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care of them, tying up their blossoms with bands Ensete.—We are told by Horus Apollo, that formed of the foliage, to prevent their being torn the Egyptians, wishing to describe the antiquity off, and scattered by the wind.

of their origin, figured a bundle of papyrus, as an The trunk of the date palm tree served for emblem of the food they first subsisted on, when beams, either entire or split in half: while the the use of wheat was yet unknown among them. gereet, or branches, were, as they åre now, used Bruce affirms this to be the ensete, an Ethiopian in making wicker baskets, bedsteads, coops, and plant, which was cultivated in Egypt till the geceilings of rooms, answering for every purpose neral use of wheat superseded it as a diet. The for which laths or other thin wood-work might stalk of this herbaceous plant, when boiled, has be required.

the taste of the best wheaten bread not perfectly The Doum Palm.Instead of one trunk with- / baked, and if eaten with milk or butter, is wholeout branches, the doum throws up two trunks, or some, nourishing, and easy of digestion. This more properly, branches, at the same time from symbol, therefore, by no means proves that the the soil

. From each of these spring two branches, ancient Egyptians áte plants before they diswhich are also frequently bifurcated more towards covered corn, but only that ensete was one of the top of the tree. The terminal branches are the articles they used for food, and which occacrowned with bundles of from twenty to thirty sionally supplied the place of wheat. palm leaves from six to nine feet in length. The Lotus.—The Egyptian lotus, an aquatic plant, fruit of the doum is most essentially different and a species of water lily, was also used by the from that of the date palm. The tree grows in ancient Egyptians for food. Herodotus thus deUpper Egypt, but seldom in the lower country. scribes it : “ The water lily grows in the inunThe wood is more solid than that of the date dated lands of Egypt. The seed of this flower, palm, and will even bear to be cut into planks, which resembles that of the poppy, they bake, of which the doors in Upper Egypt are fre- and make into a kind of bread. They also use quently made.

the root of this plant, which is round, of an Barley.Of all cultivated grain, barley comes agreeable flavour, and about the size of an apple. to perfection in the greatest variety of climates, This the Egyptians call the lotus.” Theophrastus, and is consequently found over the greatest extent in his History of Plants, bears similar testimony. of the habitable globe. The heat and the It the nymphæu lotus of Linnæus, and the colodrought of tropical climates does not destroy it, cassia of Pliny. It is mentioned by Prosper and it ripens in the short summers of those Alpinus, under the name of culcas. which verge on the frigid zone. In Egypt, sent day it is called eddow, and the inundated where the climate is mild, two crops may be places of the Nile produce an abundance of it. reaped in the same year; one in the spring from Its root is also the food of numbers both in the seed sown in the autumn, and one in the autumn East and West Indies, and in the South Sea from seed sown in the spring. This explains a Islands. passage in Scripture, which speaks of the de- Holcus Sorghum.—This plant, which in Latin struction of this plant in one of the ten plagues, is called Milium, a name which points to a stalk Exod. ix. 31, 32. Commentators are generally bearing a thousand grains, appears to have been agreed that this even happened in March : the known in the early ages of the world in the first crop of barley was therefore nearly ripe, countries bordering upon Egypt, and we may and the flax ready to gather ; but the wheat and safely conclude that it was known in that counthe rye sown in spring were not sufficiently ad-try also. It is now extensively cultivated there, vanced in growth to be injured. This is con- and three harvests are obtained in one year. In firmed by the testimony of modern travellers. the countries south of Egypt, it is frequently to Dr. Richardson, writing in Egypt in the early be met with, from sixteen to twenty feet in part of March, says, “ The barley and flax are height, and wheat being almost unknown there, now advanced; the former is in the ear, and the both man and beast subsist chiefly upon it. In latter is bolled, and it seems to be about this sea- Egypt, it forms part of the diet of the poorer son of the year that God brought the plague of classes. But that which forms the chief food of thunder and hail upon the Egyptians, to punish the Egyptians is, what it has been from the rethe guilty Pharaoh, who had hardened his pre- motest period of time, bread-corn. sumptuous heart against the miracles of Omni- Wheat.—We learn from the interesting history potence.”

of Joseph, as well as from the narrative of the Rye.—It is uncertain whether the Hebrew ten plagues, that Egypt was famous in those Kusemeth, which occurs Exod. ix. 32, and which days for this species of grain. Some, indeed, is there spoken of as anciently growing in Egypt, point out that country as the parent of wheat ; signifies rye. Most commentators contend that and, as the earliest mention of it is connected it was spelt, which the word is usually rendered in with that country, and it might have extended other versions. No plant, however, bearing this from thence to the islands of the Mediterranean name grows now in Egypt;and, as the modern state and to Greece and her colonies, the conjecture of agriculture in that country affords no data to is probable. assist us in our conjectures on the ancient agri- The matchless wealth of Egypt arose from its culture, it is as likely to have been rye as spelt. corn, which, even in an almost universal famine,

Dr. Shaw supposes that rice is the grain in- enabled it to support neighbouring nations, as it tended by the original, and cites Pliny as affirm- did under Joseph's wise administration. In later ing that rice, or oryzu, was the olyra of the an- ages, it was the vast granary of Rome and Concients. Hasselquist, however, states that the stantinople. A calumny was raised against St. Egyptians learned the cultivation of rice under Athanasius, charging him with having threatthe caliphs.

ened to prevent in future the importation of corn into Constantinople from Alexandria, which in their sovereign, found a deliverer and a father. greatly incensed the emperor ('onstantine against Astonished at the sight of their granaries, filled him, because he knew that his capital city could without any labour of their own, they were at a not subsist without the corn exported from loss to know to whom they owed this foreign Egypt thither. The same reason induced the and gratuitous plenty. The famine of a people, emperors of Rome to take so great a care of though at such a distance from us, yet so speedily Egypt, which they considered as the nursing stopped, served only to let them feel the advanmother of the world's metropolis.* The same tage of living under our empire. The Nile may, river, however, which enabled Egypt to feed in other times, have diffused more plenty in the two most populous cities in the world, some- Egypt, but never more glory upon us. May times reduced its own inhabitants to the most Heaven, content with this proof of the people's terrible famine; and it is astonishing that Jo- patience, and the prince's generosity, restore for | seph's wise foresight, which in fruitful years had ever back to Egypt its ancient fertility.” made provision for seasons of sterility, should The reproach of this ancient author to the not have taught these wise politicians to adopt Egyptians for their vain regard to the inundasimilar precautions against the contingency of tions of the Nile, points out one of their peculiar the failure of the Nile. Pliny, in his panegyric characteristics; and which is aptly and beautiupon Trajan, paints with great strength the ex- fully illustrated by the prophet Ezekiel in a pastremity to which that country was reduced by a sage wherein God speaks to Pharaoh-hophra, or famine in the reign of that prince, and the relief Apries, thus : Behold, I am against thee, Phahe generously afforded to it. " The Egyptians,” raoh king of Egypt, the great dragon that lieth says he, “who gloried that they needed neither in the midst of his rivers, which hath said, My sun nor rain to produce their corn, and who be- river is mine own, and I have made it for lieved they might confidently contest the prize myself,” Ezek. xxix. 3. The Almighty per. of plenty with the most fruitful countries of the ceived an insupportable pride in the heart of world, were condemned to an unexpected drought this prince, a sense of security, and confidence and a fatal sterility, from the greatest part of in the inundations of the Nile, as though the eftheir territories being deserted, and left un- fects of this inundation had been owing to nothing | watered by the Nile, whose inundation is the but his own care and labour, or those of his presource and standard of their abundance. They decessors, and not, as in reality they were, de- ! then implored that assistance from their prince, | pendent on the gracious influences of Heaven. which they had been accustomed to expect only So prone is man by nature to forget the source from their river. The delay of their relief was from whence all blessings flow. no longer than that which employed a courier Besides the plants enumerated above, which to bring the melancholy news to Rome; and one grew anciently in Egypt, at the present day the would have imagined that this misfortune had following are successfully cultivated in that counbefallen them only to display with greater lustre try: winter plants, which are sown after the the generosity and goodness of Cesar. It was inundation, and reaped in about three or four an ancient and general opinion, that our city months after ; peas, vetches, lupins, clover, colecould not subsist without provisions drawn from seed, lettuce, poppy, and tobacco : summer plants, Egypt. This vain and proud nation boasted, which are raised by artificial irrigation, by means that, though conquered, they nevertheless fed of water wheels, and other machinery; Indian their conquerors; that, by means of their river, corn, sugar cane, cotton, indigo, and madder. either abundance or scarcity were entirely at Rice is sown in the spring, and gathered in Octheir own disposal. But we now have returned the tober, chiefly near Lake Menzaleh. Fruit trees, Nile his own harvests, and given him back the which grow mostly in gardens near the principal provisions he sent us. Let the Egyptians be, towns; the mulberry, and Seville orange, which then, convinced by their own experience, that ripens in January ; apricots in May ; peaches and they are not necessary to us, and are only our plums in June; apples, pears, and caroobs at the vassals. Let them know that their ships do not end of June; grapes at the beginning of July so much bring us the provision we stand in need figs in July ; prickly pears at the end of July of, as the tribute which they owe us. And let pomegranates and lemons in August ; citrus methem never forget that we can do without them, dica in September; oranges in October; and but that they can never do without us. This sweet lemons and banana in November. Some most fruitful province had been ruined, had it of these plants may have grown anciently in not worn the Roman chains! The Egyptians, Egypt, but we know of no data whereon to make

such an assertion.


If what Diodorus affirms be true, that in his day, Egypt contained thirteen millions of people, and that the population consisted before his time of seventeen millions, the fertility of Egypt must have been prodigious indeed. And the wonder is lieightened, when we reflect on the ab ve-mentioned facts, that it exported vast quantities of grain to Rome, and afterwards to Constantinople. Rollin states the exportation to Rome to have been twenty millions of bushels of wheat, which is equal to 2,500,000 quarters. Such a quantity was more than sufficient to have supplied the whole population of Rome, though it should have doubled that of the metropolis of England at the present day. His error arises from mistranslation. The word “modii,” which he translates bushels, according to Arbuthnot and Adam, signities pecks. Hence 625,000 quarters only were exported to Rome annually.

Egypt was proverbial for its riches. See Exod. xii. 35 ; Ezek. xxxii. 12; Heb. xi. 26. This arose partly from its fertility, and partly from its extensive commerce. But that which chiefly rendered the people rich in gold and silver, for which they were celebrated, was their mines of these precious metals. Their gold mines were in the desert of the upper country. Their position, still known to the Arabs, is about s.E. from Ba

“ The

hayreh, a village opposite the town of Edfou, in fits tight, and smearing it all over, they burn it
latitude 24° 58', on Apollinopolis Magna, and at a in a furnace for five days and nights without
distance of nearly ten days' journey from that intermission. On the sixth day, they cool the
place, in the mountains of the Bisharéch. Arab vessel, and take out the gold, which they fiud
authors place them at Gebal Ollágee, a moun- somewhat diminished in quantity: all the other
tain situated in the land of Begá, which word substances entirely disappear. These mines were
points out the Bisharee desert, being still used worked under the ancient kings of Egypt, but
by the tribe as their own name. The gold lies abandoned during the occupation of the country
in veins of quartz, in the rocks, bordering an by the Ethiopians, and afterwards by the Medes
inhospitable valley and its adjacent ravines; but and Persians. Even at the present day, (about
the small quantity they are capable of producing B.C. 150,) we may find copper chisels or imple-
by immense labour, added to the difficulties of ments in the galleries, (the use of iron not being
procuring water, and other local impediments, known at that time,)* and innumerable skeletons
would probably render the re-opening of them of the wretched beings who lost their lives in
an unprofitable speculation. In the time of the passages of the mine. The excavations are of
Aboolfidda, indeed, who lived about A.D. 1334, great extent, and reach down to the sea coast.”
they only just covered their expenses, from This process appears to be represented in the
which circumstance, they have ever since been paintings of tombs, executed during the reign of
abandoned by the Arab caliphs. The toil of Osirtasen, and some of the ancient Pharaohs.
extracting the gold in ancient times, according We are not informed when they were first dis-
to the account of Agatharchides, was immense ; covered, but we may suppose that the mines were
and the loss of life in working the mines, appall- worked at the earliest periods of the Egyptian
He thus describes the process:

monarchy. The total of their annual produce is
kings of Egypt compelled many poor people, said by Hecatæus to have been recorded in a
together with their wives and children, to labour temple founded by a monarch of the 18th dy-
in the mines, wherein they underwent more nasty. He also notices an immense sum pro-
suffering than can well be imagined. The hard duced annually from the silver mines of Egypt,
rocks of the gold mountains being cleft by heat- which amounted to 3,200 myriads of minæ, each
ing them with burning wood, the workmen then of which was 1 lb. 4 oz. 6 dwt. English weight.
apply their iron implements. The young and In a sculpture of Thebes, also, Osymandas is re-
active, with iron hammers, break the rock in presented dedicating to the deity the gold and
pieces, and form a number of narrow passages, silver he annually received from the mines
not running in straight lines, but following the throughout Egypt, which in silver alone amounted
direction of the vein of gold, which is as irregu- to this enormous sum.
lar in its course as the roots of a tree. The Besides these mines, there were others of
workmen have lights fastened on their forehead, copper, lead, iron, and emeralds, all of which
by the aid of which they cut their way through were valuable. These mines still exist in the
the rock, always following the white veins of deserts of the Red Sea. The same districts also

To keep them to their task, an overseer abound in sulphur, which was most probably stands by, ready to inflict a blow on the lazy. made use of by the ancient Egyptians. The material that is thus loosened, is carried out of the galleries by boys, and received at the mouth of the mine by old men and the weaker labourers, who then carry it to the Epopta or inspectors. These are young men, under thirty

CHAPTER II. years of age, strong and vigorous, who pound the broken fragments with a stone pestle, till there TOPOGRAPHICAL HISTORY OF EGYPT. is no piece larger than a pea. It is then placed on grinding-stones, or a kind of mill-stone, and In ancient times, Egypt comprehended a great women, three on each side, work at it till it is number of cities. Herodotus relates, indeed, reduced to fine powder. ... The fine powder is

that under Amasis, who lived about 570 years then passed on to a set of workmen called Sel- B.C., there were 20,000 inhabited cities in that langees, who place it on a finely-polished board, country. Diodorus, however, with more judgnot lying in a flat position, but a little sloping. ment and caution, calculates 18,000 large villages The Sellangee, after pouring some water on the and towns; and states that, under Ptolemy Lagus, board, rubs it with his hand, at first gently, but they amounted to upwards of 30,000, a number afterwards more vigorously, by which process which remained even at the period when he the lighter earthy particles slide off along the wrote, about 44 years B.C., when the population slope of the board, and the heavier parts are left of Egypt was reduced from seventeen to thirteen behind. He then takes soft sponges, which he millions of inhabitants. According to Theocritus, presses on the board rather gently, which causes the number of towns, at an earlier period, was the lighter particles to adhere to the sponge, 33,339 ; he may here, however, include some of while the heavy shining grains still keep their the neighbouring provinces belonging to Egypt, place on the board, owing to their weight. From as he comprehends Ethiopia, Libya, Syria, Arathe Sellangees the gold particles are transferred bia, Pamphylia, Cilicia, Caria, and Lycia, within to the roasters, who measure and weigh all that the dominions of Ptolemy Philadelphus. Other they receive, before putting it into an earthen authors may also occasionally have extended the jar. With the gold particles they mix lead in a certain proportion, lumps of salt, a little tin, and

* This author must, therefore, mean copper in the early barley bran, and putting a cover on the jar that

part of this extract, though he uses a word properly rendered iron.


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name of Egypt to its possessions in Libya, | political metropolis of the united kingdom, and Ethiopia, and Syria ; since, making every allow- from its more advantageous situation for trade ance for the flourishing condition of this highly had diverted from Thebes the wealth it derived fertile country, the number of towns they men- from commerce, it survived in splendour and tion is too disproportionate for the sole valley of magnificence. Even at the present day, it has Egypt. Our knowledge of the more ancient been said, while Zoph, and Žoan, and On, have cities of Egypt is very limited, and that know- scarcely left behind a vestige of their existence, ledge for the most part is preserved by existing the desolate temples of Thebes remain in almost remains. Among the most remarkable of these all their pristine glory, and promise to carry cities is

down the records of her glory and desolation to

the end of time. NO, NO-AMMON, DIOSPOLIS, OR THEBES. The poet Homer, in his immortal verse, speaks

of the great wealth of Thebes, and mentions its Thebes was, indeed, the most ancient capital hundred gates, from each of which issued 200 and renowned city of Egypt. It was probably men with horses and chariots, etc. This poetical built by the first settlers, Misraim and his family, allusion has been taken by some for history. whence Egypt is generally styled “the land of Diodorus, however, intimates that the force was Misraim ” in the original Scriptures, though not raised in the vicinity of Thebes; and with usually rendered the land of Egypt. The origin reference to the hundred gates, he states the conof the city is certainly lost in the remote infancy jecture of some persons that the city derived its of human settlements and institutions.

title of Hecatompylos from the numerous propyla, The Egyptian name of the city was No, Ezek. or gateways of temples and public buildings. xxx. 14; to which was added Amon, or Amoun, The notion of its having gates is strongly objected which was, according to Herodotus, a title of to by some travellers, inasmuch as not the least Jove among the Egyptians. This would suggest indication can be discovered that the city was that the city denoted was the chief seat of the enclosed by a wall. worship of Jupiter Ammon. And such was No ; Concerning the buildings of the city, we have for the Septuagint renders it, Ezek. xxx. 15, by no detailed description from ancient sources, but Diospolis, “ The city of Jove,” on account of its only of the public monuments. It is probable, devotion to the worship of Jupiter. Dr. Hales however, that in this and other ancient cities of says, that it has been mistakenly supposed that Egypt, while the temples were erected with such the term Amon, or Amoun, denotes Ham, the strong materials as would resist very long the youngest son of Noah, and the father of Misraim; power of time, the mass of private dwellings and he adds, that its real signification is “ Truth,” were of a very lowly character, such as mud or

Veracity," whence the Lord is styled Æl brick. When we speak, indeed, of the splendour Amunah, God of truth,” Deut. xxxii. 4. Plato of ancient cities, we must understand it exclusively says, that “the secret and invisible creative of its public buildings and monuments, and not power supreme among the Egyptians was called of handsome streets and comfortable habitations, Ammon;" and Plutarch, that the term signified which a modern city exhibits. “hidden.' This was also an epithet of the true But we not only learn from profane history God: “Why askest thou thus after my name, that Thebes was one of the most powerful cities seeing it is secret?” Judg. xiii. 18; and it ac- in days of yore; Scripture bears testimony to cords with the inscription on the temple of Neith, the same fact. There is a striking passage in or “ Wisdom,” at Sais, in Lower Egypt, as re- Nahum iii. 8—10, wherein there is an implied corded by Plutarch :

comparison between No, or Thebes, and Nineveh, I AM ALL THAT HATH BEEN, AND IS, AND WILL BE;

with an apparent preference given to the former. The prophet interrogates Nineveh thus : “ Art thou better than populous No, that was situate

among the rivers, that had the waters round This may explain the ancient aphorism, about it, whose rampart was the sea, and her wall “ Truth lies hid in a well;" as primarily relating was from the sea ?” And then in the next verse to the incomprehensible nature of the Supreme he says, “ Ethiopia and Egypt were her strength, Being, “ the only true God,” John xvii. 3, who and it was infinite.” How strong and great was styled by the Egyptians Scotos agnoston, Thebes was, history and its existing monuments meaning “ darkness that cannot be pierced,” and testify; and its population may be inferred from by the Athenians, Agnostos Theos, THE UN- its being called “ populous,” in comparison with KNOWN GOD." See Acts xvii. 23. The Grecian the great city Nineveh, as well as from the name of this city, Thebes, was probably derived accounts of its extent. These accounts differ from Thebeh," an ark,” like Noah’s, the memory greatly, but D’Anville, analyzing the various of which would naturally be preserved by the statements, deduces that its circuit was equal to first settlers after the deluge in all parts of the twenty-seven Roman miles, being an extent to earth. Bruce, indeed, observes, that “ the figure which few modern capitals approach, and which of the temples in Thebes do not seem to be far London itself does not greatly exceed. removed from the idea given us of the ark.” Of the wealth of Thebes, some idea may be

Thebes was the metropolis of the country of formed from the accounts of the spoils obtained Egypt; far eclipsing the metropolitan cities which by the Persians under Cambyses, and the quantite arose in Middle and Lower Egypt. It was vene- of precious metal collected after the burning of thy rated by the ancient Egyptians as the parent city, city. This last, according to Diodorus, amounted the seat of sacred mysteries, and of learning, and to upwards of 300 talents, about 26,020 pounds the arts. Long after Memphis had become the troy, of gold, and 2,300 talents, or 199,518 pounds




of silver ; the former worth 1,248,960l., and the is the site of Memnonium, and the statue of red latter 598,5441. sterling. This destruction is said granite thrown down by Cambyses. The space to have levelled not only the private houses, but between Memnonium and Medineet Abou, about the greater part of its numerous temples. a mile and a quarter, is covered with fragments

But this was not the first time that Thebes had of Colossus. The tomb of Osymandas is supsuffered from the desolations of war. The pro- posed by some to have been here. The palace phet Nahum intimates, in the passage referred to, of Mendineet Abou has a covered passage still that it was devastated before Nineveh. After preserved. This is fifty-five paces long, and drawing the comparison between the two cities, he sixty-five broad, and it is formed by four rows says, “ Yet was she carried away, she went into of columns placed on the four sides of the court. captivity: her young children also were dashed These columns are forty-five feet high, and in pieces at the top of all the streets ; and they seven feet in diameter. The tombs of the kings cast lots for her honourable men,* and all her are situated in a narrow valley between the great men were bound in chains."

This corre

mountains of Libya, about four miles from the sponds to the first blow which the splendour of river. Strabo says, that there were seventeen Thebes received when the Ethiopians invaded tombs remaining in his time ; and if we include Egypt, 769 years B.C. It suffered again, very

a grotto near the Memnonium, the same number probably, when Nebuchadnezzar ravaged Egypt, still remains. 570 years B.C., after which it was burned by the From the nature of the sculptures, and the disPersian king. But it even then survived, and tribution of the apartments, Karnac, Luxor, and was still a city of some note. Eighty-six years Memnonium, are supposed to have been residB.C. it was, indeed, of such strength and conse- ences of the kings of Egypt. All other buildquence, as to dare to rebel against Ptolemy ings are considered as having been appropriated Lathyrus, and it endured a three years’ siege to religious purposes. Some, however, think, before it was taken and plundered. It was again from the nature of the authority exercised by punished for rebellion by Gallus, in the reign of the Egyptian priesthood, that the palace and the Augustus ; after which the zeal of the early temple were commonly united. Christians led them to deface and destroy, as much as lay in their power, its remaining monu

ZOAN, OR TANIS. ments, on account of the outrageous forms of idolatry there displayed. But some of its monu- Zoan is rendered by the Septuagint, Tanin, or ments still remain, testifying at once to its Tanis, which was a city of Egypt, situated near ancient grandeur and to the truth of the inspired the mouth of one of the branches of the Nile, volume, which foretold its destruction. See Jer. thence called Etium Taniticum. It appears to xlvi. and Ezek. xxx. 14–16.

have been one of the most ancient capitals of The ruins of Thebes, as described by travel- Egypt. The sacred historian tells us, indeed, lers, testify an extent and magnificence of archi- that it was built only seven years after Hebron, tectural design almost without a parallel. Kar- the chief residence of the patriarch Abraham nac and Luxor are situated on the eastern side of and his family, Numb. xiii. 22 : and that it Thebes, distant from each other about two miles. was one of the royal cities, we gather from the Karnac, which is the largest edifice in Egypt, fact that the plagues of Egypt were inflicted “in was dedicated to Priapus. The mole is 140 paces the field of Zoan.” Psa. lxxviii. 12. Even in the in length, and twenty-five in thickness. It leads to days of Isaiah, it is mentioned as a seat of governa court 110 paces in length, and the same in ment. “Surely the princes of Zoan are fools, breadth. Two ranges of six columns conduct to the counsel of the wise counsellors of Pharaoh a portico of 136 columns. The two middle ranges is become brutish,” Isa. xix. 11. As, however, of these are eleven feet in diameter, the others are in verse 13, Noph, or Memphis, is similarly noseven feet, the length of this vestibule is seventy- | ticed, and as it is certain there were not at that eight paces, the breadth twenty-five; this leads time two kings in such close vicinity, it is supinto a court where there are four obelisks, and | posed that the kings of that period divided their twelve colossal figures. Two other courts con- residence between Zoan and Noph, as those duct to what are supposed to be the apartments of Persia did between Susa and Ecbatana. Bryof the kings; besides which, there are many ex- ant and others think that Tanis was too distant tensive buildings connected with the palace by from the land of Goshen to have been the avenues of sphinxes, lions, and rams. Some of scene of the miracles recorded in Exodus, and these avenues extend towards Luxor. The en- they look for Zoan at Sais, which Bryant detertrance to Luxor is composed of two obelisks, mines to have been situated a little above the which at present rise seventy feet above the point of the Delta, not far from Heliopolis, and surface of the ground, and are understood to be therefore bordering close on the land of Goshen. about thirty below it; two colossal statues of But this is restricting the regions of Goshen black granite, each thirty-eight feet high : and within narrower limits than are assigned it by two masses of building of an oblong shape, and the best authorities whom we have followed in tapering sides fifty-five feet high, and covered our description of that land ; and therefore the with hieroglyphics. These large masses are so Septuagint may be correct. crowded together that from the front of the moles to that of the obelisks the distance is only

ON, OR HELIOPOLIS. fourteen paces. On the western side of Thebes,

On, which is mentioned as early as in the days * It was customary with many of the ancient nations

Joseph, who married the daughter of the to cast lots for the principal captives who were taken

high priest of that city, Gen. xli. 45, is noticed

in war.

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