenty beutifull thence wee passed to another called Anna."-Pp. 19-20, white horses for the Queenes chariots, hauing onely Hitherto we follow our travellers down the vppon them a fine sheete, and on tneyr heades a crimson
veluet bridle. After them came a great number of Friers Euphrates to its junction with the Tigris and
in theyr rich coapes, singing, carrying many pictures towards the Persian Gulf; but all at once we are and lights. After them followed the greatest parte of sent back to the town of Deir, or, as Parry calls the merchants of the Citty. Next them was ledde the it, the town of Dire. He tells us that leaving Anda Kings horse for that day, together with his gonnes : the (or Anah) they came next to the town of Dire.
Kings saddle and furniture most richly besette with A reference, however, to any modern reliable map
stones of great price and beauty. Then followed the
Patriarch, wyth all the Archbishoppes, Bishoppes, and will show that the last-named town is much
great Prelates, singing in their coapes, very rich and further up the river-that is, nearer Aleppo. The glorious, hauing huge Images borne before them, beeing inference I gather from this is that Parry, after very richly inlayed with pretious Jems of diuerse colours, his return to England, wrote his narrative from
and lights about them. Then followed the King him
selfe, who had in his left hand his sonne, aboue menmemory, which would account for the confusion of
tioned, and in his right hand his cappe. Next him came places. This, however, is of little consequence, as the Queene, supported on eyther side by two olde Ladies, the fact now to be quoted is of some interest from her face euen thickly plaistered with painting, as were a scientific point of view :
other Ladies (according to the custome of the Countrey); “From thence to a towne called Dire, by which there I head, attended with some three score very fayre women
hir body very grosse, hir eyes hollowe and far into hir is a lake or poole of very pitch, which in their language
(if painting (wbich they holde a matter religious) they call the mouth of Hell. It swelles in the middest
deceiued not the iudgement of mine eie). All whose thereof to the bignesse of an hogshead, and so breaketh
apparel was very rich, beset with pearle curiously with a great puffe, falling flat, and thus continually it worketh : wbereof there is no bottome to be found, albeit
wrought, hauing white hattes on theyr heads, with great
round bands laden with pearle. We neuer saw hattes it often hath beene tried by all meanes.”—P. 20.
worne by any women in the Country, but by them This “lake or poole of very pitch” could be no onely.”—Pp. 50-52. other than one of the many bitumen springs which Sir Anthony Sherley's own narrative of this have been known to exist for ages in Asia Minor expedition was not published until 1613, for
a review of which Mr. Collier's Bibliographical of the officiating clergymen a red bag, which is Account, 1865 (vol. ii. p. 343), may be consulted. placed in an offertory basin. This is understood
to contain the Queen's offering of gold, frankin
cense, and myrrh, in commemoration of the gift of TWELFTH DAY.
the Magi to the infant Saviour. This day is rich As a popular festival Twelfth Day stands only in proverbs. Thus, in Dalmatia they say, " inferior to Christmas, the leading object being to were to ask a wolf when he felt the cold most, he do honour to the three Magi, or, as they are com- / would reply, “At the winter solstice,'” which is at monly called, the three kings of Cologne. The
Epiphany. In Italy it is thought to be one of the name Twelfth Day itself dates as far back as the coldest days. Thus, at Milan they say, “At time of King Alfred, who established the twelve Epiphany is the greatest cold we can have.” At days after Christmas as holidays, of which the Florence there is a popular saying, “ Show me the Epiphany was the last. These twelve days were man who does not shiver on the Epiphany, and I dedicated to the twelve apostles, and in some will show you an honest man." Lastly, on the parts of England it is still customary to light, on Rhine there is a proverb, “The three holy kings the eve of Twelfth Day, one large and twelve build a bridge or break one,” implying that either small fires, which are intended to represent our a hard frost or a thaw comes at this season. Lord and the twelve apostles. In days gone by
T. F. THISELTON DYER. this festival was chiefly marked by the custom of drawing for king and queen by lots--a practice,
MANUS CHRISTI, &c. according to some, derived from the Roman Saturn
I subjoin a few notes on some names of plants alia, when at its completion children drew lots with beans to see who would be king. In Lin
and specifics, which show the influence of the colnshire there is always a dance on Twelfth Day,
religious houses in the Middle Ages on popular called the “ Cake Ball," at which the old custom
nomenclature. We need not suppose that any
irreverence was intended when the names were of choosing the king and queen by lot is still kept up. In France the sovereign thus elected is called
originally bestowed, though some of them rather “Le Roi de la Fève," and the importance of this
jar upon our more sensitive modern religious ceremony is indicated by the proverbial phrase for
sentiment. The instances which I have selected good luck, “Il a trouvé la féve au gâteau,”—he
are either imperfectly explained or omitted by has found the bean in the cake. Twelfth Day
Nares and Halliwell.
Manus Christi. — “Refined sugar boil'd with appears to have been observed in this country by
rosewater or that of violets or cinnamon ; a sort of royalty from time immemorial. In the eighth year
cordial for very weak persons" (Phillips, New of the reign of Edward III, the title of "King of the Bean” was conferred upon one of the king's
| World of Words, sixth edit., 1706); “ Take as minstrels ; and we read, too, how Henry VII.
much sugar as will fill your mold and boyl it in with much pomp kept this ceremony at Court. In
a manus christi, then pour it into your mold 1563 Mary Queen of Scots celebrated the pastime
suddenly, and clap on the lid,” &c. (A Queen's of the King of the Bean at Holyrood, but with a
Delight, or the Art of Preserving, Concerving and queen, Miss Strickland tells us (Lives of the Queens
Candying, &c., London, 1655, 12mo., p. 264). of Scotland, vol. iv. p. 20), “instead of a king,
Halliwell merely says (Arch, and Prov. Dict.),
“ Manus Christi, a kind of lozenge.” Ducange as more appropriate, in consideration of herself is being a female sovereign.” Indeed, down to the
(Supplement, Paris, 1766, fol.) gives us, "Manus time of the civil wars, this festival was observed
Christi, massa quædam saccharo condita.” I supwith much enthusiasm, not only at Court, but at
pose, therefore, that Manus Christi was a sort of the Universities and the Inps of Court. Formerly
sugar candy, and was so called in some conventual the Lord Mayor and Aldermen and the guilds of
refectory because its supposed cordial properties London attended St. Paul's Cathedral on Twelfth
raised up sick people like the divine hand. Day to hear a sermon-a custom alluded to in the
Oculus Christi, wild clary or Christ's eye, early part of Queen Elizabeth's reign. Of late
because it cures diseases of the eyes (N. Culyears the celebration of Twelfth Day has been on
I pepper's English Physitian, edit. 1671). the decline, and many of the customs once con
Orvale sauvage, wild clarie, double clarie, ocle nected with it have fallen into disuse. One, how
Christi (Cotgrave). This is our Salvia verbenaca. ever, of mediæval origin is still observed at the
Lacrima Christi, a kind of excellent wine about Chapel Royal, St. James's Palace. On the festival |
Naples (Torriano, edit. 1659). This wine is still of the Epiphany, after the reading of the sentence at
made on the slopes of Vesuvius, and remains in the offertory, “Let your light,” &c., while the organ
some request. is played, two members of Her Majesty's house
1 “God's Good. A blessing on a meal ? hold descend from the royal pew and advance to apothecaries shop: hee that for every qualme
"Let the cook be thy physition, and the shambles thy
me will take the Communion rails, where they present to one a receipt, and cannot make two meales, unless Galen be