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which are all to take place in the order in which they are written. On the contrary, it exhibits repeated orderly details of certain predicted facts, relative to the church of Christ and the enemies of this church; each detail affording precisely that degree of light which suits the propriety of the symbols employed in each respectively; and the whole so managed, by means of the accompanging narrative, that every succeeding exhibition throws light upon, and receives elucidation from, all that have preceded: the instruction which the prophecy thus yields, being as the shining light, which shineth more and more unto the perfect day.
DISSERTATION THE FOURTH.
ON VARIOUS NAMES BY WHICH THE CREATOR OF THE UNIVERSE IS DESIGNATED IN THE SCRIPTURES, AND THE PROPER MODE OF TRANSLATING THEM.
By “Names,” in the above title, I mean attributive nouns-qualities, titles, epithets-employed as Names ; for in the received sense of the term, the Creator has no proper name in the whole scriptures — excepting m, (JEHOVAH). Indeed, anciently, not only the names of persons, but of animals,-nay, of all objects, -were attributives.
The terms to which I mean principally to direct the attention of the reader in this Dissertation, are on thx, [Elohim,) and other names of the same family: but a brief examination, previously, of the way in which the translators of the Common Version have rendered other attributives, applied to The SUPREME Being, in the writings of the prophets, may tend to throw some light on the more immediate object of our
enquiry. To these, therefore, a short section shall be devoted.
§ 1. Of certain attributive Nouns employed in the
Old Testament to designate the Deity.
72x [abir,] strong, powerful, is applied to the most excellent or best of its kind, whether men or brutes, as, “ the chiefest of the herdmen,” 1 Sam. i. 15; MIGHTY men,
» Lam. i. 15; “ STRONG bulls,” Ps. xxii. 12. It is also employed to designate the most excellent of all beings, “THE MIGHTY ONE of Israel," Isai. i. 24; "THE MIGHTY ONE of Jacob,” Isai. xlix. 26; and so in other places :-nor have the Translators any where rendered this word“ God," though in three places, Gen. xlix. 24, Psal. cxxxii. 2, and 5, they have, improperly, added the word God to the word mighty,--putting
Mighty God” for“ MIGHTY one.”
713 [tzur), to bind up, enclose, encompass, for security-hence bulwarks, fortresses, places naturally strong, as a rock, for defence or protection, is applied, figuratively, to whatever performs this office, and so to bim who is THE ROCK of Ages, Isai. xxvi. 4; “Jehovah is my defence, yea, my powerful one, the rock of my refuge,” Ps. xciv. 22; “ He only is my ROCK,” Ps. Ixii. 2. 6;
“ Lead me to the ROCK that is higher than 1,” Ps. Ixi. 2. In many passages this terın is employed to designate the Creator; and in all of them, ex-" cept two, the Translators have endeavoured to give the sense of the word. In Isai. xliv. 8. they have rendered it“ God,"_" Is there a God besides me? yea, there is no God." But this is not only inaccurate and tame, but obscures the sense. JEHOVAH had been encouraging his people against fear, and the words here spoken furnish the reason why they should confide in him. They ought to be rendered thus: “Is there one powerful above me? Yea, there is no Rock (or strong hold), none have I known.” The other passage is iņ Hab. i. 12. where they translate the word by, “O mighty God.”—But on the margin they have given the right word, “ Rock,” in both of these passages.
Another term, 77by [Elioun), The Supreme, is frequently employed to designate Jehovah; and wherever it occurs, the Translators have adopted some appropriate English word to express the sense; as in 2 Sam. xxij. 14, “ The Most High uttered his voice;" and in Psal. i. 14, “ Pay thy vows to The Most High.” This term was common with the worshippers of the true God, even among the inhabitants of Canaan, in the days of Abraham, as we see in Gen. xiy. 20. “ Blessed be pooby S8” [El Elioun), which should be
rendered “THE POWERFUL SUPREME,” or “THE MOST HIGH POWER.”
We learn from Philo-Biblius that the same epithet prevailed among the Phænicians. Speaking of their gods, he says, xatdToúrous givetat τις 'EΛIOYN καλούμενος, “ among them there is a “certain one called ELIOUN.”—It is exceedingly probable, that this epithet was carried along with all the patriarchal families so far back as the time of their first separation from the parent stock after the flood, when sent to colonise the different portions allotted to them. The Greeks, who, no doubt, obtained it from the Phænicians, express it in their own language by Burtos, which is a literal translation of noby, and is sometimes employed in the New Testament to express the same Hebrew word ; as in Luke i. 32, 35, 76. That this term was common among the Greeks is plain, from the exclamation of the damsel possessed of a spirit of divination at Philippi: “ These men are the servants of the most high
God,” ToŨ OsoŨ ToŰ ÜVKOTOU, Acts xvi. 17: and, indeed, we find it was the most usual epithet upon their votive tablets; and, what is at least remarkable, most commonly in the singular number, as may be seen on those brought from Athens by Lord Elgin, now deposited in the British Museum.-Judging by Rammohun Roy's Translation of the Abridgment of the Vedant, “The