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"is now being brought to you by (or through] the “ Revelation of Jesus Christ:"—the Record referred to, viz. the Apocalypse, being the instrument that secured to them the promised grace; for all the words of this prophecy “ are “ true and faithful” (Rev. xxi. 5).
I have insisted the more particularly on the declaration in ver. 13, not because it is more explicit than that in the 7th verse, when the latter is properly understood, but because, the construction, harmonizing perfectly with the English mode of speaking, it leaves no room whatever for doubt or cavil. It refers to a book by its own proper name—" The Apocalypse of Jesus Christ,” --as the instrument, bringing to them the gift for which they are exhorted to hope ; it is èy, in, through, or by, this that the grace comes to them, and the existence of this Record is not only assumed as that which embraces the promised grace, but is assigned as the reason why they should gird up the loins of their mind, be vigilant, and hope perfectly for it. Can any
further evidence be possibly required to prove that Peter's first Epistle was written subsequently to the Apocalypse,--a book to which he actually refers by name?
After so decided a testimony in favour of an early date to the Apocalypse, to say more on the subject may, to some, appear unnecessary;
but this fact deserves the more notice, as it serves to render certain, what, to many, might appear only plausible, that, as stated by Sir Isaac Newton, Peter's second Epistle absolutely presents a commentary on a number of the statements in the Apocalypse.
To what Sir Isaac has said on the second Epistle, I mean to add but little, being persuaded that, when the reader shall have perused the following sections of this Dissertation, he will, probably, turn back to this, and examine carefully, the statements of that great man, comparing the passages which he has pointed out with the original texts.
Peter in this Epistle mentions that Paul had written to them of the same things; that is to the strangers (the believing Hebrews) scattered throughout Pontus, Galatia, &c. by the Roman wars. Newton very naturally concluded, that, in the Epistle to the Hebrews, should be found something relating to the same topics (see the 1st section). But it appears to me that a farther use should be made of what Peter says; for he adds (ch. iii. 16) that also in ALL HIS EPISTLES HE SPEAKS OF THESE THINGS. If, then, the things intended be those in the Apocalypse, we should be able to find at least some of them by examining his different writings. To this examination the following sections are devoted.
§ 3. Of Evidence furnished by Paul's Epistle to
Timothy, respecting the date of the Apocalypse.
The first Epistle to Timothy exhibits abundant evidence of its having been written later than the Apocalypse. When the Apocalyptic Epistle was addressed to the church at Ephesus, she had left her first love; but she is praised for her works, labor and patience; for not enduring those that were evil: she had tried those who pretended to be Apostles, not being so, and had proved them to be liars.
When Paul wrote his first letter to Timothy it was, to request that he would still continue at Ephesus to charge some to teach no other doctrine, nor to give heed to fables, &c. The design of the charge was, to restore love from which some of them had swerved and turned aside to oain jangling; desiring to be teachers of the law.-That is, the Ephesians, at this time, were not only deficient in Christian love, as when the Revela* tion was written, but now suffered teachers of false doctrine to be among them-Judaising teachers; whereas, when the Apocalyptic Epistle was addressed to them, they were praised for having hitherto effectually resisted these evil men. Two of the false teachers, whom Timothy was left at Ephesus to oppose, are mentioned by name
(ch. i. 20—" Hymeneus and Alexander," who, desiring to be teachers of the law, but being altogether ignorant of its spiritual requirements (i. 7), had made shipwreck of the faith (i. 19).
This fact settles the posteriority of the first Epistle to Timothy. But we have also in this Epistle (ch. vi. 14. 15), the appearing of our Lord Jesus Christ, the blessed and only putentate“ THE KING OF KINGS AND LORD OF LORDS;" borrowed from Rev. xix. 16.
In the second Epistle, Timothy is again admonished respecting false teachers:—to charge the Ephesians, before the LORD, not to strive about unprofitable words, tending only to subvert the hearers (ch. ii. 14); and to shun their
profane vain babblings, which occasioned an increase of ungodliness (v. 16). Among those whose word was calculated to eat as a canker, he again mentions Hymeneus, also one named Philetus; who maintained that the resurrection was already past: that is, as may be plainly inferred, they had endeavoured to set aside the plain import of the doctrine taught respecting the resurrection ; maintaining that the term was to be taken in a figurative sense, in reference to conversion, as being a resurrection from their former death in trespasses and sins; and that no other was to be expected.
Where the Apostle charges Timothy (ch. iv. 1),
before God and the Lord Jesus Christ, who “ will judge the living and the dead, at his appearing " and his kingdom,” I consider him as referring to the sounding of the seventh trumpet, when the sovereignty of the world becomes, exclusively, the property of the Messiah, who will then take to him his great power; for this is the period at which he will judge the world (Rev. xi. 15, 17, 18. and xx. 12). To this period I conceive him also to refer by the expression εις εκείνην την ημέραν, ,
against that day,” employed emphatically in ch. i. 12, in which he introduces not only the demonstrative pronoun éxsiny, but also the article, though he had not before been speaking of “ that day ;” a circumstance which tends to prove that this expression had become colloquial in the churches, in reference to Christ's coming to judgment, as taught at great length in the Apocalypse. This period is again brought to the recollection of Timothy, by the same form of expression, in the 18th verse of this chapter, and likewise in ch. iv. 8.-See also the same words applied emphatically to the same period in 2 Thess. i. 10, and what is there set forth in the context, and it will hardly be possible, by any rules of sound criticism, to avoid the inference, that, in all such passages, there is an allusion to the particulars declared in the Revelation respecting the day when those who obey not the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ shall be punished