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for a passage to Port Jackson, they sailed from Huaheine, excepting Mr. Hayward and Mr. Nott, who resolved to remain for the present at that island. The voyage of the missionaries was tedious and dangerous. At the Fejee islands Mr. Warner left them, and obtained a free passage to India, in an American vessel; and the remaining missionaries arrived at Sydney Cove, in New South Wales, on the 17th February, 1810. The missionaries were kindly received at Port Jackson. Governor Macquarrie promised them the privilege of settlers, and recommended that some of them should undertake the instruction of youth. Soon after this the Rev. Mr. Marsden arrived in the colony, from England, and renewed those active and benevolent exertions, on behalf of the missionaries and the society, to which he had been accustomed. By his means the married brethren particularly, were agreeably accommodated, and the single men were put into a way of supporting themselves in useful and respectable situatious. The Directors indulge a hope, that the removal of the missionaries to New South Wales, will be productive of much moral and religious benefit to that colony, especially as it vespects the instruction of youth; and that by their instrumentality, many of the rising generation may be trained up in the ways of God. Notwithstanding the unsuccessful issue of the mission to Otaheite, the Directors do not consider their efforts as entirely lost. The seed of diviue truth has been copiously sown, especially among the younger part of the thabitants; and other happy and honourd instruments may hereafter reap a joyful arvest. Of the progress in civilization, ade by various individuals among the naves, the society has had an opportunity of dging from the letter addressed to thena the chief at present deposed, and this ght not to be considered as a solitary innce. The desire of knowledge which has en excited, cannot lie dormant; their rst for improvement will naturally attach in to the persons of those who proed it, and will prepare the way either their return, or for the arrival of others. Ir. Marsden is of opinion that the Otaan mission may be renewed with a prosity of ultimate succes” if a vessel of or aoo tons were sent out from Eng, with a suitable investment for Port on and the islands of the South Sea; which, by trading among then, and pro
curing their produce, would soon cover the whole expense of the equipment, and provide for the support of the mission, while it would secure the means of intercourse with the missionaries. The greater part of the missionaries now at Port Jackson have signified, by letters to the Directors, their readiness to resume the mission, if this plan can be adopted either by the society or by individuals, and a suitable opportunity should be presented by the restoration of tranquility at Otaheite,
The Directors report, that the work of God among the Hottentots, at the different missionary stations, continues to be carried on, and to increase in a very encouraging manner. Dr. Wanderkamp states, that the public services of religion at Bethelsdorp are well attended, and that the power of Divine Grace has been displayed in several instances. The number of persons generally resident there, and considered as belonging to the institution, amounted to 979, including men, women, and children. The increase during the year 1809, was 269, of whom forty-two had been born at Bethelsdorp during that period.
The progress of civilization has been considerable. The knitting-school is continued, and prospers beyond expectation. Several useful articles are produced, which are acceptable to the military in the neighbourhood, and by the profits of which, about thirty of the children have derived their daily subsistence. Matts and baskets are also made in considerable quantities, and readily sold at Fort Frederick and other parts of the country. The manufacture of salt has likewise met with much encouragement, and the salt is fetched from Bethelsdorp by the farmers, or carried to different places around, where it is bartered for wheat and other necessaries. Soap-boiling, sawing, and wood-cutting for waggons, are also carried on with diligence, and become a source of support; the people also obtain no small advantage by their journeys to Cape Town with the farmers. The good effect of Christian instruction, in thus rendering the most indolent and idle of mankind industrious and useful members of civil society, and raising them so much above the abject state in which the missionaries found them, is peculiarly pleasing, and affords much encouragement to proceed with vigour in attempts to evangelize even the most uncivilized of the human race.
The favourable harvest of 1808, has operated as a powerful stimulus to agricultural
is strictly to adhere to the plan of the author. Like him, the editor will not so much inquire whether the subjects of his biographical sketch were Calvinists or Arminians, churchmen or dissenters; but whether they have “preached Christ crucified,” as the only Redeemer for fallen man. This being ascertained, the shades of difference in other respects will not be regarded.
The present inquiry relates principally to biographical materials from Great Britain. At such a distance, these are always with difficulty obtained. Such as have distinguished themselves by their writings, and whose lives have been prefixed to their works, we can easily procure. Yet it is probable, that even of these much more remains to be said, which, if called for, would no doubt be forthcoming. There are many, however, of whom the printed materials, so far as they have reached this country, are very scanty ; and many others, of whom we have seen simply the records of their deaths, but whose public labours will be had in everlasting remembrance.
Will any of your correspondents be pleased to point out the sources whence materials may be obtained 2 And if they would furnish any new lives on the plan proposed, the editor and the public would be lastingly obliged.
Such gentlemen as feel a wish to promote the objects above noticed, will be pleased to leave any materials with the Rev. Adam Clarke, LL.D., at the Surrey Institution; with Apsley Pellatt, Esq. St. Paul's Churchyard ; or Joseph Butterworth, Esq. Fleet Street, London; either of whom will duly forward them. Reference to materials, you will oblige the Editor of the Biographica Evangetica, by permitting to appear in the Christian Observer. This work having been republished here, and its circulation through the United States being very extensive, makes it the best vehicle for such communications.
The religious public will no doubt
be pleased to learn, that many lives of American divines will be given, very few of which have ever as yet been published. I remain, very respectfully, Sir, your obedient servant, J. E. New York, 4th October, 1811.
To the Editor of the Christian Observer.
When a publication so respectable as the Christian Observer, holds out an insinuation against the fairness or honesty of a religious society, on account of any of its peculiar principles, it will not, I presume, be thought an improper degree of anxiety for the character of that society, if any of its members should feel disposed to explain their conduct, with a view to remove that impression which such an insinuation is calculated to produce on the public mind. These observations will be readily supposed to allude to the remarks of the Editor of the Christian Observer (No. for Sept. p. 600), on that part of the Yearly Epistle of the Quakers which contains an account of their sufferings, as they think they justly call them, for the
o: of ecclesiastical des
mands. It is not, however, my design to enter at large into this subject; but to confine myself principally to the arguments on which the charge of unfairness is founded; and in doing this I shall principally make use of former writers on the subject. , The argument drawn from the supposed contract betwixt the seller and purchaser of land, has beeu often advanced, and often answered. So long ago as the year 1654, was pub. lished a pamphlet, entitled “The great Case of Tithes truly stated.” &c., by Anthony Pearson, who had been a justice of peace in Westmorland; in which he replies to this objection in the following manner. “I have already proved that all land is tithe-free, and the charge" tithe is upon the stock and person" estates, and not upon the land. And the strength of this objection lies in comparing those that pay tithes with those that are free. They that buy lands tithe-free are eased of this oppression, and are in no hazard; and though all others ought to be so, yet being a question whether they can ease themselves of the burthen, they buy under a hazard, and as subject to such a charge; but if they can cast off the yoke, they get what is but their own; and seeing we have denied the Pope's authority and supremacy, we may, so soon as we can, , wholly cast off the burthens which he laid on us. Thus, he that buys lands in years of trouble and heavy taxes, may perhaps buy much cheaper than when none or little is paid: shall he be always required to pay taxes, when others are discharged? Or shall he that bought cheap bargains on the borders betwixt England and Scotland, when those parts were infested with mosstroopers, always maintain, or pay tribute to, thieves and robbers. We bought land when the Pope's yoke was upon our necks; and if we cast it from us, we may by as good reason be eased of our tithes as they of their taxes. But if I bought cheaper, what is that to the state, or to a priest? If by equity I be bound to pay any more, it is most just that he have it, of whom I bought my land, and not another.” Another writer on the subject of to thes, Joseph Phipps of Norwich, states our arguments in the following words. “Tithes are not imposed in the Inanner of a civil tax. They are founded on religious considerations. The intent of imposing them is to support religious ministers in the pursuit of religious duties. Being not required for a civil but a religious purpose, the payment of them is to be treated as a matter of a religious COncern. “As the foundation upon which tithes are exacted is not of a civil nature, neither can they be a just
debt upon those who are of a distinct society, in point of religion, from that of the demanders. The Quakers, in particular, have no con. nection with the legally established clergy but in a natural or a civil relation. They are not of the same religious society with them; therefore these are no ministers to them, and by consequence can have no equitable demand upon them as such. “To those who plead the gift of tithes from former possessors of land, or that allege the length of time the successive claimants have been in possession of these impositions, I answer, 1st. No ancestor of mine had a right to give away from me the fruits of my labour and expense, which never could be his, for purposes I cannot in conscience comply with. My misled predecessor never could be entitled to dispose of my conscience or property for me, before I existed, in support of the prevailing errors of his age. 2dly. No length of time or term of possession, can abolish the eternal law of equity, nor render that right which stands on a wrong foundation. Right and wrong are not convertible terms; nor is it in the power of time to reverse or reconcile their contrary natures, which must always necessarily remain in their true distinctions.” From the foregoing quotations it will be seen that we are so far from considering the charge of unfairness, or want of honesty, applicable to us, that we should be at a loss, “if we did not know the power of prejudice,” to reconcile the conduct of the clergy with those rules of conduct which regulate our relations with each other: but here we are willing to let charity step in, and to believe that an error in judgment, and not a want of principle, is the cause of that conduct which appears to us so utterly inconsistent with the character of a Gospel minister. The unfortunate allusion to the baker and butcher (unfortunate to the cause for which it is pursued) will if properly pursued, set the subject in a clear point of view. The baker does not charge for bread, nor the butcher for meat, those who do not frequent their shops or buy of them; but the clergyman, with an assumption of right peculiar to himself, does not fail to charge those, who not only do not attend his preaching from negligence, but even those who conscientiously dissent from him. Suppose a baker, even the king's baker, with all the countenance of royal favour, should charge a clergyman for bread which he never ordered or received from him, and the quality of which he perhaps disliked; and when the demand was resisted, was told that the baker's shop was open, and he might come and purchase bread if he chose: what opinion would the clergyman entertain of such a man's conduct; and would not the exacting of such a demand, even if countenanced by law, be deemed a suffering case? This, the Quakers consider, is just the case betwixt them and the parson; and theresore, if the charge of dishonesty apply to either party, they conceive no disinterested person will fix it on them. And when it is considered that the Quakers do not pay their own ministers for preaching, surely no reasonable person can blame them for not being willing to support those, ,with whom, for various reasons, they cannot unite in religious worship. True Gospel ministry is a free gift, and ought to be exercised as it was by the apostles of Jesus Christ; who, though they occasionally received that provision, which their Lord and Master had ordained for them; yet, when not employed in their Gospel labours, were willing to work with their hands, and to provide for themselves “things honest in the sight of all men.” How desirable is it that all who assume the character of Gospel ministers, should be able to address their hearers in the disinterested words of the great Apostle of the Gentiles: “” have coveted no man's silver
gold, or apparel; yea, ye yourselves know that these hands have ministered to my necessities, and to them that were with me. I have shewed you all things, how that so labouring ye ought to support the weak, and to remember the words of the Lord Jesus, how he said that it was more blessed to give than to receive.” H. T.
We have taken the first opportunity of inserting the above communication, not from any impression of the fairness of the reasoning, for we think it most palpably unfair. but from respect to the writer, and a wish to evince our impartiality. We need not discuss the question of a minister's right to a fair subsistence: it is settled by higher authority than ours. Waving, then, the question of right, we would still say (even after all that is contained in the above paper, and which to us appears wholly irrelevant to the case in hand). that a person who purchases land, knowing it to be charged with an annual sum applicable, by law, to the payment of a minister's stipend, and afterwards resists the payment, stands on precisely the same moral ground with him who, having purchased an estate subject to a mortgage or rent-charge of any other description, and knowing it to be so subject, should afterwards refuse to pay the stipulated annual sum. Nay, if we suppose, for the sake of argument, that the mortgage had in the first instance been fraudulently obtained from a former possessor, yet the subsequent purchaser could not fairly avail himself of that plea to vacate the obligation he had contracted, even if the mortgage were still in the hands of the original mortgagee; and still less if it had passed from his hands to those of another, who had given for it a valuable and adequate consideration. We can see no difference in the two cases, in respect to the obligation which attaches to the purchaser.
We are truly happy to give prominence to the following article of Religious Intelligence.
To the Editor of the Christian Observer.
The expediency of circulating among the poor the Homilies of our Church, having been suggested in the Number for October last, of your valuable miscellany, you will, I presume, be as happy to hear as I am to inform you, that a society, entitled, The Bristol Church of England Tract Society, has been recently instituted in this city, the object and plans of which the enclesed paper will fully explain. A circular letter to the following effect has been sent to the clergy and many of the laity of this city and its vicinity, for the purpose of inviting support to the society in question, signed by Your humble servant, JOHN BULL. Portland Square, Bristol, 10th Dec. 1811.
“Sir, I take the liberty of enclosing for your perusal, the resolutions of a meeting convened for the purpose of considering the propriety of diffusing among the poor the Homilies of the Church of England, and Extracts from the Writings of her Reformers.
“It appeared to this meeting that
“‘The names of Wicliff and Tindal, Latimer and Ridley, ought not to be less popular in England, than those of Blake, and Marlborough, and our own great Nelson. They are the heroes of our religion, and we owe as much of our intellectual pre-eminence, as much of our peculiar happiness, to the constitution of our church as of our government.” “The pursuit of such an object can involve no controversial points, no party questions, among the friends of the Establishment. In this they may all unite; and its beneficial influence in promoting an attachment to her constitution, and diffusing a spirit of piety among her members, is incalculable. “Your encouragement and support of a society formed for the above salutary purposes, are therefore earnestly requested. “Signed in behalf of the general meeting, * Rev. John Bull, M. A. “ Chairman.”
“At a numerous meeting of Clergy
“Rev. John Bull, M.A. in the Chair.
there prevails among that numerous Bristol, to be entitled “The Bristol class of the community, a lamenta- Church of England Tract Society.” ble ignorance of the history, doc- “2. That the object of this society trines, and excellence of the pre- be to circulate in a cheap form, scribed worship of the Established among the poor members of the Church, as well as of the lives of her Church of England, her Homilies, Reformers, who suffered in her cause the lives of her reformers and marsuch bitter persecution. tyrs, extracts from their writings, and “To dissipate their ignorance in §. the publications of her bishops: this respect, and thus secure their at- with such short pieces illustrative tachment to the communion of the of the primitive history, constitution, church, no means seem so likely to and discipline of the Church, as the be efficacious as the distribution of committee may approve. selections from the book of Homilies, “3. That the clergy and laity whe and other works of the Reformers, have given their support to this with extracts from the writings of society by their presence be redistinguished prelates, and tracts il- quested to attend as a committee to lustrative of her primitive history manage its concerns; and that any and constitution. five of them shall constitute a quorum Christ. Onseny. App. 5 Q