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life shall appear, they shall appear with him in glory, and enjoy the things that are above, where Christ sitteth on the Right-hand of God; and therefore he exhorts them, [from Rev. xxi. 8.] to mortify their members that are upon the earth; telling them that coveTOUSNESS IS IDOLATRY: -that is, he performs the office of an Expositor, showing them that idolatry includes covetousness, as one of the crimes for which o ópyn Toû EoỮ THE WRATH OF GOD cometh on the children of disobedience; evidently alluding to aj ópyn Too ápriou THE WRATH OF THE LAMB, Rev. vi. 16.
After what has been stated I should think it next to impossible that any one, whose judgment is not absolutely blinded by prejudice, could longer doubt that the Epistle to the Colossians was written after the Apocalypse.
§ 7. Of Evidence furnished by the Epistle to the
The Epistle to the Romans presents striking internal evidence of having been written after the Apocalypse. Several passages in this Epistle are literal quotations from that book, incorporated into the argument of the Apostle, in his address to the saints at Rome.
He gives a double reason (ch. i.) for his not being ashamed of the Gospel of Christ—first “ for therein is
the righteousness of God revealed,” by which alone believers are justified and “lice by faith ; glorious news, “ for,” secondly, “ the wrath of “ God is revealed from heaven”-or rather, as the passage,
from its peculiar turn of expression, strikes the author,—“ Apocalypsed is the wrath “of God from heaven" —’AtoxaNÚTTETAL... οργή Θεού απ' ουρανού,-against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men. The Apostle having used the same word, ToxOHÚTTETQ., in the 17th verse, as to what was apocalypsed in the gospel respecting the righteousness of God, as bringing life to those who believe, recollects, as it were, the converse of his proposition, as having been Apocalypsed in the prophecy of John, denouncing a special revelation of wrath against the ungodly. I must not be understood to employ here the term “ Apocalypsed” as a proper English word : it is used only for the purpose of conveying to the reader the way in which the Greek term is used ; and I am the more confirmed in this view from the words that occur in chapter ii. 5. which are thus rendered in the common version : “ But, after thy hardness and impenitent
heart, treasurest up unto thyself wrath against “ the day of wrath and revelation of the righteous “ judgment of God.”
The latter part of the verse is that to which I would call particular attention,—treasurest up unto thyself óprio šv
ημέρα οργής και αποκαλύψεως [και] δικαιοκρισίας ToŰ OsoŰ. By reference to Mill's and Griesbach's editions it will be seen that many manuscripts, antient versions and commentators insert xal before δικαιοκρισίας, consequently making ημέρα to govern all the three nouns which follow. The words may be then rendered—“ wrath
against the day of WRATH, and of the APOCA“ LYPSE, and of the RIGHTEOUS JUDGMENT OF “God"-each of these three terms being employed to designate the same day or period. Though Griesbach has not admitted the second xal into his text, there is good reason for believing that it formed a part of the original autograph ; for it may be easily seen that a transcriber, not perceiving that a book was here referred to by name, would find little difficulty in rejecting it as not only superfluous, but, according to his view, as injuring the sense: but it is impossible to assign any good reason why a transcriber should have here inserted xai, if he did not find it in his copy :-in a word nothing could (in my opinion) have induced him to retain it, but a strong sense of the duty imposed upon him to adhere strictly to his exemplar. “ The day of wrath”_" the day
of the righteous judgment of God,” is the day to which every thing treated of in the Apocalypse has reference, and therefore the Apostle here calls it, emphatically as it were, “the day
“ of the Apocalypse,"—in the sixth chapter of which book, v. 17, it is called of guépa oj megána rñs oprñs, “the great day of the wrath" of the LAMB. That this is the fact, is rendered more evident from the concluding words of the passage under consideration-δικαιοκρισίας του Θεού,
of the righteous judgment of God”-in which words we have a very singular, but obvious, allusion to Rev. xix. 2.-" True and dixcrci ai “ xgíceis autoõ righteous his judgments;" for Paul actually forms a compound (Oixaloxipso las) from the words dixclou and spices, and for the pronoun αυτού puts the noun itself, του Θεού: nor can his expression be taken otherwise than as such a direct allusion; for his next words, «ός αποδώσει εκάστω κατά τα έργα αυτού, who will “ render to every one according to his works,” are evidently taken from these words in Rev. xxii. 12. « αποδούναι εκάστω ως το έργον αυτού έσται“ to give to every one according as his work shall “ be." In Rev. xx. 12 we also meet with the words “ κατά τα έργα αυτών, αccording to their “ works;" and in v. 13, we find &XACTOS xatà tà špya auröv, where it deserves perhaps to be noted, that several manuscripts for aútov bave the singular pronoun aútoũ, as exhibited by Paul in the passage before us.
There is another passage in this Epistle (xiv. 10) which may possibly have allusion to the
Apocalypse. I only say, possibly; for had I not met with the preceding passages, which appear plainly to have been derived from that prophecy, I should hardly have considered this as bearing on the question. In the passage referred to, the Apostle exhorts the believing Romans not to judge or set at nought a brother," for,” adds he, "we shall all stand before the judgment“ seat for tribunal, tõ Býuari] of Christ.”—Has this 'no allusion to the great white seat” of Rev. xx. 11 ? It is true that there Opóvos is employed, and here Bõua: in the Apocalypse, however, the purpose of the seat or throne is explained in the context, but here the Apostle avoids that necessity by employing a word which includes its use in itself, and, by prefixing the article, he evidently alludes to something well known to the church. That the Apostle was in the babit of alluding to the Apocalypse, with reference to the day of judgment, we have seen already in this Epistle, in what he says respecting the day of wrath-the day of the Apocalypse the day of the righteous judgment of God, and we shall see other references of the same kind in the Epistles which we have yet to examine. If in these it shall be found that he uses similar expressions to that employed in this passage, but so amplified as to furnish strong evidence that he had the Apocalypse in his eye, then, I think, it will not