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to trace such varied sounds and conda-Mauraconda. The two meanings up the tortuous stream last occur in the prefixed map. of ages back*.

8. On this class of names I have 5. In hilly and poetical countries to observe, that the termination is (most hilly countries are or have Sanskrit, and means a hill. Such been poetical) mythology, the terminations are common in India ; religion of the day, has lent its and are almost always, I believe, extensive aid, to geographical no

found attached to hills, or to their menclatures. This remark applies immediate vicinity. Some instrongly to India, where the Pan- stances occur to me, and I will theon of the Hindus is found to

note them ;-Golconda, Gurrumhave been the grand magazine conda, Ganescunda, Kailkunda, whence such persons have derived Inaconda, Miconda, Nargoond, and applied their varied appella- Noulgoond, Penekonda, Curacuntions ; a very great proportion of da. Many others might be added. which is thus easily traced by any

Whether these terminations be one moderately skilled in the dia- spelled, like Park's konda, conda, lects of India. And as the sacred kunda, counda-or like those of language of the Hindus, and their India, which are as varied as Park's mythology, are little or nothing with the farther differences of altered in the lapse of many cen- goond, kendy, ken, gondy, &c. I turies, in India we may run and

am disposed to refer them all to read in the features of nature, and

to the Sanskrit Kunda, according in the early works of man, the to Sir William Jones's orthography, origin not only of local nomencla- or, commonly pronounced, ture, but of the names of places Koonda. We have the same word very ancient, and very distant from initial in Condapilly, Condevri, this supposed source. Through Condatchy, Cundapoor, Cundwhat channel, lingual and geogra- wah, &c.

Whether these are all, phical, the current of connection or chiefly, names of hills, I have may have run is not evident, and no present means of ascertaining ; is the subject of the speculations but should suspect so. Park has above described.

omitted to inform us of the descrip6. In the interior of Africa, then, Konda in Africa ; but I also sus

tion of places bearing the name of I invite your readers to remark the following names of places, which pect them to be hills, or connected

with them. occurred to me, in a recent peru

9. I have farther to observe that sal of Park's last Mission, as com

in names of places and persons, ing within the purview of this letter, and which in fact have indu- for little or nothing. Consonants

be fairly said to stand ced me to write it.

are the sinews and bones of isolate 7. Jonkakonda, page 112 ; Ten- words. A substitution of even diconda, p. 124 ; Kootakunda— these important vertebræ of vocaTattikonda, p. 130; Baraconda, p. bles may be allowed to a certain 132 ; Seesekund, p. 134 ; Tamba. extent. I shall require this indulkunda, p. 157; Mariancounda, p. gence in a very limited degree, 290; Tandacunda, p. 291 ; Fatte- not exceeding, perhaps, the al

lowable interchange of a b for a v, * A stranger to the languages of Europe, or у a j. eren an uninstructed Englishman, would not ea 10. With a little of this license, mouths of the natives only half a dozen leagues where wanted, and it may be, and to the eastward of us. The French pronunciation cannot perhaps be better expressed by our letters

is, allowed to others, as well as to

distressed etymologists, let us try some of the difficulties of etymologists; and what license may be taken and allowed, when ages and to turn Park's names into Hindi. rempted 10 be re-united.

Jonka-konda is Janeka-kunda, or

vowels may

or a

for

sily recognize the names of our Saviour in the

than thus--Zshazo Kree. This may serve to show

oceans have rolled between the regions thus at.

the hill of Janeka*. I know not, it enough to bear. The name ocis true, of any such hill in India; curs in like manner in Africa ; of but Janeka and his daughter Jane- which I will presently adduce in.. ki commonly called Janky, (vowels stances. I should judge kuta, or stand for nothing) are mythological cuta to be Sanskrit, and to mean personages well known in India; a town (though being no Sanskrit and may well have given their scholar I speak diffidently) from names to a hill or river in India as finding it applied to places spread well as in Africa. Tendiconda all over India. Perhaps Calcutta, and Tandacunda, are I imagine the Calicut, Devicotta, Palamcotta, same place, or the same name. Gooty, Dunderguttee, Milgotta, And although here again I have Kota, Teekatta, &c. may all conno knowledge of any such com tain it. The Koota-kunda of Park pound name in India, yet Tanda is may therefore be set down for a a Hindi word, and is the name of compound Sanskrit word. a town in Bengal, where there are 12. Of Tattikonda, the same no hills to fix it on; and where, may be said Tatti, or Tatta is a for that reason, I shall expect, word current in Indian dialects, when I search a map, to find few and is a name, and part of a name or no Kundas in that province; of Indian places, and things. and the hilly country of the Dek 13. The same as to Baraconda. kan abounding in them. A town Bara is an Indian word of several in the Carnatic is named Tondi. meanings. Applied to a place, it In some dialects of India, tanda, would perhaps be more classically tunda, or tund (the vowels are of written Varaha, a name well known no consequence, the root is tnd) to Hindu mythologists. Bara is means cold ;—and although we however, also found so applied. may not at first view expect a rea 14. Of Park's Seesekunda, I son for its positive application in shall say but little. It is, he says, the interior of Africa, or in Bengal, “ the same village with Kussai, or in the Carnatic, yet compara- the inhabitants having changed its tive degrees of cold, and perhaps name," p. 134. If recently named positive too, exist every where; Seesekunda, it may lead to and the Hill of Cold, may not un- meaning of its appellation in Afrireasonably be looked for and found

Seesu, or Sisu, is an ancient within the tropics as well, though Hindu name of persons and things. not so obviously, as within the po

15. Tambakunda is traceable to lar circles.

India. There are Tambacherry, 11. Koota-kunda may also be Tamracherry, Tambah, Tambetraced to India. In modern dia- khan, &c. In some dialects coplects, though I do not say that such dialects are derived immedi- per is called Tamba. I recollect

no other meaning of the word. If ately from the Sanskrit—the prime we drop the b, Tama, or Tam radix perhaps of all languages, would mean darkness, blackness, koota means a dog ; and it farther &c. and has extensive significations means short or low of stature. It and application. But it may be is found initial, final, and sole, in reasonably doubted, if either of the names of many places in India, these be the origin of the African as the reader will see by a glance or Asiatic names; while it cannot at Rennell's map or memoir; works be denied that it is an Asiatic that my bookshelf is not rich

word. Of Mariancounda and * The reader is requested to observe that names Mauraconda, I have but little to of mythological persons or things printed with nitial capitals, as above, indicate that he may if say, Maura, and similar sounds, desirous of information conceming their history,

have meanings in India, and are Pantheon under the ni mes or words

so printed, applied

to places. where he will find an account of them. This general mode of reference is preferred to one so

16. Fatteconda is an Indian frequent as might be necessary, if made on every compound. Fatteh, or Futteh is

а

ca.

character, &c, consult the index to the Hindu

occurreuce of such names.

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more immediately. Persian. I do river Joliba” 317. The Joliba is not know indeed, that it is Sans- the Niger. I am not aware of any krit at all, though used in some meaning in the language of the Hindi dialects deduced therefrom. country of the word Joliba, which Fattehconda, in India, like Futty- might allowably be altered in its ghur, means the hill of victory. orthography to the Sanskrit, more The latter perhaps would be more euphonic, Yalava, &c. If it should correctly spelled Fattehghiri; but mean black, like Niger, or Nila, it I am not sure whether ghur may will be somewhat curious. Nila, the not, like poor or pura, mean dis name of the Nile in the Sanskrit, tinctively a town, or fort; and is rather dark blue. The name of ghiri restrictively a hill. Futteh- Yaminna connected with the Niger pet, Fattehabad, &c. occur in In- reminds one of the poetical river dia, meaning the town, and abude, Yamuna of India, called the “ blue of conquest.

daughter of the sun," in Hindu 18. Having been thus diffuse, poetics. and perhaps tedious, in my notice 19. I must now run with greatof this first class of African names, er rapidity over a few more indiI shall hasten through the others like names from the map prefixed se cted ark's last mission, 'to Park. Others might hav been to exemplify my speculations ; extracted of similar application. placing in brackets such as come 80. Kakundy, Kolar, Jeogary, very near known names. Samee, Bady, Koniakary, Malla, Kolor, p. 125, (Sami a name of Parvati) Koolar, Tallika, Koikarany, SaKutijar; Wallia creek, 128 ; Ma- makoo-river, Mouri, Tambaoura, dina, Tabajang, Jamberoo, 129; Sarola, Lingicotta, Mallacotta, Ko(Jamba), Manjalli, Tabba Cotta, rankalla, Manickoroo, Sanjeecot139; Jallacotta, Maheena, Tam- ta, Kandy, Sampaka, Sami, Jarra, bico, Samakara “ woods and wil. Toorda, Satile, Seco, Comba, Daderness,"157; Mambari, 158 ;Sam- ma, Nyamo, Ghungerolla. bankala, 159 ;(Samba and Kala are 21. And I now ask any oriental personages of the Hindu Pantheon; reader, if he can peruse these Tambaura, mountains; Toombijee- names of places, without fancying na, a pass through them, 183; Se- them taken from Rennell's map of rimana, ib. (Srimana a name of India ? .Many of the names cerKartikya) Neelakalla, 187 (Nila tainly occur there; and all are Kala, names familiar to every eas Asiatic. Most of them perhaps tern mythologist); Kullalie a very could be easily traced to their sehigh detached rocky hill” 188; veral sources in the languages of (such hills in India are typical of India, by any one moderately Siva, one of whose names is Kala); skilled therein. It may be doubtG garan (Ganga), Secoba, 193; ed if all England, with France Sankaree, “ a high rocky hill, probably united, could produce so which rises like an immense castle many places with oriental names, from the plain” 196; (Siva, the as may be gathered from Park's Indian god of mountains, is cal- meagre map of his journeyings in led Sunkara).

Africa. 18. Sabooseera, 211; Jeena, But looking to the length of Wangeera, Nemansana, Kooli, this introductory address, I must Chekora, Koonteela, (Koonti) hasten to conclude it, without atDoomba, 283 ; Tancrawally, Ya- tempting any thing farther at derinimarou, 291 : Talimangoly, 292; vation, or elucidation. I purpose Saameolo, 293; Mousala, (Musa- in a future letter to resume the li), Samicouta, 295; ( Sami-Kuta) subject, and to extend our view Chicowray, Jyallacoro, 309 ; Soo- to other regions-remaining meanbacara, Tacoutalla, 314; Banco- while, &c. &c.

X. X. malla, 316; Yaminna, “ on the

May, 1817.

To the Editor of the Asiatic Journal. Sır,—Observing in your Jour- year 1802, without any consideranal for April a letter signed Asia- tion as to the Presidency to which ticus, containing some remarks on they were immediately attached”the Memoir of the late Major Ge- and I admit that it is reasonable and neral Sir George Holmes, K. C. B. proper that it should have been so. of the Bombay army, I, as the But this makes no difference in my compiler of that article, beg of plain statement of a plain fact,you to find room for an observa- namely, that “ one Commander's tion or two, brief I hope, on the Cross was destined for the Bombay communication of Asiaticus. Army.” I did not say only one,

The part of the Memoir that though it would have been true if called for the animadversions of I had said so. your correspondent is quoted by The other point that called for him, and the objectionable points the observation of Asiaticus is not, in his view, are my having said that like the former, a statement of a “one commander's cross was des- plain fact; but is a mere matter of tined for the Bombay Army," – opinion, on which any two honorand that “ could the wish of every able men may differ without disofficer of that army have been as

credit to either or to any one. I certained, few, perhaps not one, have offered it most inoffensively, would have desired the brilliant both as to intention and effect. distinction to have been otherwise But Asiaticus has assumed and bestowed than upon Sir George combated as mine, a very offensive Holmes.”

supposition, never in the remotest From this, Asiaticus has assum- degree entertained by me, and of ed an assertion on my part that the which no trace exists in the meBombay army could or can pos- moir in question. Saying and besess but one knight commander. lieving, as I did, that an army But let it be observed that I have would by a majority of voices, persimply stated a fact, namely, that haps unanimously, have desired

one cross was destined for the that the destined cross, where there Bombay army”-a fact incontro was but one, should have been apvertible, for one has reached that propriated to a certain officer, is destination. Whether a greater one thing, and as a matter of spe. number of crosses was or was not culation, I think, altogether inofso destined, or why, if any more, fensive ; saying or insinuating that they did not reach their destina - could the wishes of that army tion, I was ignorant, and they are have been accomplished," the dispoints on which I offered no opi- tinction would not likewise have nion. What

may

have influenced been bestowed on other officers, is the source of this honor, or those another, essentially different, and under whose orders it was bestow. what I have never asserted or suped, I have no means of ascertaining. posed. It is in the latter sense, of

Asiaticus asserts that no specific which, I repeat, no trace is disnumber of Knights Commanders cernible in my paragraph that was permanently apportioned to Asiaticus seems to have received the Bombay Army, and he shews, it; and were his view correct, his I presume on good authority, why remarks might not have been otheronly one of its officers was honored wise. As it is, he combats with the order. I confess that I shadow of his own creation. was not at the moment aware that I can, with as much truth as "the dignity was conferred on Asiaticus, be he who he may, disthose fifteen officers in the service claim any motive in my former or of the East-India Company who present communication, tending to were considered to have most dis- the dishonor of the Bombay tinguished themselves since the Army. I may not so well know

a

its desires or wishes, nor its re cannot be ignorant that the Bomcent merits, as Asiaticus, but I bay Army would earnestly desire know that such men as General to see them likewise bear the brilOakes and Colonel Walker, and liant distinction that they so highothers of like stamp, belong or did ly merit.-I am, Sir, Yours, &c. belong to it; and knowing this, I London, May 14th, 1817. A. Z.

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To the Editor of the Asiatic Journal. Sir,--It was not until yester- admission of air, it is plain that the day that I read, in your number water would rise in it to the height for April last, the continuation of of thirty-four or thirty-five feet, the review of Dr. Martin's Ac on the air within it having been count of the Natives of the Tonga consumed, which it must have Islands, wherein, in pages 350 to been, if not by the lady's residence 353, the reviewer extracts his re in it, at least by the frequent visits lation of Mr. Mariner's visit to a of the natives; for, although no very extraordinary cavern. one particular visit might have

The tradition relating to it may been sufficient for the consumpbe true,-whether so or not, it tion of all the air, yet, if there forms a pleasing story:

were no opening for a replenishistence of the cavern itself is be- ment, the total consumption would yond dispute, if Mr. Mariner's be effected as well at several diftestimony is to be believed, which ferent periods as by one continued I see no reason for questioning. operation. The cavern, in such Your extract concludes with a case, must have been nearly full of speculation of the Doctor's re water. But, if we suppose that specting the existence of some the visits paid to it by respiring opening, through which air is ad- beings had been sufficient to conmitted, a matter which he leaves sume* but a small portion of the in doubt. But, there is a fact, air, yet, every minute's presence connected with the science of of such a being must consume a pneumatics, which must determine part, and cause a proportioned the question in the affirmative, and rise in the water, which rise, as which it surprises me that neither Finow's party appears to have conthe Doctor nor your reviewer sisted of several persons, and to slould have noticed. The fact is, have continued for the space of two that if any vessel, open at one part hours, must have been very consionly, and being in other respects derable at the time of Mr. Mariner's air-tight, have the open part im- visit, and could not possibly have mersed in a sufficient quantity of escaped his notice. It appears water, on the air being excluded, to me, that the above remarks the vessel will immediately be filled do not leave a doubt remaining as with water by the pressure of the to the existence of some other external air; or if the vessel be opening into the cavern besides more than thirty-four or thirty-five that beneath the surface of the feet in height, the water will rise sea. They, therefore, put the within it that much above the sur Doctor's speculation to rest; and, face of the water on the outside, should they be thought worthy that being the point at which the your attention, you will do honor respective weight of the air and to them by inserting them in

your the water counterbalance each valuable publication.-I am, Sir, other. Or, if the air be not en

Yours, &c. H. R. G. tirely excluded, the water will still May 23, 1817. rise in proportion to the quantity

* It is very generally admitted, we believe, that of air that is withrawn from the the expenditure of the vital principle by respiravessel. If, therefore, the cavern the atmosphere, but that it is rendered unfit for in question have no avenue for the

animal life by the development of quantities of

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