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(May,

434

Review.-Police Reports. born before the marriage of the parties. The next item under discussion Upon striking an average, we found shows that the convictions in the the number to be one in every three country have increased 105 per cent. hundred, according to the census of and exceeded those of London and 1811 and 1821, and the population Middlesex 50 per cent. while the exehaving increased from nine hundred cutions in the country have decreased to nearly twelve hundred, we find that 28 per cent, and in London and Midnow the proportion has grown from dlesex have increased 5 per cent. three in nive hundred, to three and It is plain, from the table in p. 286, three-fourths of another in about ele. that by the word executed we are to ven hundred. This was a very odd understand, persons lianged in conseresult; but it shows how much mora quence of having received sentence of lity is indebted to matrimony, for, death. though such unions may be compul. Here we must make another table, sory, through the bastardy laws, and which will show the prevalence of the may vary considerably in other places; different sorts of capital crime, which yet every one knows that the baptisms by excess or diminution distinguish the of illegitimates in a parish register bear vices of the country and metropolis. no numerical comparison with those The period is from 1811 to 1827 inof childreu born in wedlock.

clusive, i, e. seventeen years.

Persons erecuted.

Engl. & Lond. & Names of Crimes.

Wales. Middls. Arson and other wilful burning of property...

3 Bankrupt concealing his effects ...... Burglary...........

62 Cattle stealing (i.) ........

- maliciously killing .............
Coining .................
Coin, uttering counterfeit (having been before convicted, &c.)...
Forgery, and uttering forged instruments (ii.)...............................
Horse-stealing (iii.)...............
House-breaking in the day time, and larceny.. ......................... ....
Larceny in dwelling houses to the value of 408............

on navigable rivers to the value of 40s. (iv.).............
Letters containing Bank notes, secreting and stealing..........................
Murder...........

167
shooting at, stabbing, and administering poison, with intent to
Piracy and Felony.....................
Rape, &c....................
Riot, &c. (remaining assembled with rioters for one hour after the Pro-

clamation under the Riot Act had been read)...............
Robbery on the person, on the highway and other places.......... ........
Sacrilege.........
Sheep-stealing ............
Sodomy..........
Treason, High ................ .......................................
Transport being at large, &c. .........

none.
Trees, growing in a plantation for profit, &c. unlawfully and maliciously
cutting down and destroying .........

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Thus the number of convicts exe- population but circumstances occasion cuted in the country is to the number the increase or decrease of crime. of those executed in London between Now let us compare some of the cathree and four in the former to one in pital crimes. the latter ;-but the population is four- Burglary in the country has exceedteen times in round numbers greater ed that in town nearly six times. in the former than in the latter; and Forgery, more than twice. if the crime and population went pas Horse-stealing, more than five. sibus æquis, only ninety-one execu Larceny, not twice. tions would have taken place in Lon Murder, more than four. don. Thus it appears plain that not Robbery on the person, more than 3.

1829.]
Review.-Police Reports.

435 It is plain, then, that the larceny agricultural distress, there were execoinmitted in London is more than cuted in London, after deducting 41 one-half of that perpetrated in the for forgery, and 3 for rape, &c. 91; whole kingdom besides. Larceny is, and in the country, after making simitherefore, the predominant crime of lar deductions, 380. Total, 477. the Metropolis.

Thus crime increased one-fourth, The number of persons sentenced to notwithstanding the fall of commodi. death in the country during the said ties in the last five years mentioned. seventeen years, was 16,712; in Lon. We shall now take two periods of don and Middlesex, 2851; or more seven years each, without discriminatthan five to one of the former, ing the crimes, that we may show the 15,426 were pardoned, or had their increase or decrease, and average, in sentences commuted. Of the latter, these respective intervals. 2497. Of the criminals in the country From 1814 to 1820, both years in. only one in nearly thirteen suffered clusive, there were executed in the death; in town, about one in eight. country 649, average between 92 and

Thus crime has either greater atro. 93 per annum; in town 167, average city in the latter, or the law is more not quite 24 per annum. [It is releniently enforced in the foriner. markable, that in 1820 the executions

We shall now make some remarks in London were nearly double those of deduced from the preceding tables. any preceding or subsequent years. The

i. Catlle-stealing. It is noticeable increase seems to have chiefly laid in that there is no execution for this the sorgeries and robberies.] crime from 1811 to 1816, and only

From 1821 to 1827, both years inthree from 1817 to 1827.

clusive, there were executed in the ji. Forgery. There were in the country 490, average 70 per annum; country one hundred and eighty-one

in London 134, average 19 per ann. criininals executed between 1811 and

Thus, according to the number of 1823; and only eleven from 1823 to

executions, crime has decreased with1827. Thus as the average number

in the last seven years ; but to show of sufferers per annum was in the first

how far pardon or commutation of putwelve years fifteen; so in the last it

nishieni has affected the above calcu. was only two. Thirteen lives out of

lations, we shall now give the numfifteen were therefore saved in the

bers sentenced to death during the country alone by the resumption of

same two periods, and subtract the one cash payments.

amount from the other. iii. Horse stealing. None executed

From 1814 10 1820, both years inin London before 1825.

clusive, there were in the country iv. Larceny on navigable rivers.

7107 criminals sentenced to death, of None in the country or London, since

which were executed 649. There were

therefore released by pardon or com1818.

We shall now take the number of mutation 6458.

We shall now take the numbers of dit is remarkable, that in the first persons executed during the war from 1811 to 1816, when provisions were

year after the peace, viz. 1816, the high; and from 1816 to 1827 during

number of capital sentences in the peace, when they were low ; deduct.

country increased about 300, and has ing from the gross amounts convictions

since continued in nearly the same rafor forgery and crimes uniconnected

tio. In London the increase in the with a state of plenty or cheapness.

same year was not quite 100, and has

not continued in that ratio, but be. Froin 1811 to 1815 inclusive, the

low it. ) number of persons executed in the From 1814 to 1820, both years in. country, after deducting convictions

clusive, there were sentenced to death

usi for arson, forgery, rape, and an abo

in London and Middlesex 1327, of minable offence, was 266. In town,

whom were executed 167; there were after making the same deductions, 43.*

released by pardon or commutation Total, 314.

1160. In the country, therefore, about In 1815 peace was made, and from one in ten escaped capital punishment; 1816 to 1820 inclusive, the period of in London, only about one in eight,

during the above periods. * There were no less than 33 for forgery From 1821 10 1827, both years inin town; in the country, 65.

clusive, there were sentenced to death [May,

436

Review.-Kinsey's Portugal illustrated. in the country 7946, of whom there At the opera of Lisbon our author were executed 490, or only one out of saw a theatrical regiment composed sixteen or nearly seventeen; in town, entirely of females, who marched and 1148 were sentenced to death, of went through the evolutions with most whom were executed 134, or one in wonderful precision, and handled their eight or nearly nine.

muskets like heroines. (p. 66.) The · Thus it plainly appears, that in the filth and stench of the streets are so inpresent day country rogues have nearly tolerable, that it spoils the appetite for a double chance of escape over those dinner among Englishmen; but, such of London. Now, without partiality is the force of habit, that a Lisbon fop for either of these distinctions of per complained of his residence when in sons, or at all desiring to lessen mercy

London, being uncomfortable and disto any of them, we only know that agreeable, through want of the Lis. when Justice does not hold her scales bon smells. (p. 79.) The viands at even, it is only because she puts her meals are bad salt fish, dirty looking sword into the one to weigh it down. rice, half-fed meat, hard boiled beef, for the purpose of deterring by more

not salted, tongue or bacon, waxy posevere example, or because there are tatoes, dumplings of adamantine congreater circumstances of atrocity in the texture, cheese like flint, “a small crimes. Admiring, however, the ne- quantity of very poor wine, abundance cessity, it is clear that inequality of of water, and an awful army of red danger and punishment is unfavour- ants, probably imported from the Braable to the decrease of crime in the zils, in the wood of which the chairs parts spared.

and tables are made, hurrying across the cloth, and a lurking banditti of

Aleas in the tapestry-covered chairs. Portugal illustrated, in a Series of Letters. (p. 82.) The streets are filled with

By the Rev. W. M. Kinsey, B.D. Fellow dogs without masters, congregating in of Trinity College, Oxford, &c. embellish- packs; dunghills are placed at the ed with a Map, Plates of Coins, Vignettes, doors of good houses ; and filth is Modinhas, and various Engravings of Cose thrown out of the windows at night. tumes, Landscape Scenery, &c. Second (p. 84.) Kitchen chimnies are of a Edit. Imp. 8vo. pp. 564.

conical form. (p. 129.) Swans painte THE chief praise of writing Travels ed with crown's around their necks, in the epistolary form is due to Lady occur at the Royal palace of Cintra. Mary Wortley Montague. Her cele. (p. 130.) This is a cognizance of our brated Letters are full of sprightliness, Henry IV. Richard II. bore a white laste, and elegance. The substance of hart, collared and chained Or; and in these Letters was supplied in part from the same palace the arms of the Portuthe author's journal, and partly from guese nobility are pendent from the communications addressed 10 Mr. necks of slags. (p. 130.) These are Bayly and other friends; and though curious coincidences; but the palace it should appear that the public is was built by Don Emanuel, beiween the real correspondent of the author, 1495 and 1521, long after the reigns it is of no moment if he has taste of our Kings. The kitchens generally and judgment to make his materials are our garrets, in the tops of the those which will instruct and inte- houses. (p. 177.) Gentlemen's car. rest. In the work before us those riages are frequently drawn by oxen. materials embrace a whole museum of (p. 207.) Stirrups are wooden clogs every kind of information which can open behind. (p. 257.) Carts, supposed be desired concerning Portugal, an to have been borrowed from the Rounforlupate nation, preyed upon like mans, and imitative of the Greek war a carcase in a field, by monks, priests, chariots, are low, and set upon thick and fidalgos (gentlemen), “who are small wheels, cut out of a single piece the principal authors of the moral, re of wood. (p. 289.) The Jews' harp is ligious, and political degradation, as capitally played upon by itinerant muwell as abject misery of their unfortu. sicians.' (p. 380.)' To keep water and nate country.” Pref. xvii.

other liquids cool in summer, "earthen · In noticing books of Travels, it is vessels are made of clay, containing our practice to pick flowers and make lime and iron, so as to be very porous, them up into a bouquet. We shall do but without glazing. These vessels, so now.

which are called pucaros or alcarrazes,

1829.) Review.-Kinsey's Portugal illustrated.

437 suffer the moisture to pervade their are divided into terçoes ; the first five are substance in the form of a fine dew, called the joyful mysteries ; the second five, which is continually evaporating and

the dolorous; and the last, the glorious producing cold.” P. 406.

mysteries." P. 469. This fictile composition deserves the

Sweetmeats form the great luxury, attention of our potters.

and to the habit of eating these, “ as The Portuguese bee-hives are in ge

provocatives to drink, deep draughts of neral of a cylindrical form, made out of water, which blow the body out, Costhe rind of a cork tree, and are usually

tigan ascribes the little, fat, pursy mis

tigan ascrii covered with a flat piece of cork, or shapen persons of the nobility.” P.488. · with a pan of earthen ware inverted,

Our author has described and enthe edge of which projects over the graved (p. 514) a cromleh near Avrahive, like a penthouse. (459.) Bee yolos ; and between Pegoës and Ven. hives of cork are Roman. (See Ency.

das Novas, Hautefort saw a stone cirof Antiq. i. 61.)

cle of twelve enormous blocks erect, The compartinents of the Rosary

and a thirteenth in the middle (p.501), are thus given :

a most decisive proof that this circle “ The complete Rosary consists of fif

was intended to represent the twelve teen paternosters, and one hundred and

months, or signs of the zodiac, with fifty ave-marias, ten of the last to each of the Sun in the centre. the first; so that the whole rosary contains At Leiria, which sprang from the fifteen parts or mysteries concerning the ancient town of Callipo, Mr. Kinsey Son and the Virgin Mary. The "terco” is saw a curious arch of an old chapel, a third part of the rosary. The mysteries of which this is an engraving:

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438

Review.-Cambrian Quarterly Magazine. [May, which, upon a first hasty view from a dis The Cambrian Quarterly Magazine, tance, would appear to resemble the west

Nos. 1 and 2. ern Saxon door of Ifley Church near Oxford, and many others of that æra, and of a

IT has often been matter of regret later date. But upon a nearer inspection,

to us, that our Cambrian neighbours this circular arch at Leira, reputed Moorish,

have not, with the enlarged views would seem to be nothing more than a va with which literature is promoted in riety of the same description of Gothic arch. other parts of this island, indulged the “1. The outward mouldings which run

uninitiated in their language with the round the receding arches, are decorated

hidden stores it contains—that, setting with a wreath of Rowers, evidently of an aside those contracted notions that reoriental character. 2. The terminations on

quire implicit belief in all their tradieither side are supported by columns, orna tions, in all their wild conjectures, mented with heads looking upwards. 3. they should not treat the affairs of The number of receding arches is six, and Wales with more liberal discussionthe circular lines intervening are alternately that that self-sufficient conceit (the recharged with rosettes and rows of heads in sult of being penitus toto divisos orbe, half relief; these heads are represented as

which has made them hold in conleaning forward on one of the hands, while

tempt, and stigmatize as officious, any the other grasps the arch beneath. 4. In

unfortunate Sais who has presumed to stead of the beaks and tongues observable on the Saxon arches of Ifey Church near

offer a dissentient opinion, actuated by Oxford, and at St. Peter's in the East, Ox

the spirit of their inaxim “ the truth ford, these heads on hauds" distinguish against the world,”) should not yield the Leiria arch. 5. Above this circular to better feelings. arch again are represented, in demi-relievo, With Chinese pretensions to antigrotesque human figures of different shapes, quity, there were many in the last cenwith heads of oxen and sheep projecting. tury, though we trust very few at the 6. and lastly, the arch of this western en- present time, who would have us betrance is supported at either termination of lieve that every thing should be traced its bend by five columns; those on the to a Welsh origin; that customs as right side are much delaced and injured by well as languages hare Celtic roots, time or weather. The capitals of these co

and backed by a compliant etymology, lumns represent flowers of an oriental cha

Cymry must be acknowledged in all racter, intermixed with non-descript birds and grotesquely shaped animals. These se

respects as “ the well-spring of true verally distinct and characteristic portions nobility.

nobility.” That it should be gravely

That are interlaced with each other, and combin- asserted by persons of great good sense ing correctly, give a peculiar interest to the on other subjects, that, for instance, whole.” pp. 425, 426.

David Rizzio was a Welshman, and

his real name Davydd Rhys, is as exWe are truly sorry to be necessitated, traordinary an instance of infatuation, by the very abundance itself of curious

as that an Irishman should believe and instructive information contained Dionysius Halicarnassus to be a native in this amusing book, to do it great of the land of potatoes, and his true injustice. Such exhibitions of scraps patronymic Dennis O'Callaghan. Yet as we have given, remind us of inere this is absolutely so, and in its support chippings of the Pyramids or Pompey's we are told that his father was Sion Pillar, which gallant officers bring Davydd Rhys, who wrote the Welsh home, as if parings of a beautiful fe

grammar, because having gone to Italy, male's nails could give us any idea of They say he there became a professor, her person.

modestly (we suppose) undertaking to The line engravings are beautifully teach the people their own language. executed by Mr. Joseph Skelton and That he went to Italy we allow, beMr. W. B. Cooke. 'Thirty-six cos. cause having selected the medical protumes are taken from models made for fession, he travelled, as was the fashion the author in Portugal. An excellent in Elizabeth's days, for what was conmap of Portugal, engraved by Arrow- sidered the best instruction; and unsmith, is also given : and the vignette fortunately for the coin position of this engravings on wood, by Messrs. Willis, improbable story, the invariable geneaBrooke, and Hervey, add much to the logical practice of Wales has been eninterest of this luminous and enter tirely overlooked, as Sion Davydd Rhys taining work.

would eo more imply John the son of

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