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comparatively modern date, as, in giving to their church the prior existence they significantly assert, that Nestorius—“the man who died about A. D. 435—followed them, and not they Nestorius.”
I can only add further here one word in conclusion, as to the persecutions with which Rome has to this day continued to follow them. Take the following, in Mr. Layard's own words, on this point:—“By a series of the most open frauds, the Roman Catholic emissaries obtained many of the documents which constituted the title of the Chaldean Patriarch, and gave him a claim to be recognised and protected as the head of the Chaldean Church, by the Turkish authorities. A system of persecution and violence, which could scarcely be credited, compelled the Chaldeans of the plain to renounce their faith, and to unite with the Church of Rome. A rival patriarch, who appropriated to himself the titles and functions of the Patriarch of the East, was elected, not by but for the seceders, and was put forward as a rival to the true head of the Eastern Church. Still, as is the case in all such forced conversions, the change was more nominal than real; and to this day the people retain their old forms and ceremonies, their festivals, their chronology, and their ancient language, in their prayers and holy books. They are even now engaged in a struggle with the Church of Rome for the maintenance of these last relics of their race and faith.” I hope to return to this subject, and to complete the present paper in your next Number.
C. R. H.
As the result of Mrs. James Legge's late account in the Magazine, of her Chinese Girls' School, at Hong-Kong, Dr. Morison has received £10 from the Rev. George Moore, at Lewes, to be appropriated for their support; a Missionary Box, from Mrs. Tapp and friends, of Hull, has arrived at the Mission House for the same object; and other intimations have been given by various friends, that they are preparing Boxes for the support of this interesting institution. For this expression of interest in his daughter's labours, Dr. Morison offers his most grateful thanks.
Two PRAYERs to “sh ANG-TE,” Extracted
FiroM THE RITUAL OF THE MING DYNASTY.
DR. LEGGE sends the Editor the two sollowing prayers to Shang-Te, which greatly countenance the view which he and our other Chinese Missionaries take of the propriety of employing Shang-Te, and not Shin, as the term for God. The prayers are, to say the least, remarkable.
“In the beginning, when there was the great Chaos, dark and undigested, before the five elements had begun to resolve, or the Sun and the Moon to shine, when in the void there presented itself neither form nor sound; —Thou, O mysterious Sovereign, camest forth in Thy presidency; and first Thou didst separate the grosser parts from the ethereal. Thou madest Heaven, Thou madest earth, Thou madest man. All things were produced by thee.”
This is a concluding prayer in the Ritual from which it is selected:—
“Thus have our rites been performed, and our prayers presented. Sovereign Spirit, vouchsafe to accept them. Every form has been observed; and nine times has the music resounded. O God, grant me Thy wise protection, and great will be the happiness of my house. The music peals, and the gems give forth their sounds, while mingles with them the tinkling from the ornamented robes of the attendants. Spirits and men rejoice together, while they praise the Sovereign God. We have celebrated Thy great name, Thou unsearchable, immeasurable One. Everlasting, firm, exalted, and wide is Thy perpetual rule and presidency. Thine insignificant servant (imperator loquitur) bows his head; he lays it in the dust. Let him be bathed in thy grace and light !”
Dr. Legge adds, justly, “Poor prayers, it will be said | Yes, but who must He be of whom these things are said P’’
THE REv. J. J. FREEMAN's CoNCLUDING REMARKS TO his LATE TOUR. DURING my tour of two years and a quarter, I had learned many things abroad; and now, on my return, I found I had many also to learn at home, and not the least, the movement on the Papal question. The last news I had heard on leaving England, at the close of 1848, was, that the Pope had fled from Rome, and was at Gaeta! The Jirst news on my return was, that of the Papal aggression—the appointment of a cardinal for Englishmen, in the middle of the nineteenth century—and the aroused spirit of English Protestantism in resisting the imposition of “a yoke,” that neither we nor our fathers could bear.
Assuredly I had seen nothing in all my tour to shake my faith or principles as a Protestant, nothing to make me willing to surrender one particle of civil or religious freedom, to give up one atom of liberty of conscience, or of the right of placing the Sacred Volume in the hands of every man beneath the skies. I came home with the deepest impression, that whererer Popery advances, the interests of humanity recede; that the Protestant faith is the bulwark of English liberty, and the guarantee of Britain's elevation; and that, if that faith perish from our land, political anarchy, social degradation, and moral ruin must as inevitably follow, as the shadows of evening and the darkness of night follow the setting of the sun. I have now closed the sketch of my “Tour,” and offered, in passing, the incidental remarks which I thought expedient. I forbear to detain my readers longer. I will only say:— 1. If I have failed to awaken an interest in Christian Missions, there is verily a fault in me. The Missions themselves are not a failure, or “then the world is a failure, and everything is a failure.” The native tribes of South Africa are indebted for their preservation, their liberty, their intelligence, their social advantages, and their religion, to Christian Missions. 2. I shall deeply lament if I have not shown cause for Britain's interference on behalf of the coloured races of South Africa. I long to see introduced wiser and better methods of treating them, and the “rule made absolute,” that the power which Britain would not dare employ in offering an affront to any one of the civilized nations of Europe that could defend itself, shall not be abused in robbing or crushing one of the meanest tribes of Africa, that cannot resist or defend itself. 3. I see that in the onward movements of Divine Providence immense fields for the Christian enterprise of the British churches are opening in Africa and Asia. Let no man deem the work too vast for accomplishment, for God is on our side. Let no man count his own efforts too mean to be of value, for God works through feeble instrumentality. An infant hand may plant the acorn—germ of the future and majestic oak of the forest; only, “Whatsoever thy hand findeth to do, do it with thy might.” 4. I trust that Egypt and Palestine may share the thoughts and sympathies of many in our land, as well as Southern Africa. If the outline of my tour in those lands of indelible interest, shall tempt some of my ministerial brethren and friends to visit them, and aid them, I shall have rendered them and those countries valuable service. Finally, the more I have secn of other lands, the more grateful I am for Britain; I love her laws, her institutions, her government, her freedom, her Sovereign, her religion; and if I have whispered of things, or spoken plainly of things, that need correction, it is not because I love those less, but because I love these more.
PEACE CONGRESS, EXETER HALL. WHILE we are going to press, this Congress is holding its sittings. As far as they have
proceeded, they have been most deeply interesting, and likely to deepen the conviction on behalf of the peace-movement. The Hall was quite crowded: a great air of intelligence marked the countenances of the people; and a more than ordinary attention was paid to the several speakers. Principles of high and permanent importance were advocated, with great eloquence and moral power; and the countenance of every auditor seemed to indicate a feeling of the folly, guilt, misery, and unreasonableness of war, as the means of adjusting national misunderstandings. We cannot but believe that there is a great blessing in this hallowed combination. The first day's meeting, 22nd July, was presided over by SIR DAvid BREwstER, who is well known as a man of distinguished science, and a friend of vital Christianity. The Congress was addressed by the President; the Rev. H. Richard, one of the Secretaries; the Rev. John Angell James; the Rev. W. Brock; the Rev. Dr. Aspinall; Mr. Cocquerel, a French Protestant pastor; Don Marino Cubii Soler, a Spanish gentleman; Mr. M. J. Delbink; Mr. R. Cobden, M.P.; Mr. Visschers; the Rev. Dr. Beckworth, from America; and the Rev. John Burnet. The two Resolutions passed at the first meeting of the Congress were the following:— I. “That it is the special and solemn duty of all ministers of religion, instructors of youth, and conductors of the public press, to employ their great influence in the diffusion of pacific principles and sentiments, and in eradicating from the minds of men those hereditary animosities, and political and commercial jealousies, which have been so often the cause of disastrous wars.” II. “That as an appeal to the sword can settle no question, on any principle of equity and right, it is the duty of Governments to refer to the decision of competent and impartial Arbitrators such differences arising between them as cannot be otherwise amicably adjusted.” We must defer further particulars till next month, and must also content ourselves by furnishing our readers with a few extracts from Sir David Brewster's admirable opening address. “The principle for which we claim your sympathy,” said Sir David, “and ask your support, is, that war undertaken to settle the differences between nations is the relic of a barbarous age, equally condemned by religion, by reason, and by justice. The question, ‘What is war?" has been more frequently asked than answered ; and I hope that there may be in this assembly some eloquentindividual who has seen it in its realities, and who is willing to tell us what he has seen. Most of you, like myself, know it only in poetry and romance. We have wept over the epics and the ballads which celebrate the tragedies of war. We have fol
family the sovereign or the minister who shall
lowed the warrior in his career of glory with- send the fiery cross over tranquil Europe, and
out tracing the line of blood along which he has marched. We have worshipped the demigod in the Temple of Fame, in ignorance of the cruelties and crimes by which he climbed its steep. It is only from the soldier himself, and in the language of the eye that has seen its agonies, and of the ear that has heard its shrieks, that we can obtain a correct idea of the miseries of war. Though far from our happy shores, many of us may have seen it in its ravages and in its results, in the green mound which marks the recent battle-field, in the shattered forest, in the rased and desolate village, and, perchance, in the widows and the orphans which it made! And yet this is but the memory of war—the faint shadow of its dread realities—the reflection but of its blood, and the echoes but of its thunders. I shudder when imagination carries me to the sanguinary field, to the death-struggles between men who are husbands and fathers, to the horrors of the siege and the sack, to the deeds of rapine and violence and murder in which neither age nor sex is spared. In acts like these the soldier is converted into a fiend, and his humanity even disappears under the ferocious mask of the demon or the brute. To men who reason, and who feel while they reason, nothing in the history of their species appears more inexplicable, than that war, the child of barbarism, should exist in an age enlightened and civilized, when the arts of peace have attained the highest perfection, and when science has brought into personal communion nations the most distant, and races the most unfriendly. But it is more inexplicable still that war should exist where Christianity has for nearly 2000 years been shedding its gentle light, and that it should be defended by arguments drawn from the Scriptures themselves. When the pillar of fire conducted the Israelites to their promised home,their Divine Leader no more justified war than he justified murder by giving skill to the artist who forges the stiletto, or nerve to the arm that wields it. If the sure word of prophecy has told us that the time must come when men shall learn the art of war no more, it is doubtless our duty, and it shall be our work, to hasten its fulfilment, and upon the anvil of Christian truth, and with the brawny arm of indignant reason, to beat the sword into the ploughshare, and the spear into the pruning hook. I am ashamed in a Christian community to defend on Christian principles the cause of universal
He who proclaimed peace on earth and good-will to man, who commands us to love our enemies, and to do good to them who despitefully use us and persecute us; He who counsels us to hold up the left cheek when the right is smitten, will never acknowledge us as disciples, or admit into His immortal
summon the bloodhounds of war to settle the disputes and gratify the animosities of nations. * * * The principle of this Congress to settle national disputes by arbitration has, to a certain extent, been adopted by existing powers, both monarchical and republican; and it is surely neither chimerical nor officious to make such a system universal among the very nations that have themselves partially adopted it. If these views have reason and justice on their side, their final triumph cannot be distant. The cause of peace has made, and is making, rapid progress. The most distinguished men of all nations are lending it their aid. The illustrious Humboldt, the chief of the republic of letters, whom I am proud to call my friend, has addressed to the Congress of Frankfort a letter of sympathy and adhesion. He tells that our Institution is a step in the life of nations, and that, under the protection of a superior Power, it will, at length, find its consummation. He recalls us to the noble expression of a statesman long departed, “that the idea of humanity is becoming more and more prominent, and is everywhere proclaiming its animating power.” Other glorious names sanction our cause. Several French statesmen, and many of the most distinguished members of the Institute, have joined our Alliance. The Catholic and the Protestant clergy of Paris are animated in the sacred cause, and the most illustrious of its poets have brought to us the willing tribute of their genius. Since I entered this assembly I have received from France an olive-branch, the symbol of peace, with a request that I should wear it on this occasion. It has lost, unfortunately, its perishable verdure—an indication, I trust, of its perennial existence. The philosophers and divines of Germany, too, have given us their sympathy and support; and in America, every man that thinks, is a friend of universal peace. In pleading for a cause in which every rank of citizens has a greater or a less interest, I would fain bespeak the support of a class who have the deepest stake in the prosperity of the country, and in the permanence of its institutions. The holders of the nation's wealth, whether it is invested in trade or in land, have a peculiar interest in the question of peace. In the reign of peace, wealth will flow into new channels, and science will guide the plough in its fructifying path; and having nothing to fear from foreign invasion, or internal discontent, we shall sit under our vine and our fig-tree, to use the gifts and enjoy the life which Providence has given—to discharge the duties which these blessings impose, and prepare for that higher life to which duty discharged is the safest passport.”
FRONT ELEVATION AND GROUND PLAN OF THE NEW MISSION CHAPEL AT SHANGHAR. VOL. XIX.
FROM an early period of their labours in this important city, our Missionary brethren have suffered serious disadvantage from the want of an edifice for the service of God, which, by its favourable site, adequate dimensions, and neatness of exterior, might command the attention of the native population. In our Number for February, 1850, an appeal was made to the friends of the Chinese Mission on behalf of this special object; and we are now happy to announce, that, from the proceeds of that appeal, together with the amount of local and other contributions, al sanctuary has been reared which, should it please the Most High to vouchsafe the gracious token of his presence, may prove a blessing not only to the present generation, but to multitudes yet unborn. of this temple to the only true God, erected in a city heretofore wholly given to idolatry, may it be recorded, “This and that man was born in her: and the Lord shall count, when he writeth up the people, that this man was
born there " '
In a letter dated 18th Feb. ult, the Missionaries make the following
“While the new chapel has been in progress, we have at different times communicated particulars respecting it, which we thought might be interesting to you. And we doubt not that the announcement of the building having been completed and opened for preaching, will be received by you, as it is now made by us, with feelings of unmingled satisfaction.
“We herewith inclose a pencil sketch (see Frontispiece, page 177) and brief description* of the building, with which Mr. Wylie has furnished us; to whose skill and superintendence
* In the form of the ground plan we have had little choice, the building covering near the whole of our lot of ground. The length inside is 63 feet, width 34 feet, height, from floor to ceiling, 20 feet, being the greatest span of roof in Shanghae, unsupported in the centre. Four hundred and fifty Persons may be conveniently seated. The founda. tion of solid brick-work, three feet thick and the same in height, rests on thick slabs of granite all round, above three feet wide, the ground having been first rendered firm by driving from seven to eight hundred six-feet pies. The wall of the *Porstructure, also of solid brickwork, is two foot thick at the base, gradually diminishing to one foot six inches at the top. There are five arched Windows, on each side, and two smaller ones in front; a large front door, and two smaller ones, be
sides two small doors behind, one leading into a side
building, and the other into a lane. two of the side windows there is a pilaster, but rather for strength than ornament. The roof is. constructed on the English principle of building, being supported by six common queen post truss. frames, while it was necessary to consorm to. the Chinese rule in the application of the tiling.
chiefly, we take this opportunity of attribut-