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the counsel for the prosecution, (Barnard) but it was inaudible, beyond the table at which the counsel, &c., were sitting.

Recorder --Defendant, you cannot on this ground challenge the Gentleman as a matter of right; but if the gentleman who is engaged for the Crown does not object to the gentleman leaving the box, he may do so.

Defendant, claim it as a matter of right. Mr. Barnard here rose and said, that the Defendant was mistaken if he imagined he had a right to any such indulgence; but that the prosecutors wished to afford every reasonable advantage to the prisoners and they had already proved their disposition to do so, by their conduct towards the former defendants.

Defendant—The learned gentleman has stated that the former defendants had every reasonable advantage given them. I must be allowed to except the very reasonable request of Mr. Clarke, that he might be allowed five minutes to refresh himself, which was refused him, though it was at the time evident he was nearly fainting. I challenged the Juror as a matter of right; but as the Court has decided that it is not matter of right, I will trust to the honor of the Juror, who, is in all probability, prejudiced against me, rather than condescend to accept his expulsion as a favour at the hands of my Christian persecutors.

Recorder-Do you decline then accepting the offer of the gentleman for the prosecution ?

Defendant-I do.

The jury having been sworn-Mr. Barnard opened the case. He said this prosecution like the preceding ones had been instituted at the instance of the Solicitor to the Treasury. It was not an attack on the liberty of the subject, every man was at liberty to worship God in any manner he thought proper ; but no man would be allowed with impunity to attack the Holy Scriptures or to ridicule the established faith. He should not say much upon the subject, as he was perfectly convinced that the Jury, as men of sense, would, on hearing the passages read, be convinced of its blasphemous nature. One observation more however he must make. If works of this nature were to be suffered to stalk forth, every tie that rendered life worth preserving, would be broken. He conjured the Jury therefore to give such a verdict as would satisfy their own consciences, they having been warned before-hand of the danger to be apprehended from the free publication of such works, as the one for selling which the defendant was then indicted. George Leadbetter was then called and sworn. Barnard-Do

you know No. 84, Fleet Street? Witness—I do. Barnard-- Is it in the City ? Witness-It is. Barnard-Whose name is over the door? Witness-R. Carlile.



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Barnard-Did you go there on the 21st of May?
Witness-I did.
Barnard-Who did you see in the shop?
Witness—The Defendant at the bar.
Barnard - Did
you ask him for


Witness-I did. I asked him for the Republican, he handed it
to me, and I paid him sixpence.

Barnard-Did you mark it previous to having let it go out of
your possession?

Witness I did.

Recorder-You are now at liberty to ask the witness any
Defendant-You have stated that

you asked me for the Repub-
lican, pray was that the first book you asked me for?

Witness: It was.
Defendant: On your

oath, did


ask me for no other book? Witness: No other book:

Defendant: I speak plain English, Sir, but to assist your memory, did you ask me for Paine's Age of Reason, or Palmer's Principles of Nature ?

Witness: (hesitating) No.

Defendant: Now, Sir, be careful what answers you give, I repeat the question, did you not ask me for those books, and on my refusal did you not tell me you were going into the country? Witness: No.

Defendant: Did you not tell me you were going into the country?

Witness: I did.

Defendant: And do you remember that on your telling me that falsehood, I detected you, and told you that I knew your purpose? Witness: You said


knew me.
Defendant: Very well, you found I was not to be gulled into
the sale of the prohibited works, so your worthy compeer (point-
ing to Raven who sat by the counsely thought fit to prosecute this
work, But I think you said, just now, that you did not ask me for
other work, pray


you not buy a number of the Moralist? Witness: (starting) oh yes, I remember, I did buy a number of the Moralist.

Defendant: Oh you did, pray did Mr. Raven employ you to
buy it, or was it an adventure of your own?

Witness: I bought it for myself.
Defendant: Oh you did, did you read any of it?
Witness: No.

Defendant: Oh I forgot, your morals being under Mr. Raven's
superintendence, you do not of course want the aid of books.

Recorder: Defendant you are not to comment at present on the evidence of the witness, your time will be presently.

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Defendant: Really my lord, the evidence creates so many ideas in my mind, that I must give some of them vent

(Here his Lordship frowned direfully.)

Defendant: Pray, Sir, who pays you for this job, and what is the sum you are paid?

Witness: I am not paid any thing.
Defendant: Are you allowed your expences?

Witness: I do not know.
Defendant: No evasion Sir: do you intend to apply for them?
Witness: I do not know that I shall.

Defendant: If you do apply, at what rate per diem do you mean to charge for your expences?

Witness: I never make any charge.

Defendant: Oh, you don't; you see, Gentlemen of the Jury, the witness leaves these little matters to the generosity of my Christian persecutors, who no doubt pay him according to his success in these cases. Then you come here, actuated simply by a love of religion and a detestation of blasphemy.

Witness: I do.

Defendant: That answer is amply sufficient to convince me of your love of religion and the scrupulous honour of your mind, you may go down, Sir,

Recorder: Mr. Raven's name is at the back of the Indictment have you any questions to ask him?

Defendant: I shall not unnecessarily take up the time of the Court, the last witness has said quite enough to prove the animus in which these prosecutions are carried on. Recorder: Then now is your time to offer any


you may think fit.

DEFENCE. MY LORD, AND GENTLEMEN OF THE JURY, I am indicted for having published a false, malicious and scandalous libel, tending to bring into contempt.the Christian religion, as by law established. But, Gentlemen of the Jury, I trust that I shall be able to prove to you, that the passage, on which the indictment is founded, is not false, not malicious, not scandalous; but that it is true in every part, that it is published not with malicious intentions, but for the good of mankind. Gentlemen of the Jury, allow me to ask, each of you, were some furious animal about to trample upon your favourite child, did its death seem inevitable, would you call him malicious, who, at the risk of his own life, should throw himself in the brute's passage and sacrifice him to secure your infant's safety? No, you could not be so unjust. The already bloated demon of clerical avarice, foams with rage, the liberty of man lay prostrate at its feet, wide gaped its voracious jaws; but a saviour appeared; the writings of Thomas Paine, which had been but imperfectly understood, were given to the


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world by a man worthy the action. The faction imprisoned him, and loudly o'er their goblets did they shout with joy; for their enemy was in a dungeon's gloom. But short was their triumph; great was their consternation, when the voice of their brave opponent was heard from his prison; “vox et præterea nihil,” shouted a few, more besotted than their fellows. But soon did they find that the voice was amply sufficient to render comfortless their beds of down, and insecure their boasted rights divine. New oppressions were heaped on the gallant prisoner of Dorchester, still he manfully'resisted, humanity saw his sufferings and blushed; zealots in defence of Old Mother Church became converts to his writings, and even turtle-fed bishops lamented the severity of his treatment,

But the active enemies of freedom were still pursuing their righteous occupation. No one could enter the shop but with the certainty of being immured in a gaol. Men, nay women also were found, bold enough to dare all; at length tired out, the hydra-headed monster sought repose, publication was free, men read and their minds were improved: for twelve months this course was pursued and all good men hoped that it would be perpetuated. But of a sudden all these hopes were annihilated, the work of oppression recommenced, and the gallant Campion was the first victim: but did his apprehension intimidate others from following his glorious example? Oh, no, in a wonderfully short space of time, the Solicitor to the Treasury had apprehended seven persons more, and for the satisfaction of George Maule, Esq., and all others whom it may concern, I thus publicly tell him, he has but commenced a task, which his whole life will not be long enough to complete. I perceive a gentleman smile and shake his head; I am not very intelligent at interpreting signs; the gentleman appears to me, to intimate that they will redouble their efforts, let them apprehend twenty men weekly, and they will be as far from their object as

Previous to entering fully on my defence, I must remark on the conduct of that part of the press, styling itself liberal, and more particularly on that particular journal, the soi disant, “ leading Journal.” . It has been stated, in the very impartial and consistent leading Journal, that the defendant in the first of this series of trials, “ was evidently ignorant of the nature of the defence which had been composed for him, by some person, who had imposed on him by representing it as likely to serve him.” If there be a reporter present connected with this veracious Journal, I beg to inform him, that all those who have preceded me in defending their principles were not only fully aware of the consequences of such a style of defence was likely to draw upon them; but are equally acquainted with what must be the result of a war of persecution and priestcraft, opposed to undaunted courage and useful literature, and that there is no person in the back ground as

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has been insinuated. As far as I am individually concerned, I beg to say, that, whether my defence tends to injure or serve me, I only am answerable for it; I say this much, because I would not have it


forth to the world, that designing men engage unlettered individuals to expose themselves to the danger; while cowards reap the profit. We are not ignorant, we are not driven by frantic poverty to engage in the sale of these works, far otherwise; we know that we cannot reasonably expect to continue more than a day or two in the employment, and we have every reasonable prospect of being consigned to the company of the Newgate beetles, for some five or six and thirty moons: yet no title in the gift of the proud sovereign of these realms is more eagerly sought, than a situation of so honourable a nature; thus much for others: for myself I shall feel obliged to the reporter to the forementioned Journal, if present, to be particular in his report, that he does not accuse me as he has done one person, who deserves it no more than myself, of ignorance of the contents of my papers. For though I am not an editor of a “leading Journal," I would not be thought a perfect dunce. I shall only remark that whether my defence is calculated to serve or to prejudice me, it is my own composition, and I beg that the reporter of the leading Journal will observe that I am not “bothered,” (1 quote his own language)by the hard words: thus much for the leading journalof the day. I shall now, Gentlemen of the Jury, proceed to defend myself

against the accusation of George Maule, Esq. I am indicted • for having published a false, malicious, and scandalous libel, tend

ing to bring into contempt the Christian religion as by law established. Now, Gentlemen of the Jury, I contend, that the publication in question is not calculated to bring into contempt the Christian religion as by law established---neither Moses nor Joshua were divine. The Mosaic law, yourselves have abolished, you have substituted the less severe, but not less ridiculous law of faith for that of works. I contend farther, my Lord, that your religion has been established by power, not by general consent. Protestantism is the offspring of an adulterous monarch, established by persecution, and perpetuated by ignorance and prejudice. I am aware that in arguing against Protestantism I have to contend against prejudices deeply rooted and industriously cultivated. But I have a duty to perform which neither the frowns of a Judge nor the sneer of an advocate, shall induce me to neglect. It is not my intention to enter so deeply into the theological merits of the case, as has been done by some of those who have preceded me in defending their principles; because I have not so much ability as those persons, neither do I conceive, that by so doing, I should materially serve either myself or the cause in which I have embarked, and with which I will stand or fall.

Under this iinpression, I shall, in a great measure, confine myself to a justification of the particular passages set forth in the indict

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