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of this Epistle, he had the same passage of the Apocalypse in his mind.
$ 9. The Apocalypse quoted in the Epistle of James.
As another proof of the early date of the Apocalypse the Epistle of James to the believing Jews, scattered abroad by the Roman wars, may be quoted. He reminds them that “the “ man is blessed who endureth temptation: for « when he is tried, he shall receive TÒY OTémavov
rñs Swñs THE CROWN OF LIFE,” [ch. i. 12]: -what crown of life? “ That crown of life which " the LORD HATH PROMISED to them that love “ him." James does not here, by his own knowledge, as an inspired Apostle, inform those to whom he writes, that a crown of life is secured for those who endure trials, but reminds them, that the Lord, himself, had made this promise. Where then do we find such a promise made by the Lord himself ?-It is in the Epistle addressed to the church in Smyrna—" Fear none of " those things which thou shalt suffer.
Ye " shall have tribulation ten days: be thou faithful “ unto death, and I WILL GIVE THEE TÒN OTémavos “ tñs Swñs THE CROWN OF LIFE” [Rev. ii. 9, 10] -the very words employed by the Apostle James, and which prove incontestably that his
Epistle was written subsequently to the Apocalypse.
§ 10. Does the Epistle to the Galatians furnish any
evidence of its being of a later date than the Apocalypse?
The subject chiefly treated of in the Epistle to the Galatians, supposed to have been written before any of the other Epistles, (except perhaps those to the Thessalonians) hardly affords opportunity for allusions to the Apocalypse. There are, however, two passages in this Epistle which seem to have reference to the Revelation. The first is in ch. iv. 25, 26, where “ The Jerusalem “ which now is,” is put in contrast with “ THE « Jerusalem above." The presence of the article in this passage, which is omitted in the common version, indicates, pretty plainly, that the saints whom the Apostle addresses were already acquainted with the Apocalyptic Jerusalem—“ the new Jerusalem, which cometh down “out of heaven,” (Rev. iii. 14)—" the holy Jeru“ salem, descending out of heaven from God,” (Rev. xxi. 10). The use of the article, I say, in this place, seems to intimate this; for it is not usual, in the New Testament, to employ the article when Jerusalem is mentioned. There are, indeed, two
passages which, at first sight, may appear to present exceptions. In Luke xxi. 20, we read, in the Greek, “ When ye shall see the Jerusa“ lem compassed with armies, then know that the “ desolation thereof is nigh.” These words, it should however be recollected, were originally spoken in Hebrew (or in a dialect of that language). The name of the city, and the circumstances predicted respecting it, present a contrast in Hebrew which would have been put entirely out of view in the Greek, but for the Article introduced before the word “ Jerusalem." The Apostles were informed, that The city of PEACE (which is the meaning of the word “ Je"rusalem"] was to become the theatre of WAR, and a scene of desolation, When ye shall see THE “ CITY OF Peace compassed with armies, then “ know that its desolation is nigh.” The presence of the Article was necessary here, the word “ Jerusalem" being employed not merely to indicate the city intended, but to mark, by contrasting with its name, the miserable state to which it would, ere long, be reduced by war, though now called the City of peace !—The other passage,
in which the name of this city occurs with the article, is in Acts v. 28; and there it seems to be employed for a reason similar to that which caused its insertion in Luke xXİ—“ Behold ye have filled The Jerusalem (the
“City of Peace) with your doctrine, and intend to
bring this man's blood upon us.”—The High Priest and Council, as he would have had it be believed, (and perhaps they really were so) were extremely solicitous for the peace of the city, which, according to them, was endangered by the doctrine of the Apostles. In this instance, as in the former, the language employed was the Hebrew; and we may infer that the Article was introduced into the Greek translation to mark the turn and force of the original expression: and, therefore, the inference remains no way weakened, that the presence of the Article in Gal. iv. 26, with the word Jerusalem, seems to indicate that the believing Galatians had heard of the Jerusalem which descendeth from heaven.
Respecting the evidence furnished by this epistle, of its being written later than the Apocalypse, the reader will have observed, that it is put merely as a question in the title of this section. Candour required this ; for it must not be concealed that the Jews antiently employed the term “ Jerusalem which is above,” when speaking of the future happy days that were to be brought to Israel under the reign of the Messiah: Thus in Zohar fol. 120. col. 478. "Rabbi Aba saith, “ Luz is by obrony JERUSALEM WHICH IS
ABOVE, which the holy blessed God gives for a
“possession, where blessings are given by his hand “ in a pure land: but to an impure land no blessings " to be at all. Midras Till. on Psal. 122., • Je“ rusalem is built as a city that is compact together.' “R. Jochanan saith, The holy blessed God said, “ I will not go into JERUSALEM WHICH IS ABOVE “ until I have gone into Jerusalem which is below.” - It is undeniable, then, that the expression in Gal. iv. 26 might be employed by the Apostle without any direct allusion to the Apocalypse ; and that “the Jerusalem which is above,” may, as is generally stated by some commentators, be considered as referring to the church of God under the Gospel, and the privileges of Chris.' tians: and indeed that the expression has such a signification is so evident, that I would not have quoted this text were it not that inch. v. 19-21 the Apostle employs words which seem to indicate, pretty plainly, that he had the Apocalypse before him, or its language full in his recollection, when he wrote this epistle ;-and, if so, I think it may be inferred, that in employing the term “ Jerusalem above” he meant 'not only to remind those whom he was addressing of the privileges that now belong to them, but also of the future blessings reserved for them after the resurrection ; for, as the Apostle says elsewhere, “ if in this life only we have hope, we are of “all men most miserable ;" and he reminds the