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men in question: and merely to acknowledge that their labours are useful, while they themselves are spoken of with contempt, is not the most proper return for the benefits which we have received; nor the way to encourage others to tread in their steps: and as Europe especally is under immense obligations o the lexicographers of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, for the excellent translations of the sacred Scriptures which she now possesses; so the exertions of “ the Bible Society,” and of other socitfies for circulating the Scriptures, will need a great number of laboHous dictionary-makers, in various Bnguages, to give their pious and benevolent designs full effect; and every attempt of this kind, in a language little known, is an importst opening to the translation of the Scriptures into that language. You have performed a long jourtry. It is inquired of you, at what mte youtravelled: you answer, five, ox, seven, or eight miles, in an hour. I go no further, because, ocept on great emergencies, no man ought, and one would hope Homerciful man can desire, to travel ore rapidly. Various other quesints are proposed about the jour*y: and you give due commenhion to the horses, drivers, or rooms, &c. But at length this incommon inquiry is started—Who ode the road and built the bridges? set if the road had not been preously prepared, you could not ave travelled, either with such peed, safety, or comfort. The rudges who do the common labour, nd i. surveyors of the high-ways, ght perhaps here occur to your ord, without exciting either much spect or sense of obligation. But, obably the whole was planned by orn of far more enlarged minds : * we know that the enlightened touans made roads in all the countes which they possessed; know"g that this would facilitate social tercourse, and promote civiliza*: and thus, unconsciously, they

opened a way for the more rapid propagation of the Gospel. In like manner, a man has made considerable proficiency in the learned languages, perhaps without the advantages of a liberal education: he ascribes his progress to the assistance of this or the other friend; but perhaps, above all, to his own indefatigable perseverance — But, what dictionary did you use? If you had not had that dictionary, what would you have done? The answer to such questions will remind him, that if others before him had not bestowed still more indefatigable diligence in the business, his own labours must have been to little or no purpose. A great part of his learning therefore, yea, and of the good which it enables him to do, is owing to the lexicographers. The case is the same with all learned men, whether they recollect it or no; and with the unlearned, who in any way profit by their labours. This, however, your correspondent considers as springing from their “love of fame.” Perhaps it may be more justly imputed to a high, probably excessive, valuation of that kind of learning in which they are proficients, and an ardour of mind in exciting others to the same studies, united with a desire of acquiring a hard-earned maintenance by their labours. But, when we consider what kind of men laboured in making lexicons and dictionaries, in the dawning of the reformation; it would be unjust not to ascribe the assiduity and perseyerance of many, to strong religious principles, and an ardent hope of thus rendering a most important service to the souls of men. Suppose, again, a man to have made a great proficiency as a textuary in the Holy Scriptures: will this person refuse the tribute of respect due to Cruden the concordist? I mention him, as his was long b far the best concordance, and as it has furnished materials to all subsequent °. Shall 1 impute Cru2

den's labours to the love of fame, or to other mean motives * Even if I had no information on the subject, what I have learned from his labours would induce me to ascribe his in

defatigable diligence to his love of

the Holy Scriptures, and to the love of souls. I must consider him as a man, in that respect at least, of a very enlarged as well as pious and benevolent mind; who selected the best possible means of being extensively and permanently useful, which Providence had placed within his reach, and who exerted himself most diligently and successfully in accomplishing his object. Were I disposed, with the Papists, to canonize any persons, William Cruden, and the inventor of spectacles, would be selected by me: without the latter, during many past years, I could hardly have studied at all; and without the former I should have studied with far inferior advantage, - I am,

Yours, respectfully, #'s

To the Editor of the Christian Observer.

I had scarcely noticed your insertion of my paper on the subject of persecution, when a relation of some extraordinary circumstances, which took place last year at Wickham Market, in Suffolk, appeared in the public prints, under the form of a Law Report. As the case is now before the proper judges, to them it may be safely confided; and I will only observe upon it, that should only one half of the facts, detailed in Mr. Garrow’s address, be substantiated, the defendants will be criminated by every person who regards the sacredness—I will not say of religion, but even—of property; and the offending party will surely be subjected to a very serious punishInent.

Below is the report”. I recom

* The enclosed report is more minute than what is contained in some of the newspapers.

mend you to insert it, by way of

rendering its publicity more perma

nent; and in order to record what,

I trust, will be the last act of irre

ligious outrage committed in the nited Kingdom.

count of King's Bench,
Monday, Feb. 11, 1811.

THE KING v. CHURHYARD AND Others.

Mr. Garrow moved for leave to file a criminal information against fourteen persons out of a much greater number, for what he had ho hesitation iu calling, the most out rageous conduct the court ever re. membered. A dissenting minister regularly authorised by the law had hired two rooms of a cottage i. Wickham Market, in the county o Suffolk, and announced his intentios of preaching there on Sunday, thi 2d of September last. Upon th Saturday preceding, the crier wa employed by certain persons, whi were averse to the minister's coming among them, to warn the parish t take care of their houses and per sons, for a bad set of people wa coming among them. There wa an idea in the county of Suffolk which the learned counsel hope would be corrected by the Bench that as long as dissenting, places o worship were insulted and disturbe without their walls, they might b insulted and disturbed with impu nity, and that the penalties of th act were confined to disturbance within the walls of the meeting houses. Upon the minister's arrivi at the meeting-house in question, o the 2d of September, be found besieged by upwards of one o: sand persons, some in disguises, a fecting attitudes of adoration, other beating drums and a large gon and blowing trumpets, ... " making an uproar; the obviol purpose of which was, the prever tion of every . that might said in the meeting-house from beit heard. These outrages were afiel wards repeated on the 16th of Se tember, and on various subseques Sundays, the crowd of riotel amounting in number sometimes to two or three thousand. On one occasiou was brought before the door of the meeting-house a waggon, in which was placed a man dressed out in a full suit of black, a wig, and a cocked hat, who distributed bread to the mob, certainl for no other purpose than to distur the dissenting congregation; for the orator gave out separately the names of the persons who were to receive this bread, upon which there was a general shout; and the whole concluded with a scramble for the kates which remained. Upon some occasions, the minister was met by a concourse of these persons, and was jostled by one of those against whom the motion was made, and who was on horseback. Fireworks and stones were also thrown into the meeting-house, and at the horse and thase in which the minister deParted. At one time a procession was formed by the mob, who carried a gallows in their front. At another time rotten eggs were thrown into the meeting; and two of the foters, who were professed masks, *ationed themselves among the congregation, saying that they came there to hear the word of God, and, by —, they would hear it. At *gth the rioters broke all the win*ws of the meeting-house, One on kept open house during the time of this riot, and gave wine to all those who opposed the Pograms, * the dissenters were nick-named. " was openly stated too, at the ves. "y of the parish, that there was a &ntleman ready with one hundred onds, to support the Anti-pograms. The owner of the cottage where the ters assembled was forcibly *ned out of his house, and his **as threatened, that he and his ther, who had interfered in the should be pressed and sent **a, if they did not turn the Po* out of their house. Of this *the rioters had gotten posses. * and were tearing it to pieces ** night, when brother of * * *ndeavoured to prevent

them; upon which one of the rioters called out of the window, “a —— Pogram, seize him!” and fired a gun. It was also threatened, that if the congregation should attempt to meet again, an engine would be prepared to play upon them. The affidavit, which stated all these circuumstances, concluded with saying, that there was no other place in the parish for the congregation to meet in; and that if they were to attempt to build one, what they should erect in the day would be inevitably pulled down in the night. Against every one of the persons who were the subject of Mr. Garrow's motion, the affidavit swore overt acts of this conspiracy to prevent the congregation from exercising their religion. The first was a former, of the name of James Churchyard, of whom it was sworn, that he entered the meeting-house on the 14th of November, when he talked loud, and afterwards joined Mr. Thompson, the officiating minister, home, telling

bim, that if he were to come for.

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the last day of preaching at the meeting-house, the minister went with the tenant of the house, to the churchwarden, in order to endeavour to repossess themselves of the house; when the churchwarden told them that there should be no preaching there, and that murder would be committed if it were ever attempted again. The next was William Moore, a farmer in the neighbourhood, who encouraged the mob by cries of “burn them; ” and was the person who threatened a pressgang. The next was John Culpeck, a shoemaker, living next door to the meeting-house, who wore a cockade, who was the performer upon the gong, and the person who cried from the window of the meeting-house, “a Pogram,” &c. The next two were James Sheldrake and William Gurling, who entered the meeting-house, and being afterwards taken by the constables in the act of rioting, effected their escape, with the assistance of William Benton and Charles Bunn, who were the next two moved against; but as a bill of indictment had been found against these first two for the disturbance, though not for the conspiracy, their names were, at the recommendation of the court, struck out. Benton was a wheelwright, who disguised himself as a butcher: he struck at the meeting-house door, and offered to fight the constables. Bunn (yeoman) followed one of the ministers on the road, and assaulted him, shouting “No Pogram.” Edmund Hewitt, who was the next, assisted in the rescue and disturbance. The next two were Tusfield and Clow, who came into the meeting-house with the insignia of the riot, bearing with them a basket of stinking sprats, which they threw over the congregation. The last was William Cooke (yeoman), who struck the constable, and assisted in Sheldrake and Gurling's rescue by knocking him down. The court granted a rule to shew cause against the following six per

sons, who had assisted in the disturbance, and against whom no proceedings were depending, viz. —Churchyard, Benton, Garrard, William Hewitt, Culpeck, Tuffield, and Clow. Mr. Garrow made it understood to the court, that there had been attempts to proceed in the ordinary course of justice, by indictment, against all these persons, but the grand jury had thrown out the bills.

Since the violent opposition to the early Methodists, I do not recollect that a tumult connected with religion, in any degree so systematically and perseveringly conducted as the above, has been heard of throughout the empire. You may indeed remind me of the riots in 1780. I iook upon them, however, and upon some subsequent disturbances, as having been the consequences of a politico-religious question, first agitated among men in power, and then brought down to the conceptions of the vulgar, in the shape of watchwords, and popular aphorisms, (which, in all great convulsions, are expressly made for the occasion, and are well known—Mirabeau would support me—to be most potent engines of sedition), and issuing in acts of sensuality and cruelty. Such acts are perpetrated in any insurrection whatever, when the passions of the populace get the better of their fears; no matter whether they cry No Popey, or No Pegrams.

In the Suffolk case, as in most cases, which in my judgment, with some correctness, come now under the description of persecution, the object of resentment is an individual, or individuals, personally known to the assailant; whose enmity is excited by actually seeing and hearing the man who exhorts him to forsake a wicked life. As he hates the light which shews him his own character, he hates the bearer of the light. Hatred soon kindles into practical revenge, and is specifically directed

against the supposed injurer. Now

go whatever insults and formal acts of resentment follow, solely from this feeling of hatred, I deem to be properly persecution, and nothing better. As far as we are yet informed, , - the proceedings in Suffolk certainly ...] were of a peculiarly offensive chal, racter. That a mob, consisting of | from one to three thousand, regu& larly organized, led on by men in *** masquerade, encouraged by the gratuitous distribution of bread, sup... I ported by promises of pecuniary an at a vestry, inflamed even to ... I acts of house-breaking, all this *'s oil island finally receivw three months—and finally receiv ing the virtual countenance of a

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* --grand jury;-that such an elabo* me and steady course of opposition o wa religious society, under the proitection of the law, should be pursuo, e, sreally astonishing. When the ... materis farther investigated, I have * uo doubt but that the delinquents, *...] in case of their being unable to meet so serious a charge, will be 1 tonvinced, that the laws of this o country are eminently favourable to * religious liberty, and are designed to cut off from ill-disposed men the ... woportunity of offending. ..With regard to myself. I feel a peculiar degree of interest in the res: mitof the trial, on account of having pleaded, in my last paper, that, in the present state of the world, "there is properly no persecution.” Should, however, the clients of Mr. * Garrow prove their point, and should - | the court refuse their protection— I am supposing the very worst—my

2” plea must be reversed. On the con* trary, should the court grant their * Protection, and punish the defend* I auts, the sentiments I have advanced * I will be strengthened. The matter * I may be decided before this address o teaches its destination. Whatever a the decision be, it may be advisable *I to record the above report in your y valuable miscellany; as a striking ::: instance of the energy and perse* * *trance with which the human mind

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opposes a fact, or a person, connected with the expostulations of a ter

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rified conscience, and which our abject nature hates in exact proportion to the advantages we might otherwise receive.

TU UM est.

To the Editor of the Christian Observer.

I UNDERst AND that Mr. Faber thinks the subversion of Popery will synchronize with the downfall of Mohammedanism ; and that when he discerns the evident approach of the latter event, he will be able to ascertain certain dates most intimately connected with the general fulfilment of prophecy. He also expects that Mohammedanism will sink gradually. The Wahabees entered Mecca on the 27th of April, 1803; levelled eighty of the tombs belonging to the descendants of Mohammed, and the tomb also of his wife Kadiza; plundered the holy places; but left the Caaba. Mecca, however, was afterwards repossessed by its sherriffe. In 1804, Medina, the second city in Arabia, was taken by the Wahabees; who plundered all the treasures, which had been accumulating there for ages, by the contributions of the faithful. The tomb of the prophet himself was destroyed. The Arabs will soon be united under one master. Arabia is for ever lost to the Sultaun; who, consequently, is no longer head of the Mohammedan religion. Mecca cannot again be visited by pilgrims, according to the order of the Prophet. The mighty fabric of Islamism must be considered as having passed away when Suad entered Mecca in 1803. The facts and inferences in the above paragraph, are taken from the second volume of Lord Walentia's Travels. There is some inconsistency in what the noble authors says aftewards; namely, that he met some pilgrims on their road to Mecca. This perhaps may be explained. I have nothing farther to add

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