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dosius had opposed to them, and poured like an overwhelming torrent into the empire.

When the word hour then occurs in an insulated form, unconnected with the specific terms a day, a month, or a year, it certainly means, not the twenty-fourth part of a day, but a season of indeterminate length : and, when it is thus used in the Apocalypse, I know not what season it can reasonably be supposed to mean, except it be some one of the great Apocalyptic periods ; namely, one of the seven seals, one of the seven trumpets, or one of the seven vials*. Thus the hour or season of God's judgment upon Babylont is manifestly the one particular period under which the papal Apostasy is to be abolished; a period, comprehended within the limits of the last vial : and thus the one hour or season, in which the ten horns were to receive power as kings along with the beast, means the period of the first woe-trumpet ; at the beginning of which the ancient Roman idolatrous beast revived, by his lapsing, under his ten horns, into the demonolatry of Popery I. The ten kings indeed had received power previous to this time; but they had not till then received power along

* It is almost superfluous to observe, that I except such passages as Rev. iii. 3, and iii. 10, from relating to any of the apocalyptic periods ; but I am not aware of a third exception in the whole book of the Revelation, unless the half hour of the seventh seal be a sort of one. + Rev. xiv. 7. xviii. 10, 17, 19. Rev. xvii. 12.


Kingdoms they might be before, but they were not before kingdoms or horns of the beast till they embraced his religion” (Bp. Newton's Dissert. on Rev. xvii.). Though I cannot agree with Bp. Newton, that the first beast means the Papacy, the propriety of this remark will be unaffected, whether his scheme or mine be adopted. Daniel, not noticing the threefold stats of the beast as St. John does, simply describes the first rise of the ten horns and of the eleventh little horn which sprung up among them. This division of the empire however took place during the intermediate state of the beast : hence St. John does not consider the ten kingdoms as horns of the beast, tille the Roman empire reassumed its ancient bestial nature ; and hence Daniel carefully distinguishes between the period when the little horn first arose, and the period when the saints were delivered into his hand. This last period' is the same as that when St. John beheld the beast, in his third or revived state, ascend out of the sea of Gothic invasion.


context of the particular passage now under consi. deration, I will venture to affirm with some degree of positiveness, that the hour or season, in which the great earthquake was to take place, and which is declared by St. John to be the very same as that in which the war of the beast against the witnesses was to be carried on and their triumphant ascent into heaven to occur ; that this hour or season is the period comprehended under the second woetrumpet

It is observable, that the two first woes are accurately distinguished from each other, as they took place in the East; but that no precise line of discrimination is drawn between them, as they commenced in the West : it is merely stated, that as soon as a tenth part of the city should have fallen by the earthquake, the second woe should be past, but that thie third woe should quickly follow it: this line of discrimination therefore must be drawn by referring to eastern chronology. I have already stated, that the first woe-trumpet describes the rise and establishment of the twofold Apostasy ; that the second represents the middle and most flourishing period of its existence; and that the third details the several steps of its downfall, introducing moreover upon the stage a new and most formi

dable power.

The first of the woe-trumpets seems to have begun to sound in the year 606, when the desolating transgression of Mohammedism arose, and when the saints were given into the hand of the



already existing Papal little horn. Under this trumpet are comprehended the five prophetic months of Saracenic conquest, which began in 612, and ended in 1762, when Bagdad was built, and when Mohammedism may be considered as firmly established. Now, since the prophet assures us, that the first woe expired at this period, we must look for the establishment of Popery either in or.' before the year 762, in order that it may

be comprized under the same woe as the establishment Mohammedism. Accordingly the proper date of the firm establishment of Popery is the year 755, or as some say the year 758, when Pipin, king of France, having taken the apostolic see under his special protection, conferred upon it the Exarchate of Ravenna.

The second woe-trumpet began to sound at the commencement of the hour, the day, the month, and the year, when the Turkish horsemen were prepared to slay the third part of men, or the Eastern empire: this, as we have seen, was in the year 1281. In the same year 1281, the papal Apostasy may be considered as having attained the zenith of its power; as will sufficiently appear from the following statement of the several rapid strides which it had previously made to absolute universal domination. In the year 774, the Pope obtained a grant of the greatest part, of the kingdom of the Lombards. In the year 787, the worship of images, which had already been established in 607, was confirmed by the second council of Nice. In the


year 817, the Emperor Louis finally confirmed to the Pope his Italian dominions. In the year 1074, Gregory the seventh strictly forbad the marriage of the clergy. In the year 1059; Robert Guiscard assumed the title of Duke of Apulia and Calabria; ånd afterwards did homage to the Pope, as his superior lord, for the dominions which have since been erected into the kingdom of the two. Sicilies. In the year 1137, the same feudal submission was made by Don Alonso of Portugal. In the year 1213, John of England declared his monarchy a fief of the apostolic see*.” In the pontificate of Innocent the 'third, which lasted from the

year 1198 to the year 1216, the Saladine tenth, a tax originally laid upon the whole Latin empire for the service of the holy war, was continued for the benefit of the successors of St. Peter: and Innocent himself, “ may boast of the two most signal “ triumphs over sense and humanity, the establish“ment of transubstantiation, and the origin of the

inquisitiont.” Finally, to complete the aggran

* The Spanish kingdom of Arragon, the Dukedom of Austria, the islands of Sardinia and Corsica, and more than one of the Italian principalities, declared themselves, in the same dark period, feudatories of the Papacy. The long continued tyranny, which the Pope exercised over the kingdom of Naples, is well known. In short, it appears at one time to have been the studied design of the Bishops of Rome to render themselves temporal, no less than spiritual, sovereigns of Europe. In this design however, as we shall hereafter see, they by no means succeeded. + Hist. of Decline and Fall, vol. xi. p. 152.


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