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37. The Infinitive* expresses the Adion or Being, indeterminately: as, to be ; to love.

38. There are five Tenses, or Times; the Present, the Imperfect, the Perfect, the Pluperfect, and the Future.

39. The Present Tense expreffes the Time that now is: as, I love, or, am loving.

40. The Imperfe&t denotes the Time paji indeterminately: as, I loved, or was loving.

41. The Perfect denotes the Time paft determinately; as, I have loved, or, have been loving.

even when Conditionality is out of the Quel. tion, it is diftinguished from the merely declarative Form: The one declares the Action done, or to be done, without any further Confideration; the other declares not the Action done, or to be done, but the Ability, Inability, &c. of the Agent to perform that Action; and is therefore properly stiled the potential Mode.

* From infinitivus, without Bounds.


42. The

42. The Pluperfexi denotes the Time past, as prior to some other point of Time specified in the Sentence: as, I had loved, or hud been loving...

43. The Future denotes the Time to come : as, I will or fall love, or, will or Mall be loving.

NOTE 43. These Formations of the several Tenses seem to have Respect both to the Time and State of the Action signified by the Verb. The present Tense denotes the Time ti at now is, and the Action unfinisbed: as, I write, or I am now writing, the Letter. The ImperSečt denotes the Time past indeterminately, and the Action to have been completed at any part Time that may be fpecified :' as, I wrote the Letter, or I began and finished the Writing of the Letter, this Morning, Yesterday, a Week ago, &c. The PerfeEt denotes the Time just past, and the Action fully completed : as, I have qritten the Letter, or I have just now finished the Writing of the Letter. The Pluperfečt denotes the Time past, and the Action to bave been completed prior to some other Cir. cumstance specified in the Sentence: as, I had written the Letter, or I had finished the Writing of the Leiter, before you came in.' The Future denotes the Time to come, and the Aetion to be completed at any future Time that may be mentioned; as, I will write the Letter, or I will begin and finish the Writing of the Letter, tonight, to-morrow, &c.


44. These Modes and Tenses are partly formed by the Verb itself, and partly by the Asistance of Signs.

45. There are two Modes formed from the Verb itself: The Indicative ; as, I love: and the Imperative; as, love thou.

46. The auxiliary* Signs are to, do, did, have, had, mall, will, may, can, muft, might, would, could, should.

47. To, is a sign of the infinitive Mode; as, to be; to love.

48. May, can, muft, might, would, could, should, and their Inflections, t mayest, canft, mightest, wouldest or woulds, couldest or coulds, mouldest or

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The other forms of these Tenses, viz. I am writing, I was writing, I have been writing, I had been writing, I will be writing, feem for the most Part to have the Action una determined. * From ouxilior, to help. From inflecto, to change (the Ending).


shouldst, are Signs of the potential Mode.

49. Do, and its Inflections, deft, doth or does, are Signs of the present Tense.

50. Did, and its Inflection, didft, are Signs of the imperfect Tense.

51. Have, and its Inflections, haft, hath or has, are Signs of the perfect Tense.

52. Had, and its Inflection, huds, are Signs of the pluperfect Tense.

53. Shall and will, and their Inflections, falt and wilt, are Signs of the future Tenfe.

Note. The auxiliary Signs seem to have the Nature of Adverbs.

Do, have, and will, when they are not joined to Verbs to distinguish the Circumstance of Time, are absolutely Verbs: as, I do it; I þave it ; I will it.

54. In 54. In Verbs there is a Reference to three Persons in each Number: as, Singular, I love, thou loveft, he loveth. Plural, We love, ye love, they love.

55. The first Person Speaks of him., Self: as, “ I John take thee Elizabeth."

56. The second Person has the Speech directed to him, and is supposed to be present: as, “Thou Harry

art a wicked Fellow.”

57. The third Person is spoken of, or described, and supposed to be absent : as, “That Thomas is a good Man."

58. The Verb itself has but two, Terminations respecting Time : as, love, and loved; which last may be called the Inflection of the preteror past Tense : And when this Inflection of the preter Tense is formed by adding d, or ed, to the first Person present Tense, the Verb is regular, and is declined after the following Example.


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