« AnteriorContinuar »
SYN TA X*.
YNTAX shews the Agreement and
right Disposition of Words in a Sentence.
110. The Articles, a, and an, are used only before Nouns of the singular Number :
before a Word that bem gins with a Vowel; a, before a Word that begins with a Confonant; an, or a, before a Word that begins with h : as, “ A Christian, an Infidel, an Hea"then, or a Heathen.' But if the h be not founded, then the Article an is only used : as, “ An Hour, an Herb."
* From Syntaxis, a Joining.
111. 4 and an are indefinite: as, "A Man, a House;" i. e. any Man, any House, without distinction. But the is definite: as, “ The Man, the House;" i. c. some one Man, fome one House, in particular.
112. The is likewise used to diftinguish two or more Persons or Things' mentioned before ; as, “ The Men" (not the Women.) “ The Lords" (as diftinguished from the Commons.)
113. The Verbagrees with its Noun, or Pronoun, i. e. with its Agent, or Subject, in Number and Perfon : as, “ The Boys write; I love; He, who reads."
114. In the complaisant Style, it is common to use you instead of thou, when we speak to one Person only; and
NOTE 113. This Agent, or Subjeel, is always found by alking the Question, who, or what, on the Verb; as, Who write? The Answer to the Question is, Boys; whicḥ Word as the ect of the Verb, write,
in that Case it has a plural Verb
66 You are my
115. A Noun of Multitude, of the fingular Number, may have a Verb either fingular or plural: as, “ The People is mad;” or, “ The People are mad.”
The latter Expression seems to be the more elegant.
116. When two or more Nouns, or Pronouns, are connected together in a Sentence, as joint Agents, or Subjects, they must have a plural.Verb, though they should be each of the fingular Number: as, “ The Man and his Wife are happy; I and He were there; Richard and I have been very busy."
117. Sometimes a Sentence, or an infinitive Mode, is the Subject of a Verb; and then the Verb must be put in the fingular Number and third Person: as, “ The King and Queen appearing in public was the Cause of my going. To lee the Sun is pleasant."
118. When the Agentand Object of a Verb are not distinguished (as in Nouns) by different Cases, the Agent is always set before, and the Object after the Verb; this being the natural Order, and necessary to determine the Sense: as, “ Alexander conquered Darius.” If Darius had been thé Con. queror, it is plain that the Order of the Nouns must have been inverted.
119. The Agent, or Subject, is most commonly set immediately before the Verb, or the Sign of the Verb,: as, “ The Man lives; The City hath ftood a thoufand Years." In the imperative Mode, however, it is fet after the Verb: as, “ Love thou; Be thou happy.". Also, when a Question is asked, it is set after the Verb, or between the Sign and the Verb: as, “ Are you there? Doth the King live ?"
120. The Pronouns I, We, Thou, Ye, He, She, They, and Who, are always used when they stand as the Agent of an active; or the Subject of the neuter Verb: as, “ I see; He loves; We are ; They gò; That is the Perfon who passed us Yesterday.”
121. The Noun, or Pronoun, which receives the Force of the active Verb, is most commonly set after the Verb: as,
“ I love the Man.” But the Relative, whom, or whomsoever, is always set before the Verb: as, “ The Man, whom I love, is absent."
122. The accusative Case of a Pronoun is always used, when it receives the Force or Impression of the active Verb, or active Participle, or comes after the infinitive Mode of the neuter
6. He calls me ; She is beating them; I suppose it to be him.”
123. When à Pronoun is set alorie in Answer to a Qestion, or follows the present or imperfcct Tense of the neuter Verb, it must be put in the no. minative Case : as, “ Who did it? I, i. e. I did it; I was he that said so."
124. The passive Participle, and not the past Tense, should be always used