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lowing must be considered as Exceptions: I am, thou art, he is; I have, thou haft, he hath, or has; I do, thou does, or doft, he doeth, or doth, or does ; I say, thou sayeft, he faith, or says.
98. All regular Verbs form their second Person singular in the past Tense of the indicative Mode by the Addition off: as, I loved, thou lovedst; I asked, thou askedst.
99. Irregular Verbs form their second Person singular in the past Tense, for the moft Part, according to the following Rules:
1. If the irregular paft Tense terminates in d, the second Person singular is formed by the Addition of At, in the Manner of regular Preterites: as, I said, thou faidft; I did, thou didftand sometimes in the grave and folemn Style, or for the sake of Emphasis, thou diddeft.
2. If the irregular paft Tense be one of the Verbs, that have the present
and past Tenses, and the passive Particiciple, all alike, then the second Person is formed by the Addition of edft: as, 1
put, thou puttedst; I shed, thou foeddedft.
. 3. All other irregular Verbs, with very few if any Exceptions, form their second Person fingular in the past Tense by eft: as, I brake, thou brakest; I knew, thou knewest.
The Preterites of many irregular Verbs, if they be Monofyllables ending with a single Consonant, will double that Confonant in the second Perfon fingular : as, I fed, thou feddeft ; I met, thou mettest.
Our Language has a strong Tenden'cy to double the Consonant in this Perfon, as may be seen in the Words, diddest, puttedst, feddedst, or shededst, or bedst, which are Abbreviations of the second d.
Of a PARTICIPLE.*
100. Participle is derived of a
Verb, and partakes of the Nature both of the Verb and the adjective.
From participo, to partake. Note 100. The Participle, so far as it expresses the Circumstance of the Noun to which it is joined by the neuter Verb, has the Nature of an Adjective; but, as implying the Action of some Agent, it has the Nature of the Verb.
The pasive Participle seems to have been in.: vented more fully to express that Influence or Dependence which the Agent and Object of a Verb have on each other : as “ John loves “ Elizabeth; or, Elizabeth is loved by John. “ The King wrote the Letter; or, The Letter “ was written by the King."
Here loved and written, so far as they express the Circumftances of the Nouns to which they are joined by the neuter Verb, may be confidered as Adjectives ; but in another View,
101. There are two Participles pertaining to the Verbs; the Active, which always ends in ing; and the Pasive, which, for the most part, ends in ed :
as they imply the A&tion or Force of some Agent or compulsive Cause, they may be considered as Verbs.
Hence it is, that Verbs intransitive, which have no Object, can have no pasive Participle. Some of them have a participial Form joined to the neuter Verb: as, “ The Man is fallen ; “ The Sun is risen.” But as fallen and risen have no Reference to any Agent or compulsive Caufe different from the Subject of the Verb, so they cannot with any Propriety be denominated paffive Participles : And, notwithstanding their Form, they differ very little, if any Thing, from common Adjectives.
The same Thing may be observed of the active Participle: as,
" The Master is writ. ing; The Horse is trotting." Here the Participle implies both the Circumstance and the Action of the Noun to which it is joined by the neuter Verb, and therefore has the Property of a Participle. But it we ule the same Word in a inerely descriptive Sente; as,
" The “ writing Master, the trotting Horse;" it loses the Property of a Participle, and becomes a mere Adjective.
as, from the Verb call are derived the Participles calling and called. In the Formation of the Participles, if the Verb ends in e, the e is omitted : as, love, loving, loved. If it ends in a single Consonant, preceded by a single Vowel bearing the Accent, that Confonant is doubled : as, commit, committing, committed. But on this Head fee more fully under the Verb.