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Certain Projects of the Day. ; [March, persons desirous to be informed on this a hundred thousand pounds per anmost serious subject, feeling that all num detracted from useful charities remarks I could offer would be vain at home. Why do they exist? Beand presumptuous.

cause particular individuals get by them : 'Yours, &c. Anna E. BRAY. worldly repute and pecuniary advan


• Anti-QUACKERY., Mr. URBAN, A S a reader of philosophical history Mr. URBAN, Kellington, Feb. 13. H and travels, 'I beg to lay before T N order to investigale, and in conyou the following consequences of cer- 1 sequence to furnish a more expliiain popular projects of the day. cit and satisfactory answer to the en. : 1. Slave Trade. The violent aboli- quiry of your correspondent Z. A. at tion so furiously pressed, would take p. 504 of your December Magazine, from the crown of Great Britain the (who there asks the following ques. West Indies.

iion : " A religious house being seised 2. Missionary Societies' would, if of the advowson of A., a vicar was reurged in the same violent manner, de- gularly endowed. On the dissolution, tach the East Indies from our empire, the advowson and rectorial tithes came and occasion the Aight or massacre of to the crown, and were granted to a all the Europeans.

layman. Aster a considerable time had 3. The Bible Society would spread passed, the gentleman who was in spurious versions of the Scriptures over possession conveyed them to the vicar the whole world, and expend enor- for the time being, or in trust for him. mous sums of money in throwing They have been enjoyed so ever since. away bibles among those who will Is the church now a rectory or a vicarnever read them, because they cannot age?") it may be, perhaps, not be read. .

deemed irrelevant to take a short view 4. Evangelical Preaching, through of the origin and nature of ecclesiastical ulter neglect of impressing the duties establishments in this kingdom. of man and the conditions of salvation, For the first six or seven centuries makes people regardless of their ac- after the first propagation of Christions, and teaches them to depend tianity in England, and prior to its upon profession only, for future happi- distribution into parishes, all tithes, ness.

oblacions, and ecclesiastical profits 5. Religious enthusiasm converts the whatsoever, seemed to have belonged ignorant into fanatics, who think that exclusively to the parochial bishops, they do God service by committing the who invariably resided along with their most atrocious acts; even murder, ar- clergy, presbyters, and deacons, in son (as at York Minster), &c. &c. their caihedral church. At this pe

The certain results of all these pro- riod, therefore, in the nature of things, jects are very serious civil and political it was impossible that religious beneevils, namely, dismemberment. of the fices could be invested in the hands of empire in the two first; corruption of any layman, or be employed for any the Scriptures and knavish peculation secular purposes whatever. Such was in the third ; and dangerous demorali- the practice of our British, as well as zation of the people in the fourth and afterwards of our more recent Saxon fifth.

ancestors. The rites of religion were It matters not, that sophistry and performed alone in these united choirs : cant are employed in propagating and to them the whole population of the advocating these mischievous bubbles; district, or parochia, or diocese, were the facts are proved, and the conse- under the necessity of resorting, more quences self-evident; not that it is de especially at the solemn times and seasirable that good objects should not be sons of devotion. patronised; but the truth is, that the In progress of time, and in consemeasures for effecting these objects are quence of the increasing population, designed in the most palpable folly, a and the very great distance at which folly which would defeat the success many parts of the saine district were of them, and occasion an irreparable necessarily situated from this centre of mischief to the whole country. Never- unity, many inconveniencies were theless, for the support of these imprac. found to result. In order more fully ticable and dangerous speculations, the to satisfy the craving wishes of those people are factionized, and more than early converts for religious instruction,

1929.) Origin of our Ecclesiustical Establishments.'

199 and for the more ready administration cred to the altar, and did not presume of sacred rites, the bishops were ine to alienate them to any ordinary temduced to send out missionaries into the poral uses. more remote parts, who, nevertheless, Though the whole emolument of a regularly returned to their stationary diocese was thus, at the first, at the abodes, and as regularly gave a due sole receipt and disposal of the bishop, account to their diocesans of their las yet that there inight appear some show bours and successes in their several pe- of justice in the expenditure and applia regrinations.

cation of it, the ecclesiastical fund was At what period of time the division generally divided into four paris; one in Eugland' into rural parishes, and was appropriated to sustain the fabric the foundation of churches adequate to and ornaments of the church, another them, was first instituted, seems to be was allotted to the officiating priest, a uncertain. It is, perhaps, not attri- third to the poor and necessitous trabutable to any one act, or to any parti. vellers, and a fourth was reserved for cular age. Sometimes the itinerant the more immediate supply of the colpreachers found it 'advisable to settle, legiate body. When, however, these inore permanently, amongst a liberal collective societies began, through the people, and by their assistance to found increasing piety or superstition of a church. Sometimes such establish the iimes, to be more magnificently ments have owed their origin even to endowed, they were also induced tas royal bounty, which was induced, citly to recede froin a scrupulous dethrough pious motives, to rear and mand of their fourth part, and the endow a sacred fabric in their country parish priest thus became the receiver villas, and seats of pleasure and retires and disiributor of the three remaining, ment, for the more immediate conve- as the bishop had been before; still, nience of their court and relinue. however, holding himself bound to Hence proceeded the original of free expend them, as heretofore, in acts chapels. The Thanes, or greater and of benevolence and religion. .. more powerful lords, soon followed the This tripartite division soon gave same example: hence the patronage rise to many and considerable disorof laymen.

ders. The lay-patrons and founders The right, however, of the bishop of ecclesiastical establishments were still continued unimpaired, both in speedily induced to in fer from it, that respect of spirituals and temporals. To a third part of the revenues was amply hin still belonged the sole cure of souls. sufficient for the maiutainance of an To him was still attached the same acting minister, and, in consequence, spiritual and temporal power over his undertook to appropriate the iwo reofficiating clergy, as belonged to the maining parts to themselves, still probaron over his tenantry. As each te. fessing to apply this surplus entirely to nant was, in some way or other, sub- the purposes of religion and hospitaservient to his temporal lord, for re. lity.' By degrees they proceeded so caining peaceable possession of his far as io retain them in their own estates, so the presbyter made a similar hands, and at length, even 10 get * return of some part of the parochial themselves inseosed in them, and ulti

profits to his bishop, for the security mately to devise them to their heirs. or enjoying the remainder. Various This was practised inore especially causes, however, at length conspired within their own demesnes. Hence, lo divert many of these parochial emo. perhaps, parishes became co-extensive luments from the immediate use of with ihe manors of their respective the bishop and his clergy. The more lords, and may possibly account for powerful and richer patrons were, by the inconvenient siluations of many monastic aris, induced to bring all churches at the present day, they their offerings, and to communicate in having originally been placed near the some religious foundation, or in the residence or in the midst of the terricell of some particular recluse. This tory of their ancient original founders. discretionary allotment of oblations. These powerful Thanes at last seised though in some instances injurious 10 upon the whole prædial tithes, aud particular parishes, did not in the left the altarage, (which consisted least tend to violate the rights of the merely of voluntary oblations,) and the national church, or clergy. The do- smaller dues, as the portion of the senors invariably considered them as sa- cular or officiating clergy. Conscience, 200

Rectorial and Vicorial Tithes discriminated. [March, however, at length becoming predo- to parish priests, who in populous and minant, these powerful patrons were rich districts procured a vicar to be induced to make a laudable restitution endowed, upon whom they devolved of the perpetual advowson of many the cure of souls, while they continued benefices so seised, to some particular to have the more lucrative rectory individual, or to some collective eccle. settled upon themselves and their heirs, siastical body. This restitution is as a sine-cure for ever. supposed completely to have taken from this account of the first naplace prior to the reformation.

ture of ecclesiastical endowments, it In the monasteries, for some time, may be observed in what manner recwas almost entirely invested the cure torial and vicarial tithes have, in the of souls. Distant and sequestered dis present day, become so much perplextricts were supplied with officiating ed and confounded. Whenever the clergy from the parent society. These small oblations, &c. were found inade. actually serving inonks took the eccle- quate to the support of the vicar, the siastical duties upon themselves in patron or rector was held bound, from turn, either by roiation, or to satisfy the rectorial revenue, 10 supply the some penitential order which had been deficiency: and if at any time the vi. imposed upon them by their superiors. carial tibes were superabundant for Al length, however, such changes, this purpose, then a part of them intermissions, and scandalous abuses again reverted into the hands of the in the pastoral care had crept into the pairon for the uses of hospitality and church, what they began to attract the benevolence. Hay, for instance, and serious attention of the respective agistment is occasionally a rectorial diocesans to which they belonged. or vicarial right. The rectorial claim The bishops, in order to maintain seems to apply to every production of their own respectability, were con- nature ; the vicarial merely to that strained by degrees 10 restrain the part of them which was originally monks from the personal cure of souls, granted by their endowments, or afterand compel them to retain sufficient wards paid by subsequent usage. and able inen, (capellans, vicars, or Hence the answer to the question curales, for all these are nearly the of your correspondent, at first alluded same office,) with a competent salary, to, seems to be clear. Every benefice and altogether independent of the mo. is held by a rector, who may be a nastery, to supply the vacant offices of layman, a corporate body, or an ecparish priests in the distant churches clesiastic, to whom the great tithes of and chapels belonging to them, and right belong; and an endowed vicar, to confine the monks entirely to the to whom, by equal right, the smaller cloister. Hence, perhaps, the first dues, whatever they may be, are apdistinction and separate division of pended. These may, through various tithes originally appropriated to the contracts, civil and religious, be nurector and vicar. In the first instance, tually interchanged. A vicarage may both rectors and vicars were necessarily become a rectory by the adjunction of ecclesiastics, or religious foundations. all the primitive rights of ihe original Prior to the time of Henry VIII, lay founder and pairon, in whom alone impropriations were altogether unac- they seem to be united, to the existing knowledged, either liy law or reason. vicar; and a rectory may be changed Such tenures, however, by various into a vicarage by the same conveyance, arts and niachinations of sacred-traffic by the patron retaining the prædial, ing individuals and corporate bodies, and continuing only the smaller emo(for such existed even in ihose early Juments to his delegated substitute. times,) rapidly increased. In a short In the case mentioned by Z. A. all period of time, (such is generally the the rectorial as well vicarial rights beswift advance of evil,) we find favours ing vested by will in the then incumof this kind procured by paying a cer- bent, the vicarage becomes necessarily tain compensation at Rome, for secu- a rectory. It may, however, be suglar colleges, for chantries, for lay hos- gested, that the same power which pitals, for guilds and other aggregate was able to unite, may be inherent in bodies, for military orders, nay, for the present possessor or patron, if such nunneries, thus constituting even should still exist, with the approbation women rectors of parishes. The ex- of his diocesan, again to disjoin them. ample extended itself to individuals, Yours, &c.


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