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37. The Infinitive* expresses the Adion or Being, indeterminately: as, to be; to love.

38. There are five Tenses, or Times; the Present, the Imperfect, the Perfect, the Pluperfect, and the Future.

39. The Present Tense expresses the Time that now is: as, I love, or, am loving.

40. The Imperfect denotes the Time past indeterminately: as, I loved, or was loving

41. The Perfect denotes the Time paft determinately; as, I have loved, or, have been loving

even when Conditionality is out of the Question, it is diftinguished from the merely declarative Form: The one declares the Action done, or to be done, without any further Confideration; the other declares not the Action done, or to be done, but the Ability, Inability, &c. of the Agent to perform that Action; and is therefore properly stiled the potential Mode.

* From infinitivus, without Bounds.

D 3

42. The

42. The Pluperfeet denotes the Time past, as prior to some other point of Time specified in the Sentence: as, I bad loved, or had been loving.

43. The Future denotes the Time to come : as, I will or shall love, or, will or shall be loving.

NOTE 43. These Formations of the several Tenfes feem to have Respect both to the Time and State of the Action signified by the Verb. The present Tense denotes the Time ti at now is, and the Action unfinisbed: as, I write, or I am now writing, the Letter. The Imperfeet denotes the Time past indeterminately, and the Aetion to have been completed at any paft Time that may be specified:' as, I wrote the Letter, or I began and finished the Writing of the Letter, this Morning, Yesterday, a Week ago, &c. The Perfečt denotes the Time just past

, and the Aétion fully complıted: as, I have written the Letter, or I have just now finished the Writing of the Letter. The pluperfeet denotes the Time past, and the Action to bave been completed prior to some other Circumstance specified in the Sentence: as, I had written the Letter, or I had finished the Writing of the Leiter, before you came in.' The Future denotes the Time to come, and the Aetion to be completed at any future Time that may be mentione; as, I will write the Letter, or I will begin and finish the Writing of the Letter, tonight, to-morrow, &c.


44. These Modes and Tenses are partly formed by the Verb itself, and partly by the Asistance of Signs.

45. There are two Modes formed from the Verb itself : The Indicative; as, I love : and the Imperative; as, love thou.

46. The auxiliary* Signs are to, do, did, have, had, fall, will, may, can, must, might, would, could, should.

47. To, is a sign of the infinitive Mode; as, to be; to love.

48. May, can, must, might, would, could, jould, and their Inflections, mayeft, canft, mightest, wouldest or wouldst, couldest or couldst, shouldest or

The other forms of these Tenses, viz. I am writing, I was writing, I have been writing, I had been writing, I will be writing, feem for the most Part to have the Action un. determined.

* From ouxilior, to help.
† From infle&to, to change (the Ending).


fhouldp, are Signs of the potential Mode.

49. Do, and its Inflections, deft, doth or does, are Signs of the present Tense.

50. Did, and its Inflection, didst, are Signs of the imperfect Tense.

51. Have, and its Inflections, haft, hath or has, are Signs of the perfect Tense.

52. Had, and its Inflection, hads, are Signs of the pluperfect Tense.

53. Shall and will, and their Inflections, fhalt and wilt, are Signs of the future Tense.

Nore. The auxiliary Signs seem to have the Nature of Adverbs.

Do, have, and will, when they are not joined to Verbs to distinguis the Circumstance of Time, are absolutely Verbs: as, I do it; I þave it; I will it.

54. In

54. In Verbs there is a Reference to three Persons in each Number: as, Singular, I love, thou lovest, he loveth. Plural, We love, ye love, they love.

55. The first Person Speaks of hime, self: as, I John take thee Elizabeth."

56. The second Person has the Speech directed to him, and is supposed to be present: as, Thou Harry

art a wicked Fellow.”

57. The third Person is spoken of, or described, and supposed to be absent : as, “That Thomas is a good Man.

58. The Verb itself has but twe, Terminations respecting Time : as, love, and loved; which last may be called the Inflection of the preteror past Tense: And when this Inflection of the preter Tense is formed by adding d, or ed, to the first Person present Tense, the Verb is regular, and is declined after the following Example.


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