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Explanation of the Angels," Rom. viii. 28. brethren, and that for strangers:" po angels should not have this effect upon “ Pilgrim” mentioned. Now, Sir, him. Expositors explain him, as say, whenever you or your friends quote, ing evil angels, meaning exalted beings do let me desire of you to keep in view who surrounded the throne of God, our blessed Saviour's golden rule, “Do and who were degraded because of as you would be done by." As I wish their apostacy, but were now suffered no controversy with you, (but merely to traverse the regions of the air, 10

to set you right, that you fall not into tempt men to imitate them in their • the like again, I subscribe myself horrid degeneracy and disobedience. your obedientservant,

At first sight we may observe upon

this explication, that the apostle knew It seems best to add, that the hand- pothing of sucii angels, and that inwaiting of the above is unknown to stcad of any such being invested with me; but that I am persuaded it did a power over men, in opposition to the not come from the respectable Catho- great Creator, we learn that every man lic clergyman of this city, of whose is tempted by the indulgence of his Christian liberality we have had re

own lusts. We should consider, therepeated and impressive proofs, and who fore, that the word angels always sig. would I am sure have taken a different nifies messengers, and that if it had mode of pointing out these errors. been always translated messengers, one I am, Sir,

great difficulty would have been reYours truly,

moved out of our way. Now, what L. C. were the messengers whom the apostle

had to encounter, but the messengers of Sir, Bath, 10th December, 1816. persecuting princes and of others, who

by their murdering threatenings endeayI , be

cation to most of your readers, if to silence? Such messengers, therefore, some of your ingenious correspondents with all the terrors which he here inwill favour them with a clear explica, troduces, could, he asserts, make no tion of the doctrine of angels which is impression upon him, whilst he knew contained in the whole scriptures. The in whom he believed, whilst he pro, angels who kept not their first estate to fessed the gospel, and such should be whom Jude refers, I take it for grant- the resolution of every one of us, ed, were the lying spies who gave a whilst we look not at things seen and false account of the land of Judea; and temporal, but at things un-een and the angels who are mentioned in the eternal. first chapter of the epistle to the He. Hence, then, we should learn to brews, to be prophets who went before employ ourselves in such studies as and predicted the coming and charac- will most effectually terminale in our ter of Christ.

conviction of the truth of the gospel, *. But what I intend at present, is to and of the blessed hope which it sets attempt an explanation of the word before us, if we walk worthy of our angels, which we find in Romans viii. heavenly calling. We should there. 28. The apostle had declared in the fore search the scriptures with all piety context, that he was so fully satisfied and diligence, and be directed to lay of the truth of the Christian religion, hold upon that unfailing inheritance and of all its promises to the righteous, which will be the portion of all those that neither ihe fear of an immediate who love God, and keep his com. death, nor of the most tragical life, mandments, when this world and all nor the malice of principalities or of the things of this world shall be no their delegates, nor any afflictions more. We should, therefore, sedus which they could impose upon him at lously practise all the duries which are present or threaten him in future, nor required from us as the disciples of any dangers present or to come, noteven Christ, worshiping God in spirit and the being made a spectacle to the world in truth, and looking unto him as our in lofty situations, nor being drowned only strength and refuge, whilst we do through violence in the sea, nor any to all our fellow creatures, as we possible occurrence in this world, would have them do unto us ; and we should be able to separate him from should particularly cultivate a charitahe love of God which is in Christ ble disposition towards those who most Jesus our Lord. He said also, that widely differ from us, blessing them

Natural Theology. No. XIII. Of the Pace, Complexion and Specch. 2whilst they curse us, and exercising and especially of a man, as being in every act of humanity, whilst they do him the only part of the body that is us every injury in their power. We usually visible. The great variety ob. should give no room to the most rigid servable in men's faces, voices and Athanasians to speak any evil of us. hand-writing, furnishes a capital arguWhilst they judge us and pass the ment in defence of a Providence. sentence of condemnation upon us, we The human face has been denomi. should pity them and pray for them, nated the image of the soul, as being and so make our light to shinc in all the seat of the principal organs of sense, purity, peace and benevolence, that and the place where the ideas, moeven they may gradually learn truly to tions, &c. of the soul are chiefly set to glorify our heavenly l'ather.

view. Besides the eyes, nose and W. H. ears, the other parts of the face pree

sent, separately, noihing very particu.

lar in their structure or uses. The Sir, Norwich, 25th March, 1816. forehead covers the greatest part of the I

T is the duty of every friend to reli- frontal bone of the skull, on the inside yation of those monuments of human low as the orbits, and it is ornamented intellect, which inculcate the impor- at its lower edge by the eye-brows, tance of Free Inquiry and defend the which also serve as defences to the Right of private Judgement, when eyes, and which are calculated to disthese inonuments are wasting . un- play the passions of pride and disdain. der the destroying hand of time. From the forehead 'the skin is con. On this subject I quite agree with Dr. tinued to form the eyelids, whose Carpenter, that the republication of uses, together with that of the heautiworks of sterling value of this descrip- ful row of hairs which grows froin each țion “may hare great efficacy in weak- of their edges have already beeu deening the influence of religious bi- scribed. The cheeks serve as sidegotry;" and perhaps nothing is better walls to the cavity of the mouth, and suited to this purpose than the works also constitute the principal share of which he mentions in his letter, dated the face: in many persons they are Jan. 8, in the Repository for that tiriged with the bloom of health; and month.

often in the fair sex exbibit a most Wishing therefore to lend my feeble beautiful and indescribable something aid in a cause which I deem highly denominated modesty. The cheeks important (particularly at a time when are lined on the inside with a meniwe seem to be relapsing into the bond- brane full of small glands, for secreting age of a blind fanaticism,). I have a liquid 10 moisten the mouth. The sent to the press for republication, a lips complete the cavity of the mouth, Copy of Dr.D.Whilly's Last Thoughts, and form its aperture; these are moved with his Discourses annexed thereto: with several small muscles, and are to which will be added some Account covered at the edges with a fine red of the Life and Writings of this learned border, cousisting of villous papillæ Divine, the friend of Hoadly. As I closely connected together and exhope soon to be enabled to announce tremely sensible, being defended only its publication, I shall esteem myself by a very thin membrane. While greatly favoured by receiving such the chin terminates the inferior boundHints and communications from any ary of the face, and completes the of your Correspondents, as may assist number of its divisions, me to render both the main work, and The features of the face viewed colthe biographical part as complete as ļ lectively, present a striking and beautiwish them to be.

ful-chiracteristic of the superior naI am, Sir,

ture of man. In the whole creation Yours very sincerely, there is not another object, probably, JOHN TAYLOR, which breathes so many, such various,

and such elevated influences as does Natural Theology. No. XIII. .

the human countenance. To this we Of the Face, Complexion and Speech. full meaning of the words expressed,

naturally look in conversation for the HE face is particularly used to de- and by it we are enabled to anticipate nominate the visage of an animal, the emotions and feelings of others,

204 Natural Theology. No. XIII.-Of the Face, Complexion and Speech before they reach the tongue. “It face are different from those of all othet speaks," says a good writer, ." a lan- faces; the features may be confined guage peculiar to itself, anticipating and limited to a certain number of and outstripping all others in rapidity: kinds ; but each is, probably, capable which is general to all nations, and in- of an indefinite number of combinatelligible to every individualof the whole tions with other features; and, that as human race: by this language hare from twenty-four letters all the words sur circum-navigators been able to hold composing a language are constituted, converse with, and interchange civili- so are produced, from, perhaps, a very ties between themselves and the un- few kinds of features, by transposition futored inhabitants of remote regions, and various composition, the astonishEven the brute animals, whom man ing and beautiful variety of faces we has domesticated and made his occa see around us. sional companions, are not ignorant of We may observe here, that there are this kind of expression; when the three things in connection with this dog wants to know the commands of subject which manifest the wisdom of his master, unable to understand them the Creator; these are the great variety in the complicated sounds of his of men's faces, voices and hand-write speech, he looks intently upon his face, ing. Had not the human countenance and endeavours to collect from it his been the result of Divine wisdom, the wishes, and the disposition with which wise variety, of which we have been he regards him. 'All the affections speaking, would never have existed, and passions of the mind are more or but all faces would have been cast in tess pourtrayed in turn in this very the same, or at least not in a very limited but expressive field; love, different, mould: the organs of speech pity, courage, fear, calmness, anger, would have sounded the same, or nearand every other marked condition of ly so, and the same structure of mus. the mind gives a peculiar disposition cles and nerves would have given the to either the whole or some features of hand the same direction in writing. the face; and when they are impressed in this case, what confusion, what by characters expressive of virtue and disturbance, to what inischiefs would wretchedness, of injury and innocence, the world have been subject ? No our feelings are awakened, and the security could have been given to our noblest sympathies of our nature are persons ; no certainty, no quiet encalled forth in favour of the sufferers." joyment of our possessions. Oar courts

It may be observed, that to the size of justice can and do abundantly testiand proportion of the bones under- fy frequently the dreadful consequences neath, and which constitute the basis of mistaking men's faces and of counof the face, the difference of fea- terfeiting their hand-writing. But as tures is to be principally attributed; the Creator has ordered the matter, youth, age, sickness, health, and even every man's face has some character to the stronger affections of the mind, no mark it from others in the light, and doubt have an effect in changing the his voice in the dark, and his handcountenance;. but that diversity of writing can speak for him though abo feature consisting of the difference of sent, and be his witness, and secure length, breadth, or projection, depends his contracts to future generations. A chiefly upon the bony frame that lies manifest as well as admirable indicabelow it. Hence arise the Aquiline, tion of the Divine superintendance and the Grecian and the African nose, &c. management! the high cheeks of the Tartars, and the Of the complerion. The colour of more regular ones of the people inha- the skin has engaged the attention of biting the West of Europe : ihe same naturalists, and it has sometimes given may be said of the other features, and rise to opinions that were extremely from this difference in them is that injurious to the happiness of mankind; great diversity produced, which gives as directly asserting, that, in violation variety to the countenance, not only of the eternal principles of justice and of nations but also of individuals ; so the sacred rights of humanity, the that no two of the whole family of people of one colour had a right to mankind could be found exactly alike, seize and enslave those of another. But But notwithstanding this wonderful now the seat of colour being discovered, diversity, we are not to suppose that and some of the circumstances which the individual features composing each influence its changes being known,

Natural Theology. No. XIII.-Of the Face, Complexion and Speech. 208 these erroneous opinions are exploded, agulated substance is the seat of colour and instead of seeing ground for the in the skin, and that which causes the slavery and ill-treatment of our fellow- various shades of complexion in the creatures, in the difference of their different inhabitants of the globe, from complexion froin our own, the philo. the equator to the poles ; being, in the sopher and the Christian contemplate highest latitudes of the temperate zone, the shades of the human countenance, generally fair, but becoming swarthy, as he does the variety of its features, olive, tawny and black, as we descend and beholds alike in both the provident towards the south. design and work of the Supreme Ar These different colours are with. chitect.

out doubt best adapted to their respecDr. Hunter, who considered this tive zones, although we are ignorant subject more accurately than has com- how they act in fitting us for situations monly been done, determines abso- that are so different; and the capabilutely against any specific difference lity of the human countenance to acamong mankind. He introduces his commodate itself to every climate, by subject by observing, that on the ques- contracting after a due time the shade tion whether all the human race con proper to it, affords a fine illustration stituted ove or more species, much of the benevolence of the Almighty. confusion has arisen from the sense in This pliancy of nature is favourable to which the term species has been adopt- the increase and extension of mankind ed. He accordingly defines the term, and to the cultivation and settlement and includes under it all those animals of the earth : it tends to unite the inost which produce issue capable of propa- distant nations-o facilitate the ac. gating others resembling the original quisition and improveinent of science, stock from whence they sprung; and which would otherwise be confined to in this sense of the term he concludes, a few objects and to a very limited that all of them are to be considered range, and likewise by opening the as belonging to the same species. And way to an universal intercourse of men as in plants one species comprehends and things, to elevate the various naseveral varieties depending on climate, tions of the earth to the feelings of a soil, culture, &c. so he considers the common nature and a common interest. diversities of the human race to be Of Speech. In addition to what merely varieties of the same species, has alrcady been said on the human produced by natural causes. Upon the voice, we may observe, that the organs whole, colour and figure may be styled for effecting speech are the mouth, the habits of body. Like other habits they windpipe and the lungs. The mouth are created not by great and sudden needs no description. I'he windpipe is impressions, but by continual and al a passage commencing at the back pars most imperceptible touches. Of ha. of the mouth, and thence descending bits, both of mind and body, nations along the neck, itopens into the lungs; are susceptible as well as individuals. at the upper part it is constructed of They are transmitted to their offspring five thin cartilages, connected by liga: and augmented by inheritance. Long ments and put into motion by sınali in growing to maturity, national fea- muscles. These cartilages form a kind tures, like natioual manners, become of chamber at the head of the tube, fixed only after a succession of ages. which is situated at the root of the They become, however, fixed at last; tongue. The opening of this chamber and if we can ascertain any effect pro- into the throat is a very narrow chink, daced by a given state of climate, or which is dilated and contracted to pro other círcurostances, it requires only duce every change in the modulation a repetition during a sufficient length of the voice, by the muscles attached of time to augment and impress it with to the cartilages. To defend this open* permanent character.

ing there is a beautiful contrivance of 'It is ascertained that what we deno, an elastic valve which falls flat upou minate the skin of the human body it whenever we swallow, like the key consists of three parts, separable from of a wind instrument, and which at one another: viz. the scarf-skin, which other times rises up and leaves the is external, the thicker or true skin aperture uncovered for the uninter. bencath it, and a coagulated substance rupted ingress and egress of the air into which lies between both. This ca. tie lungs. The windpipe, or tube,

204

S. W. on the Use of the word But. leuling to the lungs is so formed as to change of subject, or an opposition to be always open, and to resist compres- what went before.” He, however, sion; at the same time it is quite flex- modestly suspects he may be mistaken, ible, and gives way to all the bendings and asks for information. of ihe neck; had it not been so we On reference to the “ Diversions of should have been in perpetual hazard Purley,” Vol. i. p. 190, &c., I. W. of strangularion. The passage to the and such other of your readers as are stomach, on the contrary, being in fond of language, inay find a clear and tended only for occasional use, has its copious exposition of the word but. sides always collapsed, unless when Lest, however, I. W. should not have distended by the passing of food. The that inestimable work at hand, which Jungs are two cellular bags for contain- it is evident he has never read, I will, ing air ; they are situated in the chest, endeavour to give him in a few words and both open into the bottom of the a sketch of the learned author's lumi. windpipe.

nous view of the subject. He says, In the act of inspiration the air di“it was the corrupt use of this one lates the lungs; thesc, like bellows, word (but) in modern English, for two force it back in expiration into the words (bot and but), originally in the windpipe : here the air is straitened Anglo-Saxon) very diflerent in signiin its passage, and made 10 rush with fication, which misled John Locke, force along the tube towards its upper and which puzzled Johnson in his Dicend, where it is variously modulated, tionary, where he bas numbered up and the sound of the voice is produced. eighteen different significations of the In articulation the vnice is required to word.” The first mentioned but or l'ot pass through the mouth, where it is is the imperative of lotan, and answers differently modified by the action of to sed in Latin and mais in French, the tongue, which is either pushed and this appears to be the l'ut to which against the teeth or upward against the 1. W. has confined his definition or pălate, detaining it in its passage or description—the other but is derived permitting it to flow freely by con- from bute, or butai., or le-utan, and tracting or dilating the mouth. It has answers to nisi in Latin—" this last been remarked of ihe tongue, that it is liut (as distinguished from bot) and the only muscle of the body under the without have both exactly the saine controul of the will, which is not meaning; that is, in modern English, wearied by incessant use.

neither more nor less than be-oui." Speech is a high and distinguishing It is this last but, the want of the prerogative of man. By this noble knowledge of which has occasioned all facully we are enabled to express all the perplexity both in the mind of our feelings and inclinations ; to com- your correspondent and also of many 'municate our thoughts, and blend our of his more learned predecessors, and

energies, our knowledge and disco- which knowledge was never clearly veries, with those of others. In writ- developed but by that man whose phiten language, form and permanence lological labours are an honour to his are given to evanescent sounds: the memory, and whose valuable papers, ideas and the improvements of one age having been committed to the fames are transmitted to a succeeding one: by himself in a fit of spleen, are an irthe superior acquirements of one coun- reparable loss to the republic of letters, try are scattered over distant regions, and operate as a serious visitation of the and knowledge, civilization and happi- injuries he suffered, on generations yet ness diffused far and wide.

unbom--a retaliation of injustice, not

on those who commiited it, but on Sin,

innocent and unconscious inquirers. OUR correspondent I. W.,p.23, The omission of negation before but

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authors, in which he conceives the word mpl abbreviations of construction in but has been improperly used; and in our language. In the example, my order to give his notion of the mean intent is but to play, was formerly ing of the word, he savs, “ This is a written, my intent is not but to play. conjunction, which when we meet Most of the instances which I. W. with it is a kind of stop to the sense, has given of the improper use of the and prepares the mind to expect a word but exhibit a perfect redundancy

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