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obey not the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ; who shall be punished with everlasting destruction.

4. Between the opening of the sixth and the seventh seal, John announces the appearance of four angels or messengers, commissioned to hurt the earth and the sea. Of course this, though mentioned after, has reference to some event prior to the great earthquake; but the issue of the sealing of the servants of God in their foreheads, mentioned immediately after the introduction of these messengers, is prospective, extending to the period when God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes. (Ch. vii.)—See Ch. xxi. 4.

5. The singular contents of the seventh seal -seven messengers, and the evils denounced by the trumpets of the first six against the enemies of the Messiah. (Ch. viii. and ix.)—In Ch. viii. (v. 5.) occurs the intimation already noticed in § 1. warning the reader to expect thunderings and lightnings, and an earthquake. (See above, p. 153.)

6. The book which had been sealed exhibited to John when opened, and à command to him now to eat the same book, that he might be qualified to prophesy concerning peoples, and nations, and tongues, and many kings-i. e. kingdoms. (Ch. x.) But, previous to this command, an intimation is given in v. 7, that, when the seventh angel shall begin to sound, the mystery of

God shall be finished. From this it appears évident that the pouring out of the seven vials cannot relate to events posterior to the sounding of the seventh trumpet, as many have maintained.

7. The measuring of the sanctuary (vody, not temple, as in the common version,) and the altar and worshippers; the death and resurrection of the two witnesses ; the great earthquake, and fall of the tenth part of the city, (viz. the mystical Babylon, or great antichristian community or family, known by the name of Christendom); the sounding of the seventh trumpet-; and the final victory of the Messiah (Ch. xi.), which being fully set forth John is now completely qualified to prophesy, in consequence of having eaten the unsealed book.-Observe particularly, that the earthquake (xi. 13.) is "the great earthquakebefore mentioned on the opening of the sixth seal (vi. 12.), which in its issue absorbs all rule, authority, and dominion, in the reign of the Messiah ; being followed instantly by the sounding of the seventh, or what Paul calls the last trumpet (1 Cor. xv. 53.), when the dead shall be judged. (Rev. xi. 18.)—And observe farther, that ch. xi. concludes with one of those retrospective summaries before noticed. (See § 1. p. 153.)

8. What, for distinction's sake, may be called John's first prophecy, embracing the history of the woman clothed with the sun, and the war of

Michael with the Dragon (Ch. xii.); the reign and marks of Antichrist, under his two forms of empire or dominion, namely, the civil (Ch. xiï. v. 1–8.), and ecclesiastical (v. 11–18.), described as two wild beasts; the victory obtained by the followers of the Lamb, and the final destruction of their enemies. (Ch. xiv.)

9. John's second prophecy; or a more particular description of the plagues denounced against Antichrist, and inflicted by the pouring forth of seven vials of wrath. (Ch. xv. and xvi.)

- In ch. xvi. 18, 19. occurs the third retrospective enumeration mentioned in p. 154.

10. Information afforded to John, by a messenger, concerning the judgment of the great whore, her character, the beast that carries her, the ten kings [i. e. kingdoms] that gave to her their power, and the overthrow of these kings. (Ch. xvii.) See Dan. vii. 7–11. and 19–26.

11. A farther description of the overthrow of Antichrist and his supporters. (Ch. xviii.)

12. The triumph of the Saints, and some farther particulars respecting the final destruction of Christ's enemies. (Ch. xix.)

13. The binding of Satan for 1000 years—the first resurrection—the loosing of Satan for a short space, and bis deceiving of the nations for the last time the second resurrection and final judgment. (Ch. xx.)

14. The creation of a new heaven and a new earth—the holy Jerusalem and its inhabitantsthe river of water of Life—the tree of Life-end of the curse-general invitation to the thirstyconclusion. (Ch. xxi. and xxii.)


From what has been stated, respecting the language of the Apocalypse generally, it seems evident, that every attempt to produce a liberal or free translation of it, must fail in giving the true sense. This will appear still more manifest, when several important particulars respecting some Hebrew terms and their Greek representatives, and the definitions which the amanuensis has given of some of them, but which for convenience are reserved for the dissertations that follow, shall have been laid before the reader. When a translator undertakes a free version, he assumes that he understands his author perfectly,—not only his facts and statements generally, but his sentiments, and every phrase or expression that he employs-so as to be able to transfuse his very

mind and soul into the translation: but who can affirm that he so understands the Apocalypse! The translator who is desirous to make the unlearned acquainted with its real contents, should aim at a version as servilely literal as pos

sible, however uncouth it may appear.

Nor will this be found so easy a task as some may imagine. In point of fact, for the execution of such a version of this prophecy~if well executed,-more knowledge of the original is re: quired than for one having a smoother and more elegant appearance.

Respecting the structure of the Revelation, it seems evident, from so many of the details pointed out in the above summary, as all com: ing down to the same period, namely, the great earthquake, which, in its consummation, is styled the great day of wrath-the finishing of the mystery of God, when time shall be no longer--the sounding of the seventh trumpet--the time for the dead to be judged the pouring out of the seventh viat, (which are all so many different expressions of the same termination,) that several of the series must and do synchronise with each other throughout a greater or less portion of their extent. In strict language each new exhibition may be called a distinct vision in itself; and, therefore, though the different exbibitions and communications of which the Apocalypse consists, do, and must, from the very necessity of the case, succeed each other in the narration, yet these do not constitute, as has been imagined by many, one continued detail of an unbroken series of events, wbich are each to be considered as distinct, and

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