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song !"

sentations, from the nature of the and besides are very concise. They case, be not pardonable, as sup- are merely slight touches, or cirposing the reader will make the cumstantial strokes, and do not proper allowances and reservations, form the ground-work of the picI will not undertake positively to ture. In Paradise Lost the descrip. say; yet I would suggest that every tion is extended. The comparison thing within the skill of the poet constitutes the entire representato counteract the effect should be tion. The scene, in every part, is brought forward. It is due to Mil- invested with the attributes of maton to observe, that he has done teriality. The pure spiritual world much in the latter way, although, of the Bible becomes the palpable in one species

of representation, his world of our senses, though 'more design is not fully answered. Satan delicately touched. Hence we seem is made at times to defend himself to be conveyed into a sort of unacwith such amazing art, and to offer customed region of mere fancied such plausible reasons for his con- existence. This is so much the duct, without an adequate counter- case, that the temporary suspicion balancing representation, that the of Andrew Marvell, expressed in depraved mind of man, which takes the following lines, is not without at least as much pains to find ex- foundation. cuses for its wickedness as to ad- “ Heaven, hell, earth, chaos, all! the mit the force of considerations

argument against it, would easily take sides Held me awhile niisdoubting bis intent; with the foe of God and man. That he would ruin (for I saw him One would think that the following strong) words were put into the mouth of The sacred truths, to fable and old: that evil agent almost on purpose to have them appear, as every sneer

Who but must feel, that the sadoes, irrefutable. Satan, after his cred truths of the Bible worked up success in circumventing man, says into a story, told in the language, to his comrades ;

and after the manner, of men, with

the necessary extended representa“ Him by fraud I have seduc'd tions, as to scenery, plot, incidents, From his Creator ; and (the more to in- characters, speeches, and the like, Your wonder) with an apple! He thereat of fable and old song, especially

would, more or less, wear the garb Offended (worth your laughter !) bath

when the representations of certain giv'n op Both his beloved man, and all his world, high and mysterious subjects must To sin, and death, a prey; and so to us."

be looked upon not only as inade

quate in themselves, but as unlike The cause of scepticism, it may to the reality? These subjects, or be feared, is often aided by such rather the truths connected with perhaps inadvertent toucbes. them, would, in this case, appear

4. Our moral associations and with an unlikelihood and a weakfeelings must be considered as in pess wbich they by no means inhe. some danger of being injured, from rently possess. The mighty results, the grossness and materialism which particularly concerning mau's reenter into some of the poet's repre- demption, must have been connected sentations of spiritual subjects. It with some previous supernatural is to be remarked that the Scrip- agency: but what created intellect tures, in aid of our weak concep- can suitably conceive and trace its tions, sometimes employ on these various steps? In what manner are subjects a language similar to that we to imagine angels as holding inused by the poet. But representa- tercourse with one another? What is tions of ibis nature are there most. the form of communication between ly made in the way of comparison; them and the Deity? And what


is the process by which the Three stances, the representation is carPersons in the Godhead, con- ried. How far the poet here ofsulting from eternity, take their fends, it is left to the reader to deappropriate parts in the works cide. To some minds it would of creation and redemption? We undoubtedly be desirable, that the almost shudder at the temerity taint and corruption of earth should, of any mortal, who, entering into as far as possible, be removed from this pure spiritual world, shali mark these pure and spiritual beings. In it with earthly stains, or present it the atienpt to describe the Supreme to us in the darkness and materi. Being, and to rehearse dialogues ality of his own dative abode. The between the Father and Son, the poet here would be too apt to mix poet has been considered as failing heaven with earth, spirit with body, in poetical effect. If from this God with nature, and to bring we deduct a little on the score of every thing down to the form and the debasing, influence of unnecesmeasure of created objects. That sary earthly associations; and if power of the mind by which he we make the same deduction, on

gives to airy nothing a local ha- the same account, in regard to cer. bitation and a name,” would be tain representations of heaven and rather incautiously and perversely the state of things there, of the employed, in giving to eternal re- employment and circumstances of alities the evanescent form of illu- angels, and of a few other things sion.

occasionally appearing in the work; Whatever refinement the subject nothing, it is believed, would be receives from the inimitable touches lost as to desirable moral influence. of Milton's pencil, yet it seems to I would not bowever proscribe the be something short of spirit, that following noble description of the constitutes in some portions, the Deity, since it so nearly imitates character of his spiritual world. the modesty of Scripture. Perhaps this best agrees with the poet's own doctrine concerning

“ Fountain of light! thyself invisible body and spirit, as laid down in Amidst the glorious brightness where

thou sitt'st, the fifth book.

Throu'd inaccessible, but when thou " One first matter all,

shad'st Endued with various forms, various de. The full blaze of Ihy beams, and through grees

a cloud of substance, and, in things that live, Drawo round aboat thee like a radiant of life :

shrine, But more refined, more spirituous, and Dark with excessive bright thy skirts

pure, As nearer to him plac'd, or nearer tend. Yet dazzle heaven, that brightest sera

appear; ing,

phim Each in their several active spheres as

Approach not, but with both wings veil signed :

their eyes." Till body up to spirit work, in bound Proportion'd to each kind.”

But who does not perceive the This sort of representation, littleness of earthly associations, in against wbich the present objec- the concluding thought conveyed tion is made as tending to injure our in the following lines ? Raphael apprehensions of spiritual subjects, says io Adam— may be too nearly connected with

“ For I that day was absent, as befel the nature of poetry, and of the production itself, to have weight Bound on a voyage, unconth, and ob

scure, as a whole. It may also perhaps be Far on excursion toward the gates of sufficiently countenanced by the

hell, authority of Scripture, except as to Squared in full legion (such command the extent to which, in some in- we had),

To see that none thence issued forth a


THROUGH NORTH AMERICA. Or enemy, while God was in his work ; Lest he (incens’d at such eruption bold)

(Continued from p. 153.) Destruction with creation might have The present is a most favourable mix'd."

season for investing money in this Particular miscellaneous critic country; and a judicious capitalist, cism, especially on the excellencies who would take tiine to look about of Paradise Lost, might be inde- him, and watch opportunities, finitely extended. The remarks night lay out his money to great hazarded in this essay bave been advantage. The depreciation of reduced to general beads, both as real estate throughout the Union is precision and advancement towards perfectly astonishing, and sales are an object were in view. Less occasionally forced at sacrifices altherefore bas perhaps been illus- most incredible. You will have trated, in regard to single perfec- seen in the American newspapers, tions and blemishes, than might the various plans before Congress have been illustrated, had the at- and the recommendation in the tempt been made in a more de- Report of the Secretary of the sultory and unfettered manner. Treasury, for remitting part of the But whatever are the valuable moral price, and extending the time of qualities of the poem, and whate payment, to those purchasers of the ever are its defects as to religious public lands whose instalments influence, they might have been are not yet paid up. This proposmore fully developed if there were ed relief will probably prevent the any uncertainty whether the atten. Alabama settlers from executing tive reader would fail either to per- the intentions, which in my letters ceive, or to feel them. As enough from thencel mentioned having been has been said to answer the purpose so generally expressed to me, of rein view, if not to task the indul. linquishing their purchases, and forgence of the reader, it is observ. feiting the instalments already paid. ed, in conclusion, that altbough In Richmond, where the disasParadise Lost as a religious poem trous results of the Bank mania has faults wbich we are by no means have been pre-eminently conspicurequired to pass over without po- ous, and where real estate has fallen tice ; yet its general character is 50 to 75 per cent. there have been that of excellence, and, I may several instances in which property say, of evangelical excellence. Iis having been sold payable in three defects, as will have been seen, are or four instalments, has, asier the far from being of such a general payment of all the previous instalor radical nature, as wholly to neu. ments, been re-transferred to the tralize its valuable qualities--an seller to discharge the last. It is effect which takes place in many estimated that more than one balf books--although there is a degrce of the city and its inmediate vi. of unfavourable operation. The cinity is mortgaged to the banks. most constant and the most power- In Baltimore, about one third ful impressions which Paradise Lost is similarly situated, and property is calculated to make, are however there is only prevented from exhievidently in aid of true religion. biting a depreciation nearly equal We sometimes meet with a repre, to that of Richmond, by the policy sentation which seems exception- adopted by the banks of holding it, able, or an influence which we may in the expectation that its gradual deem it our duty to repress ; but advance will pay them a better inwe find more that tends to manly terest for their money than could seriousness, 10 sublime devotion, be obtained from investments or and to strict practical piety. discounts, if they were to force à sale. A house and store were creatures to hire them out like pointed out to me in Baltimore, cattle ; but principally to such an in the principal commercial street, irregularity of demand as renders it which about 1816 were let for 2000 impossible to adjust the supply to dollars per annum, but are now let its casual fluctuations, and induces at only 600. This is an extreme a necessity of including in the recase; but taking the city generally, muneration for the hours employed it would probably be correct to essome compensation for those lost timate the decline in rents at from 40 in waiting for employment. to 50 per cent. Real estate has fallen

Slaves, who in Norfolk are now from 33 to 50 per cent; the in. worth on an average from 300 to 400 terruption to the intercourse be- dollars each, receive from the mertweeu the United States and the chant who engages their services, West Indies, having raised the ca- seventy-five cents per day, and their lamities of this town to a level with food. These are enormous wages the general distress-a distress in where turkeys, weighing five or six which it might otherwise bave pare pounds, will sell for 1s. 9d. sterticipated less deeply than some of ling, and wild ducks at 23. per its neighbours, from having been couple; and where four is four visited less severely with those dollars per barrel, Indian corn, worse than Egyptian plagues, bank their favourite food, forty cents per discounts of accommodation notes, bushel, and beef and mutton five to renewable ad infinitum.

eight cents per pound. As sailors, Labour here, as in all Slave States, the masters can obtain for their falls almost exclusively on the slaves ten dollars per month : and slaves ; and the porterage of the there are many families in Norfolk, town, the loading and discharging especially many widows and orof ships, &c. are performed by phans, whose property consists enthose who are either hired out by tirely of hereditary slaves whom their masters by the week, or al- they hire out as the only means of lowed, on paying their masters a obtaining an income. certain sum, generally about two

New York, Dec. 24, 1820. dollars per week, to find work for

I wrote to you two long letters theinselves and retain the surplus. from Norfolk, which have not yet · Allowing for the different effects found a conveyance; and on the of a system of this kind and a 22d I addressed to your care a long system of free labour, and fully letter 10

with an account aware how slowly, though certain- of our visit to Norfolk and return ly, the price of labour follows the to Baltimore. We left that city on price of provisions, I was surprized the 18th, at three o'clock in the io find that while the latter has fal- morning, in an open stage waggon, len two thirds, the former has de- having decided to return to Philaclined less than a fourth. This is delphia through York and Lanowing parily to the circumstance of casier, instead of the old steamthe owners of the Coloured labour- boat route, as it would occupy no ers being able to hold out on any more time. The morning was bitparticular occasion against an at- terly cold; and as the roads were Tempt to reduce their wages; an a sheet of ice, and our horses unattempt which can seldom be ef- prepared, we advanced only three fectually resisted by persons whose miles an hour, for several hours, daily labour must obtain their daily when we arrived at a German's, bread; partly to conscientious where we procured breakfast and scruples, which deter inany holders fresh horses. of hereditary or domestic slaves The face of the country, the from trafficking in human flesh, and thirty miles we continued in Maryothers from buying their fellow. Jand, presents, like almost every

CHRIST, OBSERY, No. 245. 2 P

other part of that State which I tion, either vesting their property in have seen, a beautiful specimen of land or hoarding it in a safe place, hill and dale, of which from one They are stated to make their own third to one-half is woodland, cotton and woollen clothes, their young vigorous trees of second stockings, shirts, and sheetings, – growth, so nearly of the same size, exchanging wool with the hatter for and so regularly disposed, that they hats, leather with the tanner for, perpetually suggest the idea that shoes, substituting rye for coffee, they have been planted by the hand (now partially employed even in of man. I know no part of Eng. some of the cities, where it is sold land wbich would give you a pre- in the shops,) using no tea, aud cise idea of Maryland bill and very little sugar, which liule they dale. Sometimes the scenery re- procure in exchange for the produce minded me of the forest lands near of their fine orchards. The best inLoughborough; but the undula. formed of them teach their cbildren tions are bolder, and succeed each in the evenings ; and sometimes other in interesting variety, as far they agree to board a schoolmaster. as the horizon: sometimes of Der- at their houses gratuitously, and in byshire-Ashbourne for instance, succession, thus enabling bim to but the bills are less frequently reduce his terms to a mere trifle. broken by abrupt and precipitous They are said to be sociable, and clitfs, or the dales contracted into very sensible of the comfort and deep romantic valleys. About independence of their condition, thirty miles from Baltimore, we Our driver on this part of the entered York county, in the State road bad emigrated from Maccles? of Pennsylvania. For the first few field, in Cheshire, where he drove miles the houses were of hewn log a chaise, and knew many of our and plaster, like those of Marylaud; friends there. For some time he afterwards of stone and brick. As drove the Lancaster mail from Preswe advanced, the face of the coun- ton. He came out, he said, in his try, still beautiful, principally hill “uniformal dress of an English and dale, began to exbibit a much coachman,” with a broad hat, long higher state of cultivation, and great coat, woollen cord breeches, the houses assumed a more com- and jockey boots ; ail which he fortable and prosperous appear- has discarded for uncharacteristic, ance. We now obtained a sight of shabby, yet pretending, blue coat, the fine barns for which the Ger- black waistcoat, and blue pautamans are celebrated, and of which loons. He procured employment we had heard much. The land in two days; aud his gains have was worth from 10 to 50 dollars averaged for the last two years per acre, in farms of from fifty to 26 dollars per month, wiļh part of two hundred acres, occupied al- bis board. I told him that I hoped, most exclusively by German pro. when he made his bargain, he did prietors. The instances of land not count upon any money from being rented were rare ; apd in the passengers : he said, “Oh no! those cases the landlord usually • Please to remember the coachreceived half ibe gross produce for man' would not do here : it would rent. I was told, and although be degrading to ask ; although genI do not vouch for the entire accu- teel people sometimes press me to tacy of all the “on dits" I send you take something, which I do not on subjects like this, I seldom give refuse.” After this hint, I did not them upless I have had an oppor. hesitate to follow the natural imtunity of cross examination, that pulse I felt to give an old Lancaster the less opulent farmers in this driver some refreshment. As he neighbourhood expend scarcely seemed a very decent, sensible any money in articles of consump- man, I asked him various ques.

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