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cumstance which had placed her, in the words of Scripture, 'a little lower than the angels!" Vol. III. pp. 343–346.

These volumes contain a considerable portion of poetry, much of which would not disgrace Sir Walter Scott himself. Most of the pieces are either connected with the story, and cannot be detached, or, if capable of being detached, are scarcely appropriate to our pages. We shall, however, ven1ure on a specimen. The following is an imitation of an ancient Northern war-song.

"The Song of Harold Harfager.
"The sun is rising dimly red,
The wind is wailing low and dread;
From his cliff the eagle sallies,
Leaves the wolf his darksome valleys;
In the mist the ravens hover,
Peep the wild dogs from the cover,
Screaming, croaking, baying, yelling,
Each in his wild accents telling,
'Soon we feast on dead and dying,
Fair-hair'd Harold's flag is flying.'

Many a crest on air is streaming,
Many a helmet darkly gleaming,
Many an arm the axe uprears,
Doom'd to hew the wood of spears.
All along the crowded ranks,
Horses neigh and armour clanks;
Chiefs are shouting, clarions ringing,
Louder still the bard is singing,
'Gather footman, gather horsemen ;
To the field, ye valiant Norsemen !
"Halt ye not for food or slumber;
View not vantage, count not number;
Jolly reapers, forward still,
Grow the crop on vale or hill,
Thick or scattered, stiff or lithe,
It shall down before the scythe.
Forward with your sickles bright,
Reap the harvest of the fight-
Onward footmen, onward horsemen,
To the charge, ye gallant Norsemen !

"Fatal chooser of the slaughter.
O'er you hovers Odin's daughter;
Hear the choice she spreads before ye,-
Victory, and wealth, and glory;
Or old Valhalla's roaring hall,
Her ever-circling mead and ale,
Where for eternity unite

Headlong forward, foot and horsemen,
The joys of wassail and of fight.
Charge and fight, and die like Norse-
Vol. III. pp. 26, 27.

men !' "

style. It is the farewell of CleveThe following is in a different

thought its pathos improved if it land to Minna. We should have had come from better lips, and under less revolting circumstances. Farewell! Farewell! the voice you hear

Has left its last soft tone with you,Its next must join the seaward cheer, And shout among the shouting crew. "The accents which I scarce could form

Beneath your frown's controlling check,

Must give the word, above the storm,

To cut the mast, and clear the wreck. "The timid eye I dared not raise,

The hand, that shook when press'd to
thine,

Must point the guns upon the chase,-
Must bid the deadly cutlass shine.
"To all I love, or hope, or fear,-

Honour, or own,-a long adieu !
To all that life has soft and dear,
Farewell! save memory of you!"

Vol. II. pp. 239 240.

We have now devoted as much space to this tale as our limits permit, and more perhaps than some of our gravest readers may think necessary. Our comments we must reserve to another Number. (To be continued.)

REVIEW OF REVIEWS.

To the Editor of the Christian Observer.
HAVING observed your favourable
Review of the Rev. Mr. Bradley's
Sermons, from which, and other
commendations, they have had a

lieve your reviewer overlooked a wide circulation, I am led to bethe Eighth Sermon, 4th edition, most extraordinary sentiment in vol. I. pp. 145, 146;-a sentiment which fills my mind with horror,

as applied to the pure and immaculate human nature of our ever blessed Redeemer, the Lord Jesus Christ; a sentiment which to my own knowledge is spreading widely and undermining the faith once delivered to the saints, and directly leading to, and can only end in, the denial of his Divinity altogether.

In vain will the author's qualifications undo the appalling sense which can alone be put upon the following expressions:

"But there are other and still more painful infirmities yet behind, the infirmities which are the effects of sin; sinful infirmities, the pain which is caused in the soul by its conflicts with evil lusts and unhallowed tempers ! !—* The text tells us, however, that he was in all points tempted like as we are; and again another Scripture says that he

was made in the likeness of sinful flesh; that he took our nature upon him, not as it was in our first parents in a state of innocence, not as it is now in the glorified saints in heaven, but as it is impaired and degraded by the fall.—* * * He knew what it was to be under the guilt of sin."

Truly he bore the punishment of sin. He made his soul an offering for sin. "The chastisement of our peace was upon him." "He bore our sins in his own body on the tree." The purity of his character qualified him for this work; for he was "the Lamb, without blemish and without spot, who did no sin, neither was guile found in his mouth," much less in his thoughts or dispositions.

As I presume you will think it necessary to put your readers on their guard against these errors, so contrary to the avowed sentiments of the Christian Observer, I have taken the liberty of calling your attention to the subject.

J.

S.

In reply to these strictures of our correspondent, so far as they 'concern ourselves, it is only neces sary to state, that we did not review the first volume of Mr. Bradley's Sermons, but the second only; and that, even if we had reviewed both, a general commendation of a work

is not intended for, and ought not to be construed into, an approval of every individual sentiment or expression. There are few publications, even among those which we most highly esteem, and should with least reservation commend, in which there may not be passages that we might think liable to just exception. But it would far exceed the bounds of a critique of ordinary length, to analyze each paragraph of a work, with a view to notice every sentence which appears to deserve either encomium or blame.

We shall not, however, on the present occasion content ourselves with this general statement, but shall freely express our own opinion on the point at issue between Mr. Bradley and our correspondent; first, however, in justice to the author, transcribing the whole passage, with bis "qualifications," which our readers may think, notwithstanding the denial of J. S., have some considerable, though not sufficient, tendency to modify the " appalling sense of his expressions." It is as follows. (We quote from the 2d edition.)

"But there are other and still more

painful infirmities yet behind, the infirmities which are the effects of sin, sinful infirmities; the pain which is caused in the soul by evil lusts, tempers, and habits. Are these then included in the Apostle's words? There is one expression in the text which seems, on the first view, to exclude at once all these sources of sorrow from the sympathy of Christ. He was tempted or exercised by all the various calamities of human life, but yet he was without sin. The text, however, tells us, that he was in all points tempted like as we are; and again, another Scripture says, that he was made in the likeness of sinful

flesh; that he took our nature upon him, not as it was in our first parents in a

state of innocence, not as it is now in the glorified saints in heaven, but as it is, impaired and degraded by the fall. Not that there was any sin in him; he was perfectly harmless, perfectly pure, without spot, or blemish, or any such thing: but though he was free from sin,

he felt and tasted in all their bitterness many of those effects of sin to which man is liable in the present state. He knew what it was to be under the guilt of sin; not that he was ever really guilty, but he was dealt with as though he were. *God,' says the Apostle,' made him to be sin for us, who knew no sin.' Hence

he was made to taste of the sufferings that are the consequences of guilt."

On perusing the whole of this passage, we perfectly accord with J. S. that some parts of it are expressed in a manner extremely exceptionable; though we cannot for a moment suppose-indeed the contrary is evident that Mr. Bradley intended to intimate that our Lord had any propensity to sin, however he might be "exercised" with temptations to it. The origin of the improper language which J. S. reprehends, seems to us partly to lie in the equivocal meaning of the word "temptation." In one sense, our Lord could not be tempted to any evil; for instance, to pride, or ambition, or presumption; yet, in another sense, he was tempted to these very sins, that is, satan tempted him to them, as we find recorded in the Gospels. He suffered temptation from without; but, unlike us, he felt no temptation from within. Temptations were presented to him; but they glanced, blunted and powerless, from the impenetrable shield of his immaculate sanctity. This distinction should always be kept prominently in sight, in commenting on such passages as that which forms the subject of Mr. Bradley's discourse; nor should. even the laudable desire to comfort the afflicted, and support the weak, lead a Christian minister to such a mode of expression respecting our blessed Lord, as may seem to intimate that there is any immediate analogy in the manner in which He experienced the force of temptation, and that in which it assails us frail and sinful creatures. In general, in speaking of our Lord, the term " tried" would more nearly correspond with the scriptural idea, and be less liable to misconception, than the word "tempted."

He was "tried in all points like as
we are ;" and he can doubtless feel
cumstanced, not because templa-
the more for us when similarly cir-
tion or trial had any tendency to
seduce him, or required, if we may
so speak, any particular effort to
repel it, but because, on account
of his holy nature, the very sug
gestion of evil to his mind, though
he felt not any inclination to yield
to it, was immeasurably painful to
him.-Divines should also beware
of carrying the comprehensive ge-
neralities of Scripture into excep-
tionable details. Thus, in the pas-
sage in question, the expression
"in all points" (Kara Tavтa) seems
scarcely capable of sustaining so
minute a comparison as that which
Mr. Bradley has instituted. There
with which our Lord could not
are many individual temptations
be literally assailed, because there
were circumstances and conditions

of life which he did not experience.
He was not, for example, a parent,
Besides all which, the passage ap-
a husband, a magistrate, or a ruler.
plies to the "infirmities" of our
tions to actual sin. The import of
nature, rather than to the tempta-
the text is beautifully, and we think
correctly, paraphrased in a well-
known hymn which first appeared
some years since in our work, (Vol.
for 1812, p. 91,) and bas subse-
quently been transcribed in several
collections of sacred poetry:
"When gathering clouds around I
view," &c.

We perfectly coincide with the
following remarks of Beza on the
passage in question.

"I allow that no sufferings can fall upon Christ, now he is glorified; but thus much is certain, that by the expression in the text is signified that complete sympathy between the members and the Head-that is, the church and Christ-on which St. Paul so often expatiates. Moreover, the Scriptures, when speaking of Christ glorified, adapt themselves to our apprehensions, the same as when speaking of God. We

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believe that Christ dwells in glory at the right hand of the Father, where he is said to be touched with the feeling of our infirmities; because, whatever injury is done to us, he considers as done to himself, as when he exclaimed from heaven, "Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou me? To go into deeper speculations on this subject, I think neither

useful nor safe.......Our Lord did not merely assume the substance of our body and animal life (anima) but became subjeet to all our afflictions, and to the penalty of all our sins, but still in such a manner that every thing in him was upright and perfect; nor was there in him any thing of the flesh, that is, the vicious principle, warring with the Spirit."

LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL INTELLIGENCE, &c. &c.

GREAT BRITAIN. PREPARING for publication :-The Life of J. Goodwin, by Thomas Jackson;Considerations on Calvinism and Regeneration, by the Rev. W. B. Knight;— Ossian, with original Notes and a Dis sertation, by H. Campbell;-Journal of a Voyage to Greenland, by Capt. Manby ;- The Travels of Theodore Ducas, by C. Mills;—An Inquiry into the Truth and Use of the lately translated Book of Enoch, by Mr. Overton.

In the press:-The works of Arminius, with the Author's Life ;-A System of Analytic Geometry, by the Rev. D. Lardner-Elements of Self-improvement, by the Rev. T. Finch;-A Third Volume of the Remains of H. Kirke White, by Robert Southey;-Oriental Literature, as a sequel to Oriental Customs, by the Rev. S. Burder;-Essays on the Recollections which are to subsist between earthly Friends, re-united in the World to come; and on other Subjects, religious and prophetical; by the Rev. T. Gisborne, A. M.

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bably not in quite this proportion; cach return being more perfect than the for. mer, and therefore augmenting the num ber. Only seven returns were deficient in 1821.

Cambridge.-Doctor Smith's Annual Prizes, to the two best proficients in mathematics and natural philosophy among the Commencing Bachelors of Arts, are adjudged to Mr. H. Holditch, of Caius College, and Mr. M. Peacock, of Bene't College, the first and second wranglers.

M. Dupin, a French writer, gives the following illustration of the labour performed by steam engines in this conntry.

The great pyramid of Egypt required for its erection above 100,000 men for twenty years. The volume of the pyramid is 4,000,000 cubic metres, its weight about 10,400,000 tons. The centre of gravity is elevated 49 metres, from the base; and, taking 11 metres as the main depth of the quarries, the total height of elevation is 60 metres, which, multiplied by 10,400,000 tons, gives 624,000,000 tons raised one metre.' The total of the steam-engines in England represents a power of 320,000 horses. These engines therefore in work for 24 hours would raise 862,800,000 tons one metre high, and consequently, 647,100,000 tons in 18 hours, which surpasses the produce of the labour spent in raising the materials of the great pyramid.

The air-pump, no longer confined to the service of experimental philosophy, has been of late years introduced with good effect into many of our manufactories. We lately mentioned a useful application of its powers in the processes of dying, sizing, and wetting down paper for printing, &c. as prac

tised in the Bank of Ireland. Another modern application is in the process of sugar refining. It is a circumstance generally known that fluids boil at a lower temperature beneath an exhausted receiver than when exposed to the ordinary pressure of the atmosphere. The sugar refiner, taking advantage of this principle, encloses the pan containing the saccharine fluid in a close vessel, when by the continued action of an air-pump, the air is so far rarified as to produce ebulition at a temperature not exceed ing, perhaps, 100 deg. of Fahrenheit's thermometer; which not only causes a saving of time and fuel, but materially diminishes the risk of charring the sugar.

It has been decided in the Court of King's Bench, that, in the event of an article pawned not being redeemed within twelve months and a day, the pawnbroker, though authorised to sell it, may be called upon to account to the owner for the amount of sale, deducting only the sum advanced, with interest and expenses. If the article is not actually sold, it may be redeemed even after the twelvemonth and day have expired; it not being the design of the law to give the pawn-broker any advantage from forfeited pledges, except recovering the amount of his loan, interest, and expenses. The rate of interest was fixed as high as was considered sufficient for the profits of the trade, without any additional source of remuneration.

An application was lately made to the Lord Chancellor, on the part of Mr. Murray, the publisher of Lord Byron's "Cain," for an injunction to restrain a printer named Benbow from pirating that work. The Lord Chancellor replied, that, having read the poem, he entertained a reasonable doubt of its character; and therefore, until the parties could shew that they could maintain an action upon it, he must refuse an injunction. The immediate consequence of this decision unhappily may be to inundate the country with cheap editions of exceptionable works, hitherto restricted in their circulation; but the ultimate effect, we trust, will be salutary, as authors will be discouraged in writing, and booksellers in publishing, works in which neither can hope to secure a copy-right. Hone and Carlile themselves stand in danger of having some of their most lucrative publications pirated with impunity by their fellow. labourer Mr. Benbow.-It is much to

the honour of our laws that they refuse to uphold any claim, agreement, or even bond which is proved to be “contra bonos mores."

UNITED STATES.

The evils of dram-drinking, so forcibly pointed out in this country, are felt still more strongly in many parts of North America. A committee of gentlemen was appointed some time since to inquire into the causes of pauperism in the city of New York. They stated, as the result of their investigation, that the most prominent and alarming cause of the distress of the numerous poor in that city was the inordinate use of spirituous liquors. Seven cases out of eight they could trace to this source. The "Moral Society" of Portland stated, in 1816, that out of 85 persons in the work-house of that town, 71 were reduced to that condition in consequence of intemper

ance.

INDIA, &c.

A case of some interest respecting Indian Marriages lately came before the Court of the Recorder of Bombay.Mr. A. B. had been married at Seroor, in the presence of two witnesses, to Mrs. C. D., by the officer commanding the forces, there being at that time no clerical establishment at Seroor. The opinion of counsel was: "That this is a valid marriage to some intents and purposes, but not to all. Marriages in the British dominions in the East Indies are governed by the same law which prevailed in England prior to the Marriage Act, except where solemnized by ministers of the Scotch Church; which marriages are rendered valid by a recent act of parliament. This marriage is binding on the partics: a subsequent marriage by either with a third person, during the life of the other, would be void. The children would be to most purposes legitimate; but as there was no priest to perform the ceremony, there are certain rights connected with real property, to which, according to a long series of old cases, the parties so married would not be entitled. It is improbable that the parties, or their issue, would suffer inconvenience from the marriage being in some degree defective, as the occasions on which such defects would prove injurious are rare; but to make every thing safe, another marriage is necessary: it should be had in confirmation of the first, and upon no account in the ordinary form, as if no former marriage had taken place,"

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