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Hindostan, where it has been introduced, and to compare the Hindoo Christians with such of their countrymen as remain in their pristine idolatry. “It was a chief object of his tour through India, to mark the relative influence of Paganism and Christianity;” and in order that the English nation may be able to form a judgment on the subject, he proceeds to give, in the way of extracts from his journal, some account of the Hindoos of Juggernaut and the native Christians in Tanjore. The former continue to worship the idol Juggernaut; the latter, until the light of revelation visited them, worshipped an idol also, called the great Black Bull of Tanjore. In our volume for 1807, p. 353, our readers will find a brief notice of the author's visit to the temple of Juggernaut and to the Christian churches at Tanjore. We will extract a few passages from the present account, in order to fill up the sketch which was then given of it. “Buddruck in Orissa, May 30th, 1806. “We know that we are approaching Juggernaut (and yet we are muore than fifty miles from it) by the human bones which we have seen for some days strewed by the way. At this place we have been joined by several large bodies of pilgrims, perhaps 2000 in number, who have come from various parts of Northern India. Some of them, with whom I have conversed, say that they have been two months on their march, travelling slowly in the hottest season of the year, with their wives and children. Some old persons are among them who wish to die at Juggernaut. Numbers of pilgrims die on the road; and their bodies generally remain unburied. On a plain by the river, near the pilgrim's Caravansera at this place, there are more than a hundred skulls. The dogs, jackals. and vultures, seem to live here on human prey. The vultures exhibit a shocking tameness. The obscene animals will not leave the body sometimes till we come close to them. This Buddruck is a horrid place. Wherever I turn my eyes, I meet death in some shape or other. Surely Juggernaut caunot be worse than Buddruck. “In sight of Juggernaut, 12th June. “— Many thousands of pilgrims have accompanied us for some days past. They
cover the road before and behind as far as the eye can reach. At nine o'clock this morning, the temple of Juggernaut appeared in view at a great distance. When the multitude first saw it, they gave a shout, and fell to the ground and worshipped. I have heard nothing to-day but shouts and acclamutions by the successive bodies of pilgrims. From the place where I now stand I have a view of a host of people like an army, encamped at the outer gate of the town of Juggernaut; where a guard of soldiers is posted to prevent their entering the town, until they have paid the pilgrim's tax-I passed a devotee to-day who laid himself down at every step, measuring the road to Juggernaut, by the length of his body,as a penance of merit to please the god.” pp. 130,131. “Juggernaut, June 14. “I have seen Juggernaut. The scene at Buddruck is but the vestibule to Jaggernaut. No record of ancient or modern history can give, I think, an adequate idea of this valley of death. It may be truly compared with the ‘valley of Hinnom.” The idol called Juggernant has been considered as the Moloch of the present age, and he is justly so named.” “This morning I viewed the temple, a stupendous fabrick, and truly commensurate with the extensive sway of the horrid king.” “The walls and gates are covered with indecent emblems in massive and durable sculpture. I have also visited the sand plains by the sea, in some places whitened by the bones of pilgrims; and another place, a little way out of the town, called by the English the Golgotha, where the dead bodies are usually cast forth, and where dogs and vultures are ever seen.” “The senses are assailed by the squalid and ghastly appearance of the famished pilgrims, many of whom die in the streets of want or of disease; while the devotees with clotted hair and painted flesh are seen practising their various austerities and modes of self torture.” “There is scarcely any verdure to refresh the sight near Juggernaut.” “All is barren and desolate to the eye, and in the ear there is the never-intermitting sound of the roaring sea.” pp. 133–135. We cannot pretend to follow Dr. Buchanan through all his account of this horrid scene of impurity and blood, but must refer the readers to the work itself. A few short extracts, however, we feel almost compelled to give. “June 20. The horrid solemnities still continue. Yesterday a woman devoted herself
to the idol. She laid herself down on the road in an oblique direction, so that the wheel did not kill her instantaneously, as is generally the case; but she died in a few hours. This morning as I passed the Place of Skulls, nothing renuined of her but her bones. • And this, thought I, is the worship of the Brahmins of Hindoostan! And their worship in its sublimest degree! What then shall we think of their private manners, and their moral principles! For it is equally true of India as of Europe. If you would know the state of the people, look at the state of the Temple." p. 140. June 21. “The idolatrous processions continue for some days longer, but my spirits are so exhausted by the constant view of these enormities, that I mean to hasten away from this place sooner than I at first intended.—I beheld another distressing scene this morning at the Place of Skulls;–a poor woman lying dead or nearly dead, and her two children by her, looking at the dogs and vultures which were near. The people passed by without noticing the children. I asked them where was their home. They said, “they had no home but where their mother was '-O, there is no pity at Juggernaut! no mercy, no tenderness of heart in Moloch's kingdom! Those who support his kingdom, err, I trust, from ignorance. “They know not what they do.’” p. 141.
As to the number of worshippers assembled, Dr. Buchanan does not attempt a calculation of them. The natives themselves, when speaking of the number, usually say that “a lack of people (100,000) would not be missed.” “How can I tell,” said a Brahmin who was questioned on the subject, “how many grains there are in a handful of sand ** We cannot deny to our readers the relief, after the above horrid details, of reading the following passage. It is dated Chilka Lake, 24th June. * — I felt my mind relieved and happy when I had passed beyond the confines of Juggernaut. I certainly was not prepared for the scene. But no one can know what it is who has not seen it.—From an eminence on the pleasant banks of the Chilka Lake (where no human bones are seen), I had a view of the lofty tower of Juggernaut far remote; and while I viewed it, its abominations came to mind. It was on the morning of the Sabbath. Ruminating long
on the wide and extended empire of Moloch in the heathen world, I cherished in my thoughts the design of some “Christian Institution,’ which being fostered by Britain, my Christian country, might gradually underiniue this baleful idolatry, and put out the memory of it for ever." p. 142.
The rites of Juggernaut are not, however, coufined to this his chief temple. “He has many a tower in the province of Bengal, that fair and fertile province, which has been called the Garden of Nations. Close to Ishera, a beautiful villa on the river's side, about eight miles from Calcutta, once the residence of Governor Hastings, and within view of the present Governor General's country house, there is a temple of this idol, which is often stained with human blood.” Dr. Buchanan visited it in 1807. One of the victims of that year was a handsome young man, who, after dancing awhile before the idol, and singing in an enthusiastic strain, ho suddenly to the wheels, and was crushed beneath them. While this was passing, the Missionaries from Seram|. (which is only a mile and a alf from the temple) were preaching to a crowd of people at no great distance, and distributing printed papers annong them. Dr. Buchaman sat down on an elevated spot, to contemplate the contrast, “ the tower of blood and impurity on the one hand, and the Christian preachers on the other.” * I thought on the commandment of our Saviour, “Go ye, teach all nations.' I said to myself, “How great and glorious a ministry are these humble persons now exercising in the presence of God!’. How is it applauded by the holy angels, who, “have joy in heaven over one sinner that repenteth; and how far does it transcend the work of the Warrior or Statesman, in charity, utility, and lasting faine ! And I could not help wishing that the Representatives of the Church of Christ, in my own country, had been present to witness this scene, that they might have seen how practicable it is to offer Christian instruction to our Hindoo subjects." p. 146, 147. Dr. Buchanan then adverts to that other sanguinary rite of the Hindoo superstition, the immolation of females. Some idea may be formed of the extent of this horrid practice, from an actual enumeration which took place of the numbers sacrificed, only in certain districts, within thirty miles of Calcutta, between April and October, 1804. It amounted to 115. An account is given by Dr. Buchanan of one of these sacrifices; but we omit the insertion of it, as a similar account appeared in a former number of our work, vol. for 1810, p. 484. It is impossible to contemplate these enormities, without inquiring why no attempt has been made to repress them? Are these things understood by the Court of Directors, and by the Proprietors of India Stock, and has nothing been done even to ascertain the practicabilit of abolishing them The Marquis Wellesley abolished a still more criminal practice, which was considered by the Hindoos as a religious rite, namely, the sacrifice of children, by drowning them or exposing them to sharks and crocodiles. A Regulation was published in August, 1802, declaring the practice to be murder punishable by death. The regulation has proved effectual, and not a murinur has been heard on the subject. Now would it not be as easy to prevent the sacrifice of women as the sacrifice of children The abolition of the practice, Dr. Buchanan affirms to be practicable: the means by which it might be abolished, were pointed out by the Brahmins themselves, when a measure to that effect was under the contemplation of Lord Wellesley. Until the abolition take place therefore, or until its impracticability shall have been fully ascertained, the author pledges himself that he "will not cease to call the attention of the English nation to this subject.” But we must return to the Temple of Juggernaut. Our readers will have perceived, from some incidental expressions in the course of this review, that the idolatrous worship
practised there is a source of revenue to the East India Company. A Regulation was passed in April, 1806, for levying a tax on pilgrims resorting thither. The tax had been proposed to the Marquis Wellesley, but his Lordship disapproved of it. It was agreed to by the succeeding Government, but not without the solemn and recorded dissent of one of the members of that government, Mr. Udney. The Temple of Juggernaut is thus placed under the immediate management of the British Government, who defray, from the public revenue, the expenses incident to the worship of this idol. The following is a statement of a year's expense, extracted from the official accounts presented to the Governsnent.
L. Sterling. Expense of the idol's table . 4514 His wearing apparel - . 339 Wages of his servants" . . 1259 His elephants and horses . 378 His state carriage? • . . 839 Contingent expenses - 1373
We give publicity to these opprobrious circumstances, not with a view to censure the conduct of the Court of Directors, or of the Court of Proprietors; but with the view of exciting their attention to the subject, and of leading them to investigate, in order to rectify, the evil. If, indeed, they should either refuse to inquire into the various enormities which have thus been exposed to view; or if, having ascertained their existence, and holding, as they do, the sword of justice in their hands, they should not use all the means in their power to repress such criminal acts, then would the responsibility and the guilt be theirs. Until, however, we are compelled to adopt a contrary persuasion, we shall expect the
* This includes the wages of the courtezans kept for the service of the temple.
f The car, or tower, on which the idol is placed, and under the wheels of which the self-devoted victims are crushed to death.
In the press: a new edition of Vander Hooght's Hebrew Bible 5–An additional volume of Mr. Burke's Works, containing pieces that have never been published;— Redemption, or a View of the Christian Religion from the Fall of Adam to the Reign of Coustantime, by Mr. Montagu Pennington; —Dr. Pearson's Warburtonian Lectures, preached in Lincoln's Inn Chapel;-The late Bishop Horsley's Notes and Observations on the Book of Psalus;–a Poem on the Antediluvian World, by Mr. Montgomery;The third and last volume of Mr. Parkinson's Organic Reueins;–A Translation of Lucretins in Rhyme, by Dr. Busby;-A new edition of Dr. Hutton's Dictionary of Mathematics and Philosophy, with many improvements;–and A stereotype edition of the Bible in French, collated with the most improved editions.
The Rev. William Goode, Rector of St. Ann's, Blackfriars, has circulated proposals for printing by subscription, in 2 vols. 8vo., an entire New Version of the Book of Psalms,in which an attempt is made to accommodate them to the worship of the Christian Church, in a variety of measures now in general use; with original Prefaces, and Notes critical and explanatory. The work is already completed and in the press. An alteration has been made at Trinity College, Cambridge, in the form of admi:sign. Those who intend to become members, are no longer admitted by proxy, but obliged to appear in person. The order of Fellow Commoner is also abolished in this society. *The canal from Loch Crinan to Loch Gilp, in Argyleshire, by which the dangers of the Mull of Cantyre are avoided, has been finished, and affords great facilities to the
navigation of these seas. The length of the canal from sea to sea is nine nuiles: the depth of water is cleven feet: the locks are ninety-six feet long and twenty-four feet wide in the clear. -The Commissioners appointed to examine into the nature and extent of the begs in Ireland, have reported that they comprize more than one fourth of the superficies in Ireland, or about one million of acres. One district only of these bogs, containing 36,430 acres, has been accurately surveyed: the expense at which it may be drained and converted to the purposes of husbandry, is estimated at 147,000l. . A subscription has been raised, and collections made, for the relief of the British prisoners in France. The sum raised amounts already to near 30,000l. A mine of Cobalt has lately been discovered in Cheshire by Mr. Bakewell. Professor Leslie's process for effecting the congelation of a mass of water in a warm room, without the aid of ice, or of any cooling mixture, or expense of materials, was exhibited lately at Glasgow, by Dr. Ure. It consists in placing two vessels under, the receiver of the air pump; the one containing water, the other any substance very attractive of moisture. The weight of the air being removed by working the machine, copious evaporations begin to take place from the water. Were there nothing under the receiver but this-liquid, an atmosphere of vapour would soon be formed, by whose pressure further evaporation would be prevented; but the other substance absorbs this vapour almost as speedily as it rises. Hence evaporation, and, its invariable effect, the production of cold. proceed so vigorously assoon to convert the watcr into ice, spiculae of which are seen shooting beautifully across. In the present
theology. A Course of Lectures, containing a Description and Systematic Arrangement of the several Branches of Divinity. By Herbert Marsh, D. D. F. R. S. Margaret Professor of Divinity. Sermons' on the most prevalent Vices. By David Lamont, D. D. 3 vols. 8vo. 11.4s. The Second Exodus, or Reflections on the Prophecies of the last Times. By the rev. W. Ettrick. 2 vols. 8vo. 14s. Missionary Anecdotes: exhibiting, in numerous instances, the Efficacy of the Gospel in the Conversion of the Heathen, regularly traced through the successive Ages of the Christian Era: to which is prefixed an affeeting Account of the Idolatry, Superstition, and Cruelty of the Pagan Nations, ancient and modern. By George Burder, Author of the Village Sermons, &c. 5s. Miscer. La NEous. An Account of the past and present State of the Isle of Man; including a Sketch of the Mineralogy, and Outline of its Laws, with the Privileges enjoyed by Strangers, and a History of the Island. By George Woods. 8vo. 10s. 6d. - An Authentic Description of the Kennet and Avon Canal, with Observations on the present State of the Inland Navigation of the Western and Southern Counties. 2s. • Carew's Survey of Cornwall, illustrated with Notes, by the late Thomas Tomkin, Esq. M. P. now first published from the original MSS. By Francis Lord de Dunstanville. 4to. 11.11s. 6d. large paper 21. 10s. An Historical Account of the Ancient Culdees of Iona, and of their Settlements in
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- RELIGIOUS INTELLIGENCE.
*RIt is H AND fortrid N. Brble soci ETY. Tnx annual meeting of this society is to take place on the 1st day of May, at the Freemason's Tavern, at eleven o'clock.
We are truly happy to observe that an auxiliary Bible Society has been formed at Liverpool. A requisition having been presented to the Mayor, signed by all the