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to whom the clear exposition of the rule thus given will be found of great service.

Secondly,—The Article on "The Law of Storms," has been considerably enlarged, and much valuable information, accompanied by Diagrams, introduced,—a careful study of which will be of great advantage to those frequenting the Hurricane portions of the Ocean ; every imaginable danger being met by brief directions, and carefully digested rules of action under existing difficulties.

It is necessary to state, that in all cases where the Moon's horizontal parallax is used, that element has been reduced for the latitude of the place of observation.

The instructions for Stowing Cargo are those recommended by Lloyd's. In respect to Charter-party, Bills of Lading, Bottomry Bonds, &c., it has been the object merely to give a general knowledge of the subjects, and to indicate what is required, for the entire description and requirements of such documents cannot be given in a work of this description, in such a manner as to make the young Master fully acquainted with them, condensation of such matter frequently involving obscurity; and it is incumbent on every Master to understand thoroughly the Laws of Shipping, for which purpose reference must be made to the works of ABBOT, M'Culloch, STEEL, LEES, &c.

Appendix I. contains the Questions and Answers for the Examination in Steam. Although the Answers are given very fully, the works indicated in p. 151 should be carefully perused, in order to obtain a better and sounder knowledge of the subject.

Appendix II. contains the Answers to the Ordinary Questions in Navigation, &c.

Appendix III. contains the Answers to the Questions in the Extra Examinations, likewise the Extracts from the “ Nautical Almanack," required in working the Questions in the Hand Book.

The Table for reducing the Sun's Declination, Equation, &c. which greatly facilitates the work, under the recent arrangements of the Nautical Almanack, has been added to this Edition.

Every care and attention has been paid in computing the Questions, to avoid inaccuracies in the Answers, and I trust they will be found as free from errors, as they were in the last edition of the Hand Book. A difference between the result of a well-worked problem and the answer given, being very discouraging and perplexing to the student.




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Foreign-going Ships and of Home Trade Passenger Ships,

Established in pursuance of the Mercantile Shipping Act, 1854 ;




1. UNDER the provisions of the Merchant Shipping Act, 1854, (17 and 18 Vict. c. 104, ss. 136-161,) no Foreign-going Ship* or Home Trade Passenger Ship* can obtain a clearance or transire, or legally proceed to sea, from any port in the United Kingdom, unless the master thereof, and in the case of a Foreigngoing Ship, the first and second mates or only mate, (as the case may be,) and in the case of a Home Trade Passenger Ship, the first or only mate, (as the case may be,) have obtained and possess valid Certificates, either of Competency or Service, appropriate to their several stations in such ship, or of a higher grade; and no such ship, if of one hundred tons burden and upwards, can legally proceed to sea unless at least one officer, besides the master, has obtained and possesses a valid Certificate, appropriate to the grade of only mate therein, or to a higher grade : and every person who, having been engaged to serve as master, or as first or second or only mate of any Foreign. going Ship, or as master or first or only mate of a Home Trade Passenger Ship, goes to sea as such master or mate, without

* By a Foreign-going Ship is meant one which is bound to some place out of the United Kingdom, beyond the limits included between the rivers Elbe and Brest; and by a Home Trade Passenger Ship is meant any Home Trade Ship employed in carrying passengers ; and it is to be observed that Foreign Steam Ships when employed in carrying passengers between places in the United Kingdom, are subject to all the provisions of the Act, as regards Certificates of masters and mates, to which British Steam Ships are subject. (s. 291.)


being at the time entitled to and possessed of such Certificate as the Act requires, or who employs any person as master, or first, second or only mate of any Foreign-going ship, or as master or first or only mate of any Home Trade Passenger ship, without ascertaining that he is at the time entitled to and possessed of such Certificate, for each offence incurs a penalty not exceeding fifty pounds.

2. [s. 137.] Every Certificate of Competency for a Foreigngoing ship is to be deemed to be of a higher grade than the corresponding Certificate for a Home Trade Passenger ship, and entitles the lawful holder to go to sea in the corresponding grade in such last-mentioned ship; but no Certificate for a Home Trade Passenger ship entitles the holder to go to sea as master or mate of a Foreign-going ship.

*3. [s. 135.) A Certificate of Service entitles an officer, who has already served as either master or mate in a British Foreigngoing ship before the 1st January 1851, or as master or mate in a Home Trade Passenger Ship before the 1st January 1854, to serve in those capacities again; and it also entitles an officer who has attained or attains the rank of Lieutenant, Master, passed Mate or second Master, or any higher rank in the service of Her Majesty, or of the East India Company, to serve as master of a British Merchant ship, and may be had by application to the Registrar-General of Seamen, Custom-house, London, or to any Shipping Master in the Out-ports, on the transmission and verification of the necessary certificates and testimonials.

4. (s. 134.) Certificates of Competency will be granted to those persons who pass the requisite examinations, and otherwise comply with the requisite conditions. For this purpose Examiners have been appointed under the Local Marine Boards, and arrangements have been made for holding the examinations at the under mentioned ports, upon the days specified against them; and these days are so arranged for

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