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riah Cox, Esq. Captain of 230 Lancers, to colonel of the 2d battalion 60th foot, and Louisa Frances, youngest daughter of the great uncle to the present Lord Dorchester. Late Tho. Waleston, Esq. of Walton-hall, -3. Sir Isaac Pennington, Knt. M.D. Reco. York.-22. Thomas Stamford Raffles, gius professor of physic, Cambridge.-4. Mrs Esq. of Berner's-street, to Sophia, daughter Christiana Howell, in her 107th year. She of James Watson Hull, Esq. late of Great was sister to the late Colonel Monro of the Baddow.-27. George Ulric Barlow, Esq. royal marines.-6. The Right Hon. Lady eldest son of Sir George Barlow, Bart. G.C.B. Glenbervie.—7. At the Jews' Hospital, to Hilare, third daughter of Sir R. Barlow. Mile-end, aged 10-6, IIenry Cohen. He was
March 5.-At Albury-vale, Surrey, Jas. taken ill in the morning, and expired in the Simpson, Esq. advocate, to Eliza, second evening, retaining his faculties to the last. daughter of the late Jonas Maldin, Esq. of 8. At Pisa, Francis Horner, Esq. M.P. (See Putney.
our first article.)- In her 89th year, the Dowager Lady Carew.-11. Aged 82, Sir
John Palmer, Bart.-14. At Marseilles, Jan. 1.--At Berlin, the celebrated che. Lieut.-Gen. the lion. Sir John Abercromby, mist Klaproth, in the 71st year of his age. G.C.B. and Member of Parliament for the -2. At Foveran-house, Andrew Robertson, county of Clackmannan.-At her hotel, in Esq. of Foveran, aged 86.--In his 66th Paris, aged 85, the Countess of Coislin, foryear, Sir Martin Stapylton, Bart. of Myton- merly one of the attendants on the Queen of hall, county of York.-4. In the 77th year Louis XV. and grand-aunt of the duchess of of his age, Sir Arthur Owen, Bart. He is Pia of Bavaria.--15. At Edinburgh, Lady succeeded in his title by his nephew, Wil. Miller, wife of Sir William Miller of Glenliam Owen, of the Temple, barrister-at-law. lee, Bart.-17. Aged 80, Rear-Admiral -8. At Hainfield, in Styria, Godfrey Win- Alexander Edgar. Île was the last male deceslaus, Count of Purgstall, &c. only son of scendant of the Edgars of Wedderlie, in Ber. the late Winceslaus, Count of Purgstall, &c. wickshire, one of the oldest families in Scotand of Jane Anne, second daughter of the land, as appears by deeds as far back as 1170. late Hon. George Cranston.-9. At Wells, -19. At Edinburgh, the Lady of Sir AlexTho. Clark, Esq. of Westholme-house. He ander Don of Newton-Don, Bart. M.P.was descended from a branch of the ancient 21. At Stirling, the Rev. John Russel, one and well-known family of his name of Pen- of the ministers of that town, in the 44th nicuick, near Edinburgh.–10. At West year of his ministry. At Little Dunkeld, Ham, Essex, George Anderson, Esq. F.L.S. Perthshire, aged 102, Mr J. Borrie.-23. son of the late Dr James Anderson, author The Right Ilon. Lady Amelia Leslie, second of Essays on Agriculture, The Bee, and daughter of the late Earl of Rothes.-24. other works.-Af St Andrews, Rev. Dr Lady Henrietta Cecilia Johnstone.--Lately, Robertson, professor of oriental languages. at Rudding Park, in her 834 year, the Dow-11. At Edinburgh, Mr Moss, long the ager Countess of Aberdeen.--At Cammaes, dramatic favourite of the Edinburgh public, in the parish of Llanhadrick, Anglesea, aged and well known for the excellence with 105, Mary Zebulon.-At Trawnstynydd, which he pourtrayed Lingo, and many other county of Merioneth, aged 110, Edmund characters of the same stamp.-14. At Clif- Morgan, being, as it is believed, the oldest ton, Lady Miller, widow of the late Sir inhabitant of Wales. He retained his faculThomas Miller of Glenlee, Bart.--15. At ties to the hour of his death.-At Eglinton Dundee, Charles Craig, weaver, at the ad- Castle, aged 71, Eleonora, Countess of Eg. vanced age of 108.-20. At Edinburgh, linton.- The ci-devant Prince Primate of General Drummond of Strathallan.-21. At the Rhine, and Grand-duke of Frankfort. Johannisberg, aged 76, the Prince Ho. March 2.--At Brighton, in her 74th henloe-Waldenberg-Bartenstein, Bishop of year, Theodosia, Countess of Clanwilliam. Breslau.—23. At 'Turin, the Count de Bar. Her ladyship was lineally descended from ruel-Bauvert. He was one of the hostages the illustrious Earl of Clarendon.-3. At for Louis XVI.-24. At Warsaw, General Edinburgh, Major-Gen. William Lockhart, Bronickowski, who commanded the Polish late of the 30th regiment.-5. At Gilcomlegion of the Vistula, in France.-26. In ston, Aberdeenshire, aged 101, John MacGrosvenor-place, Caroline, Dowager Coun Bain. He was present at the battle of Cultess of Buckinghamshire.—28. Lieut.-Col. loden, and was attached to the corps brought Norris, of the engineers in the East India into the field by Lady M'Intosh.-9. In Company's service.-Lieut.-Col. Finlayson. Bolton-row, in her 75th year, Jane, Coun-Lately at Aron, Galway, in his 120th tess of Uxbridge, mother of the present Maryear, Mr Dirrane. He retained his facul- quis of Anglesea.-12. In his 84th year, G. ties to the last, could read without spectacles, P. Towry, Esq. commissioner of the Victual. and till within the last three or four years, ling-office, father of Lady Ellenborough.would walk some miles a-day.
13. Sir William Innes, Bart. of Balvenie, at Feb. 2.---At Seagrove, near Leith, Dame the age of about 100 years. The title is now Jane Hunter Blair, widow of the late Sir extinct.-15. At the encampment at HonniJames Hunter Blair of Dunskey and Robert- ton, Mrs Boswill, sister to the Queen of the land, Bart.-Aged 85, General Carleton, Gypsies. She was interred with great ponip,
Oliver & Boyd, Printers, Edinburgh.
ON THE NATURE OF THE
“ He callit his marschall till him tyt,
For he wald in his chambre be,
A weill gret quhile in private.” etymology of MARSHAL under all its
BARBOUR, II. 4. MS. * variations of Mariscaldus, Marscaldus, Edward the Second's valet is called and Marscalcus, from the Teutonic
“ marescallus aule regis.”+ It was “ schalk," a servant, and maere," a indiscriminately given to stewards of horse, or rather a mare -the
bishops and abbots, † governors of jails seems, being always the better horse*,
and prisons, ß and officers attending and therefore very properly used ge- upon courts of law; || &c. &c. nerically to designate the species
These were not unfrequently depuadding, that the term strictly describes ties of the hereditary marshal of the a person who busied himself about kingdom, but most commonly they horses and the manege.
servientes,” or functionaries of This popular derivation is, in some
rather a higher order. degree, countenanced by the epithet
There was also an old English office, having been applied to innkeepers, of a singular import to modern ears, grooms, farriers, and horse-doctors, as held heritably by grand sergeantry, is proved by sundry, passages from and attached to a manor,Becanust, the capitularies of Charle-callus de meretricibus in hospitio regis." magne, and other authorities. It is,
An ancient roll of Edward the Third however, at the same time, evinced to indicates, that “ Johannes de Warhave very early received other signifi- blynton, filius et hæres Thome de cations, having no reference either to Warblyntone, fecit finem cum rege, the above quadrupeds or to their at
&c. quod dictus Thomas tenuit matendants. Marshal notoriously denoted a civil
Quoted by Dr Jamieson under this officer whose jurisdiction lay alone word. Vid. also Du Cange, voce Marescalwithin the state rooms of a palace lus. “ marechal de palais”-an adept in + " Rex concessit valetto Galfrido de the ceremonies and forms of court Mildenhall, marescallo aule regis, unum
(17 Ed. II. etiquette ; and, at the same time, any messuagium in Bredon.” superior domestic servant or steward, Abbreviat. Rot. Orig. Scaccar.) in which last sense it is used in this lus+Abbatis," with their explanations. Du
* “ Marescallus Episcopi,” “ Marescal. passage from Barbour :
8“ Marescallus Banci Regis,” in statuto * “ Marescalcus, equorum minister vel Edwardi III. ar. 5, c. 8. Cui pottissimum potius equarum, quod præstare olim vide incarceratorum incumbebat. Inde " Ma. batur genus foemineum, ut apud Græcos in reschalcia,” dictus ipse carcer Londoniensis. Jovis Olympiaci certaminibus,” &c. Seld. Ib. Glossar.
11 “ Marescallus Curiæ,” in Bulla Aurea + Bec. Lib. Francicorum.
Caroli IV. Imper. cap. 27. Ib. Vol. I.
nerium de Shirefield, tanquam ma The said John Warblington must rescallus de meretricibus in hospitio have been as versatile and expansive regis.'
as Mercury; for he not only performed Such an establishment was then an the more familiar duties of this deliordinary appendage of court etiquette; cate charge, but also the high legal it was as indispensable as a foreign or office of coroner within the liberties of chestra, or a regiment of grenadiers, to the palace-was clerk of the market to any German prince and their imitators the household, or purveyor-general in our own times.
thereof-broke condemned felons upon His most Christian Majesty, how the wheel-exercised the duties of a ever, was not so very Turkish as to gauger, and enforced the observance, permit the superintendence to one of of his self-regulated standard of weights his own sex, as we find from the royal and measures. expenditure of his household at the The etymology, then, of the excelcommencement of the sixteenth cen lent Selden would appear not to be tury.+
altogether conclusive; and Wachtert " A Olive Sainte, dame des filles de would seem to be more fortunate, in joye suivant la cour du roył, 90 livres seducing the term from“ mer, mar, par lettres données a Watteville le 12. major vel princeps, and schalk, as beMay 1535, pour lui aider, et auxdites fore, a servant, i. e. officer of any filles a vivre et supporter les depenses kind—thus making it to signify any qu'il leur convient faire a suivre ordi- considerable officer or superintendent, nairement la cour. Alius, an. 1539. or, according to Jameson (who seems A Cecile Viefville, dame des filles de rather to incline to this deduction), joye suivant la cour, 90 livres, par upper servant, or steward—not neceslettres du 6. Janv. 1538, tant pour elle, sarily of the crown alone; a much que pour les autres femmes, et filles more extended signification, and one de sa vacation, a departir entr'elles pour which accounts for the term having leur droit, du 1. jour de May dernier characterised so many various and he passé, qui etoit dû a cause du bouquet terogeneous employments. qu'elles presenterent au roy ledit jour, I have forgot to allude to the more que pour leurs estrains, du 1. Janvier; ordinary sense, indicative of high miainsi qu'il est accoustume de faire de litary command, either as exercised tout temps.
Eadem occurrunt annis by the marshal of Scotland over the 1540, 41, 42, 44, 46."
royal guards, previous to the union, or The old adage in papal times, “ Ju- by field marshals, or marshals of ardæi vel meretrices, was not always mies, personages familiar to all. An equally vilifying. Carpentier remarks, office of a similar nature,—to com“Quæ (sc. meretrices) hic uti infames pare small things with great,-would habentur, de comitatu regio fuerunt, appear formerly to have been common pensionibus etiam donisque dotatæ."$ in the Highlands of Scotland, as we
learn from the following amusing des* It is noticed in Borthwick’s Remarkscription in an ancient MS. History of on British_Antiquities, but more fully in the Name of Mackenzie, composed beMadoxe's Baronia Anglica, p. 242, note, fore the year 1667, by John Macwhere the office is proved to have existed as kenzie of Applecross, extant in the far back as the time of Henry II.
Advocates' Library. of Comput. ærarii Reg. ap. Carpentier,
“ Alexander MʻKenzie of Coull. was voce. Meretricialis, Vestis. Hence the origin of courtezan, now
a natural son of Collin, the 12 laird only used in a restricted and bad sense.
of Kintail, gotten wyt Marie M-KenŚ Selden, quoth Lord Lyttelton, (Life of Henry II. vol. iv. p. 50), would not have “ Johannes de Warblington, coroadmitted among the grand sergeantries War nator mariscalciæ ac clericus mercati hosblington's office, “ of the meanest and most pitii regis ad placitum. dishonourable nature; and he is angry with “ Idem tenet in feodo serjantiam essendi Madox for having so classed it! This is marescalli meretricum in hospitio, et disa good illustration of Chalmer's remark, membrandi malefactores adjudicatos, et (Cal. vol. i. 626), that this lord's “ notions mensurandi galones et bussellos.” Rot. and language are altogether modern.” In. Pat. 22, Ed. III. dependently of other considerations, it may + Wachter, Glossar. voc. Marescallus. be stated, that Blount, in his Tenures, has “ Marescalli-postea dicti, qui exerci. quoted an old deed, where it is expressly tibus, et copiis militaribus præerant."
Du said to be held by“ grand serjeantry.” Cange.
ED PRINTING PRESS.
zie, daughter to Rorie M‘Kenzie of ye impleyment he had, and of quhatDavoch-maluack. His first patrimonie ever fell to his hand, he conqueist to was his sword and bow, quherewith himself a resonable estate, quhilk he he did such worthie service, that he dailie augmented during the rest of conqueist first the love of his chieffe his worthie dayes. He married to his and broyer, the lard of Kintail, wyt first wife Annabel MʻKenzie, daughter the love of all his countreymen, so as to Murdo M'Kenzie of Fairburn, and his broyer made choise of him to be relich,” &c. &c. &c. his mareschall of all his armie in all The place was not hereditary ; at ye wares he had wyt Glengarrie and least the historian, himself a male deMʻLeod of the Lewis. He command- scendant and grandson of the marshal, ed sexscore of the prettiest men that does not affirm that it was ever again ware in his broyer's armie, and especi- held by any of his kindred. allie the Clanwurchie were under his
(To be continued.) command, quho served him as under officers to discharge the dutie of mari ACCOUNT OF MR RUTHVEN'S IMPROVschall. His dutie wes, that in ye armies marching to ye enemies land, he As one of the objects of this Magazine should still guard the riar; and as the is to disseminate useful knowledge, we armie rested in ther camp, he still went cannot attain the end in view with in expeditiones to bring them hership* better effect than by giving some acand provision, quhilk herschips were count of a most important improvedistributed as he liked, with the con ment in the mechanical part of printsent of the superior. His own pert of ing, by Mr John Ruthven, printer, of the hership was ilk cow quhose ear wes this place. This very ingenious melonger then hir horn, ilk black cow that chanician, having diligently studied his I ad not a white spott in her bodie, ill profession for upwards of twenty years, white cow that had not a black spott in observed that there were numerous deher bodie, and ilk horse that wes wyt in fects in the construction of the printthree years; and his under officers ing presses commonly employed, the had all the hedes of all the cowes that principle of which is unaltered from were killed in the camp. But some the time of the invention of printing. times he destributed his part of the The excessive and dangerous labour herships amongst the best deshervin occasioned to the workmen, and the of the shouldiers, quhilk made the very imperfect adaptation of the press shouldiers so desperat quich were un to many purposes, were the most obder his command, that they resolved vious defects; to remedy which, by ayer to die or be victorious quhenever any improvement of the original mathey ingadged. He had power to fine chine, Mr Ruthven found, after diliall the shouldiers that did not goe gent study, to be quite impracticable ; right in their cloathes and armes, and --he therefore resolved on attempting wytall to decern all the contravershies; something new; and, after much laquhilk place he managed so fortunatlie, bour, he has succeeded in producing that he was sent in all expeditiounes, not only a highly useful press, but in and in everie expeditioune he was vic- giving a most beautiful application of torious. His good service gott him a combination of levers, for the prothe reall affectioune of his broyer, so duction of parallel motion, with a dethat his broyer, in his death-bed, left
hitherto unequalled. him his own sword, quhilk was the For the better understanding of the gretest merit a kinsman could haive, account we propose to give, it will be to haive the sword of such a brave con well to premise a few observations on queror, as a testimonie of faithfull ser
the printing-press commonly used. vice.”
The screw has hitherto been the The situation appears to have been power employed to produce pressure, lucrative ; for he adds, Ane estate while the types were placed on a movefrom his broyer he needed not; ffor able carriage, which was moved, after befor his broyer's death, by his oune the ink had been applied, under the prudent managment of ye benefit of surface for pressing. In consequence
of this, the power has always been liHerschip, Heirschip, Heiriscip, the mited—the radius of the lever which act of plundering, devastation. Booty, moves the screw being confined. It prey, &c.” Jamieson.
is also a consequence, that not more
than one half of a large sheet could be put on in the usual manner on the tymprinted at one descent of the screw. pan, a, (fig. 1.) and secured by the frisket, A most serious evil results from this, b. On turning over the tympans thus especially in printing duodecimo, be arranged, the platen, N (fig. 2.)-supcause the pressure necessarily is ap ported by the
wheels, QQ,-iš drawn plied twice to the centre pages of each over the coffin by the handle, U, till the sheet, while it is applied only once to lower parts of the screw bolts, MM, be the other pages.
To these disadvan- fully secured in the clutches, LL (fig. tages may be added, the difficulty of 2.); the lever or handle, A, is then turn ascertaining and regulating the degree ed over in the front of the press till stopof pressure; the irregularity of the ped, when it will be nearly in a hori. motion of the lever; the severe labour, zontal position. It is then restored to and excessive exertion of the work- its original situation, the platen pushman ; the nice accuracy in placing the ed back, the tympans raised, and the types under the centre ;-there being printing is completed. The mode in no difference, in point of trouble and which this movement is produced is labour, in printing a card and a folio; concealed by the check, R. -and the necessity for placing small The action which takes place in the work always in the same spot, which above-described process will be best necessarily wears out one part sooner understood by a reference to, and exthan the others. In obviating these amination of, the section, fig. 2. The defects, Mr Ruthven has completely platen is in this represented in its succeeded ;-and after giving some ac proper situation over the types. The count of the construction of the new parts of the external structure have printing press, we shall point out the been already sufficiently explained; it superior excellencies of it as briefly as only remains to point out those which possible.
are exposed in the section. Beneath The general appearance of the large the tablet, P, and immediately behind press is well represented in fig. 1. ; of the check, R, are the levers, Í 1, hava which fig. 2. is a complete section. In ing their fulcra at KK; to which are this press the types are placed on a sta- attached the clutches, L L, communia tionary coffin or tablet, P; the paper is cating as above mentioned with MM;