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“ten before them. Such allusions, in the Epistle “to the Hebrews, I take to be, the discourse con“cerning the High Priest in the heavenly Taber
nacle, who is both Priest and King, as was “ Melchisedec; and those concerning the Word
of God, with the sharp two-edged sword; the
Cabbatiguos, or millennial rest; the earth whose “ end is, to be burned, suppose by the lake of fire ; “the judgment and fiery indignation which shall “devour the adversaries ; the heavenly city which “ hath foundations, whose builder and maker is “ God; the cloud of witnesses ; Mount Sion ;
heavenly Jerusalem ; general assembly ; spirits of just men made perfect, viz. by the resurrection; " and the shaking of heaven and earth, and re
moving them, that the new heaven, new earth, and
new kingdom, which cannot be shaken, may reo main.”
“The Epistle to the Hebrews, since it men“tions Timothy as related to those Hebrews, inust “ bave been written to them after their flight into
Asia, where Timothy was Bishop; and by
consequence after the [Judaic] war began, “ the Hebrews in Judea being strangers to “ Timothy.".
Peter in his second Epistle mentions, " that “Paul had writ of the same things to them, and " also in his other Epistles. Now as there is no
Epistle of Paul to these strangers besides that
“ to the Hebrews, so in this Epistle (x. xi. xii.) "we 'find at large all those things of which “Peter had been speaking, and bere refers to;
particularly the passing away of the old heavens “ and earth, and establishing an inheritance im" moveable, with an exhortation to grace, because “God is a consuming fire (Heb. xii. 25—29).”
On the internal evidence to be found in the Epistle to the Hebrews, in proof of its being written after the Apocalypse, I shall say but little, in addition to what has been quoted, from Sir Isaac Newton, on the contents of that book.
In this Epistle, it is to be remarked, the Apostle seldom employs direct quotations from the Apocalypse, and, therefore, a cursory reader will not easily perceive some of his allusions. They are, however, very numerous ; but the language is often changed and adapted to the scope of the argument where he employs them. Let it be also recollected that, as will be shown in our progress, it was not then a question, at what time the Apocalypse was written? or whether it was a divine work ? for if the book was already in the hands of the church, its topics, of course, were'familiar to believers, and therefore close quotations were not necessary; nor was this the general practice of the inspired penmen.
In Ch. x. 35, 36. he exhorts them to retain their confidence, which hath great recompense of
REWARD, having need of patience, that, after doing the will of God, they “ might receive the " PROMISE." That the promise refers to the inheritance, promised by Christ, in the Apocalypse, is plain, from what he adds in v. 37. “ For in a very little while ó épxóuevos THE “COMING ONE will come; yea he will not
pro“ crastinate."-" The coming one" was a name applied to the Messiah before he appeared on the earth, and is the term employed in Mat. xi. 3. “ Art thou The coming one?" (Common version, he that should come.) But the Jews had lost all knowledge of the fact that he was to come twice : por did even his disciples understand this, till after his ascension. That is, according to their belief, this appellation must have ceased to be any longer applicable to him, after he had once appeared on the earth. But it is again appropriated to him in the Apocalypse, in reference to his second coming. He is there called, ο ών, και ο ήν, ΚΑΙ Ο ΕΡΧΟΜΕΝΟΣ, and THE COMING ONE, (common version, “him which is to
come”) Rev. i. 4. iv. 8; and it is from this second appropriation of this name that Paul employs it, in reference to the promise which will be
performed when the MESSIAH comes again, to receive his people to himself. In one word, “ The " coming one" is the Alpha and the Omega of the Revelation, who says, “ Behold I come QUICKLY,
“and my REWARD is with me ;” (Rev. xxii. 12.) “I AM........ó égxóuevos, THE COMING “ ONE.” Rev. j. 8.
In Heb. xi, 10. it is said that Abraham “looked “for a city which hath foundations ;” but the Greek runs thus : “ For he expected the tons « ΘΕΜΕΛΙΟΥΣ έχουσαν πόλιν, THE city having
THE FOUNDATIONS,”-exhibiting the article both before “city,” and “ foundations,”. which the writer could not possibly have done had “ the city, having the foundations," not been a subject familiar to those to whom he was writing.
I cannot find that the mode of speech employed in this passage, which is deserving of particular attention, has been critically considered by any of the commentators. They generally confine themselves to an exposition of the sense, which, according to some, has reference only to the superior privileges which the church was to enjoy under the Messiah, when contrasted with those it possessed before his appearance on the earth ;-a view of the sage which can hardly be conceived to apply fully to the case of Abraham or any of the Patriarchs. In anticipating the blessings secured to mankind by the coming of Christ, Abraham's hopes certainly extended to things beyond the grave. Accordingly other exposi
tors remark, that Abraham's views and hopes embraced that future state of peace and bliss which was comprehended in the fulness of the promise. “ In thy seed shall all the nations of the “ earth be blessed;” and which, in the New Testament, is described under the notion of being admitted to participate in the privileges of the “ Heavenly Jerusalem,”—“ the Jerusalem that is " above,"--and “the city having the founda“ tions :" nor can this view of the passage be objected to. But whence did Paul derive the latter expression?
Bishop Middleton, in his learned work on the Greek article, has taken no notice of this passage. Dr. Macknight, one of our more recent commentators, though he introduces the first article in his version—"the city”-offers no remark on its appearance in the passage, but contents himself with stating that “ the city “ which Abraham expected was that promised “ Gen. xxii. 17., Thy seed shall possess the gate
(the city) of his enemies. Now as the promises “ had all a figurative, as well as a literal, mean
ing, the enemies of Abraham's seed were not " the Canaanites alone, the enemies of his natur“ral seed, whose cities were given them by this
promise ; but the enemies of his spiritual seed, “the evil angels, by whose temptations sin and " death have been introduced and continued